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Sixth National Report

submitted on: 05 Feb 2021   last updated: 02 Mar 2021

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Kenya

Section II. Implementation measures, their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets


The Kenyan Constitution 2010

The 2010 Kenya constitution gave a lot of emphasis to environmental conservation and sustainable development. The Preamble is emphatic and states that “We, the people of Kenya –Respectful of the environment, which is our heritage, and determined to sustain it for the benefit of future generations. Article 2(5) states that the general rules of international law shall form part of the law of Kenya. For the purposes of protection of the environment several principles of international environmental law which act as a guide on development of environmental legislation have been identified. Among the said principles are the polluter pays principle; public participation; sustainability; inter & intra- generational equity; prevention; and precautionary principle.

Chapter 5 on Land and Environment emphasizes that the state has an obligation to protect the environment as well as protect the rights of the people regarding their dependence on and use of the environment. Article 42 under Chapter 4 on the Bill of Rights guarantees every person a right to a clean and healthy environment, which includes the right to (a) to have the environment protected for the benefit of present and future generations through legislative and other measures, particularly those contemplated in Article 69; and (b) to have obligations relating to the environment fulfilled under Article 70.

Article 69 of the Kenyan constitution outlines the obligations of the state in protecting the environment. These include ensuring sustainable exploitation, utilization, management and conservation of the environment and natural resources, and ensure the equitable sharing of the accruing benefits, aim to achieve and maintain a tree cover of at least ten per cent of the land area of Kenya, protect and enhance intellectual property in, and indigenous knowledge of, biodiversity and the genetic resources of the communities, encourage public participation in the management, protection and conservation of the environment, protect genetic resources and biological diversity, establish systems of environmental impact assessment, environmental audit and monitoring of the environment, and eliminate processes and activities that are likely to endanger the environment; and utilize the environment and natural resources for the benefit of the people of Kenya.

The Constitution paved the way for Strengthening Environmental Governance and mainstreaming key elements of the CBD Strategic Plan into the national legal framework. This led to the  review and amendment of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act 1999,  enactment of the Wildlife Conservation and Management Act 2013,  the Forest Conservation and Management Act, 2016, Natural Resources (Classes of Transactions Subject to Ratification) Act 2016, Water Act 2016, the Seeds and Plant Varieties amendment Act 2016, and Climate Change Act, 2016. Other instruments developed include National Climate Change Action Plan, Green Economy Strategy and Implementation Plan, National Adaptation Plan, National Water Master Plan 2030, and National Forest Programme 2016-2030 and the Kenya Strategic Implementation Framework for Sustainable Land Management 2017-2027, among others. During the review period, the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) was accredited as a National Implementing Entity for the Green Climate Fund. The National Land Use Policy 2017 was developed to provides for legal, administrative, institutional and technological framework that ensure optimal utilization and enhanced productivity of land related resources in a sustainable and desirable manner; at national, county and community levels. The Policy is premised on the philosophy of economic productivity, social responsibility, environmental sustainability and cultural conservation.

EN
Measure taken has been partially effective

The KLRC has carried out comprehensive review of legislation upon receipt of legislative proposals/references from National and County Government MDAs. Feedback mechanisms were established for information sharing and engagement especially by adopting project Committees, stakeholder mapping engagements and collaborations. The Committees specifically address the issue under review by:

a)    Undertaking comprehensive research to determine the prevailing legal position and the deficiencies in the law that may require rectification,

b)    (b) Setting timeframes for the review,

c)    (c) Receiving, collating and analyzing views, including peer review by other legal staff and Commissioner, 

d)    (d) Organizing the requisite consultative fora; (e) Preparing the necessary reports and draft bills, and

e)    (f) Producing an Issues or Position (Discussion) Paper as a key product of its initial research. The Issues or Position (Discussion) Paper must generally include the background information and the specific issues identified for examination.

The KLRC has carried out comprehensive review of legislation upon receipt of legislative proposals/references from National and County Government MDAs. Feedback mechanisms has been  established for information sharing and engagement especially by adopting project Committees, stakeholder mapping engagements and collaborations

EN

CASE STUDY 1: The EMCA Amendment Act 2015

 The Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Amendment) Act, 2015 (Amendment Act 2015) amended EMCA (1999) by introducing section 57A (1) which provides that all Policies, Plans and Programs for implementation should be subjected to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). All entities are to undertake or cause to be undertaken the preparation of strategic environmental assessments at their own expense and should submit such assessments to the Authority for approval.

SEA helps to ensure that many of the environmental issues of global importance are considered in policies, plans and programs at different administrative levels (i.e. national, regional, local).

In line with Article 6b of the CBD and Article 14 (1) (b) the establishment of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in Kenya was ostensibly in recognition of the fact that the existing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) tool was unable to respond to environmental integration needs at strategic levels of decision-making. An example of the application of SEA is under the LAPPSET Project:

SEA CASE STUDY 2: Lamu Port Southern Sudan - Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) Corridor Flagship Project

The LAPSSET Corridor Development Authority (LCDA) is developing the Lamu Port-South Sudan- Ethiopia (LAPSSET) Infrastructure Corridor. It’s an integrated transport infrastructure project under the Kenya Vision 2030 Strategy Framework.

Towards ensuring compliance to both the National Constitution and reigning environmental legislation, the LAPSSET Corridor Infrastructure Development Project (LCIDP) has undertaken a comprehensive Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Study as per Legal Notice 101 of June 2003 and the Guidelines for Strategic Environmental Assessment issued by NEMA in 2014.

The SEA highlighted the following concerns with respect to biodiversity:

Arising recommendation after undertaking SEA:

CASE STUDY 3: Land Use Planning: Tana Delta in Kenya

The National Land Use Policy 2017 provides a legal, administrative, institutional and technological framework for optimal utilization and productivity of land related resources in a sustainable and desirable manner at national, county and community levels. The Policy is premised on the philosophy of economic productivity, social responsibility, environmental sustainability and cultural conservation. Key principles informing it include efficiency, access to land use information, equity, elimination of discrimination and public benefit sharing.

The Tana Delta area has been faced an array of large-scale threats, including biofuels plantations, intensive rice and maize production and mining proposals. Along with the potential loss of the rich biodiversity

Nature Kenya in 2011 led a collaborative and consultative stakeholders’ engagement   in the development of a Tana River Delta Land Use Plan that was guided by a Strategic Environmental Assessment. The land use plan has since been approved and adopted as a policy by the Lamu County government.

The land use plan seeks to promote a balance in the use of the delta. It involves regulated access, wise use and improved rangeland management that will lead to improved sustainable livelihoods, security and equity, and biodiversity conservation

EN

The Executive authority of the county is vested in the Governor and members of the County Executive Committee while the county assemblies core mandate includes inter alia oversight and passing legislation. County legislation is essential in order to enable the full implementation of devolved functions. However, being entirely new entities, the effective exercise of this legislative function by county assemblies has to a large extent been hindered by inter alia a lack of sufficient technical legislative capacity, the absence of proper systems and structures at county level and the lack of a clear guide on the process of formulating legislation.

EN

Vision 2030

Kenya’s Vision 2030 and the MTPs provide the overarching policy framework for the implementation of the CBD Strategic Plan and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets for Kenya. Kenya’s Vision 2030 aims to deliver a “newly industrializing, upper middle-income country providing a high quality of life to all its citizens by 2030 in a clean and secure environment”. This long-term national plan is being implemented through five (5), medium term plans and 25 annual budgets. The current Medium-Term Plan (MTP III) 2018-2022 succeeds the Second MTP (MTP II) 2013-2017 and the First MTP (2008-2012). The Social Pillar of Kenya Vision 2030 demands development in a clean secure environment for all citizens as essentially guaranteed by the National Constitution 2010 and the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) and its 2015 revision-the Environmental Management and Coordination (Amendment) Act.

One of the key achievements of the MTP II was the successful implementation of the devolved system of government. This saw the establishment of 47 County Governments with the relevant enabling laws in place and the transfer of devolved functions which give mandate to county governments to manage and conserve their natural resources. The key objective of MTP III is to implement policies, Programmes and projects that facilitate attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG 15 on environmental sustainability. All Ministries, Counties, Departments and Agencies (MCDAs) report on the relevant monitoring indicators identified by the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS).

Noting that 42% of Kenya’s GDP and 70% of the employment is derived from natural capital, mainly in the sectors of agriculture, forestry, mining, fisheries and tourism, the development of a national green economy strategy was identified as a priority under the MTP II to support implementation of Vision 2030. A Green Economy Assessment was undertaken in 2014 which proposed the alignment of the Green Economy across the social, economic and environmental spheres of society. The Green Economy Strategy and Implementation Plan (GESIP) notes that integrating natural capital into economic growth poses a challenge towards transitioning to Green Economy. Kenyan prices and policy regime do not fully account for the external costs associated with technologies, products and practices that are environmentally friendly. As such, the thematic area 3 on Sustainable Natural Resource Management focuses on the economy-environment nexus to optimize contribution of Kenya’s natural resource to the economy, industralization and livelihoods. It encompasses agriculture, forestry, water, wildlife, land use and extractive industries. GESIP seeks to address the drivers of change in both biological and physical aspects of natural resources emphasizing the need for decoupling development from natural resources management and conservation of Kenya’s natural capital. In order to address the degradation and loss of natural resources, the tools under this thematic area include spatial planning and targeted periodic valuation of natural capital, payment for ecosystem services and environmental accounting to be scaled up.

In order to realize the aspirations of Vision 2030 goals, the government has made efforts to mainstream gender into government policies, plans, budgets and Programmes as an approach geared at achieving gender equity in all aspects of society. Moreover, the government has sought to increase the participation of women through the affirmative action policy of at least 30 per cent representation in all economic, social and political decision-making processes and platforms as well as through economic empowerment. In addition, the government is seeking to ensure that the country upholds the basic rights of children in line with internationally recognised standards; and produces a globally competitive labour force inclusive of young people at all levels, through youth empowerment Programmes and policies.

EN
Measure taken has been partially effective


Under MTP 1,

  • National Spatial Plan concept papers on National Land Use Policy and National Spatial Plan prepared.
  • Established
     the institutional framework for the preparation of the National Spatial
     Plan Land cover and land use maps updated/modernized:
  • Land
     Reform Programme: Environment and Land Court Act, 2011, National Land
    Commission Act, 2012, Land Act, 2012 and Land Registration Act, 2012,
    Sessional Paper No 3 of 2009 on National Land Policy;

For the Environment, Water and Sanitation Sector

  • Solid
     waste management strategy was developed during MTP I period to provide
    the strategic framework for clamping down on illegal dumpsites.
  • A
     draft policy document on Nairobi Rivers Basin Programme (NRBP) was
    developed. A national geo-spatial data infrastructure for environmental
    and natural resource management was developed.
  • The coastal zone pollution prevention guidelines and shore management strategy and guidelines were finalized.
  • Four management plans for wetlands were developed.
  • The national irrigation master plan was finalized and implementation commenced.
  • Six water catchment management strategies were completed during MTP I.
  • Transboundary water policy was prepared and submitted to the cabinet for approval.

Under MTP 11

Under Science, Technology and Innovation,

  • Key
     policy and legal reforms undertaken include the following draft
    policies and bills developed included: Biosciences Policy and Bill,
    Nanotechnology policy, the Natural Products Policy and Bill.
  • The
     following institutions were established: Kenya National Innovation
    Agency (KENIA), National Research Fund (NRF), National Commission for
    Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI),

With respect to land reforms,

  • the National Spatial Plan was finalized;
  • the Kenya National Spatial Data Infrastructure Policy and the National Land Use Policy submitted to Cabinet for approval.
  • Community Land Act (2016) and Land Laws(Amendment) Act 2016 were enacted
  • the Physical Planning Bill was submitted to the Senate.

Under EDE, these initiatives included:

  • The
     establishment of the National Disaster Management Unit under the
    Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government
  • Establishment
     of disaster loss databases as a tool for drought risk reduction
    planning, new investment for pastoral reinforcement and transformation
  • Establishing
     of new architecture for peace, establishment of National Drought
    Management Authority and Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) focused
    institutions

In the Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Sector,

  • Kenya
     adopted the climate-smart agriculture such as harnessing farm waste as
    source of organic fertilizer and use of bio-fertilizer that does not
    contribute to harmful emissions, better weather forecasting/early
    warning systems, growing resilient food crops, managing post-harvest
    losses and crop insurance.
  • The
     following acts were enacted: The Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
    Authority Act 2012; the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Act
    2012 and the Crops Act 2012. This has given rise to the Agriculture,
    Fisheries and Food Authority (AFFA); and the Kenya Agricultural and
    Livestock Research Organization (KALRO).
  • Ministry established a livestock insurance scheme targeting 14 ASAL counties.
  • Tuna
     Fisheries Development and Management Strategy was developed In 2014,
    the government acquired a 55.6-meter-long Deep-Sea Research Vessel at a
    value of Kshs 3.2 billion to enhance the capacity on marine fisheries
    research.

Under the Environment, Water and Sanitation Sector, in the MTP II period,

  • The
     Environmental Management and Coordination Act 1999 and Wildlife
    Conservation and Management Act 2013 were reviewed. In addition, the
    Forest Conservation and Management Act, 2016, Natural Resources Act,
    2016, Water Act 2016, and Climate Change Act 2016 were enacted. The
    National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) was also accredited as a
     National Implementing Entity for the Green Climate Fund.
  • A total of 47 County Environmental Action Plans were developed and finalized.

Under manufacturing, On the Natural products industry initiative,

  • Documentation
     and profiling of all relevant players in the sub-sector involved in raw
     material access; technology transfer; patenting; product quality and
    licensing regulators; and marketing of finished products was undertaken.
     
  • A number of products were identified for market-sounding.

Proposed for MTP III

The key highlights for MTP III Environment, Water, Sanitation and Regional Development under the Policy, Legal and Institutional Reforms component are

Policy Reforms

  • Develop
     Meteorology Policy; National Air Quality Management Strategy; Policy on
     plastics; National Solid Waste Management Policy; Policy on population,
     health and environment; National Resource Assessment Policy; National
    Water Policy; Legal framework for the implementation of trans -boundary
    water policy.
  • Finalize
     National Wildlife Conservation and Management Policy; National Policy
    on Groundwater Resources Development and Management; National Irrigation
     Policy; National Land Reclamation Policy; review of the RDA Policy
  • Draft Water Towers Management Policy; National water harvesting and storage Policy

Legal Reforms

  • Develop Meteorology Bill; Bill on plastics; National Solid Waste Management Bill;
  • Review
     Environmental Impact/Audit Regulations of 2003, and the Environmental
    Management and Co-ordination (Wetlands, river banks, lake shores and sea
     shore management) Regulations, 2009; Environmental Management and
    Co-ordination (Water Quality) Regulations, 2006; Kenya Water Institute
    Act 2001.
  • Enact regulations and guidelines to operationalize the Wildlife Act 2013;
  • Develop regulations and guidelines to operationalize the Forest Conservation and Management Act 2016;
  • Draft the Biodiversity Bill; Water Towers Management Bill; National water harvesting and storage Bill.
  • Finalize
     the regulations and guidelines to operationalize the Water Act 2016;
    Finalize National Irrigation Bill; Finalize National Land Reclamation
    Bill; Review of the RDA legal framework.

Institutional Reforms

  • Operationalize
     the National Water Harvesting and Storage Authority; and Transit the
    Water Sector Institutions as per Water Act 2016.



EN

a.    Inadequate budgetary allocation,

b.    Inadequate enactment of policy and legislation,

c.    Slow implementation of PPP projects,

d.    Environmental degradation and pollution,

e.    Inadequate bilateral mechanisms of trans-boundary natural resources,

f.     Increased population pressure,

g.    Inadequate institutional capacity to implement certain environmental initiatives

h.    Inadequate technical capacity to implement projects and programmes;

i.      Inadequate water conservation strategies,

j.      Insecurity and resource conflicts in project areas,

k.    Invasive plant species have posed a remarkable challenge to the integrity of the various ecosystems across the country,

l.      Delays in implementation of functions devolved from National to County,

m.   Frequent shifting of the integrated development functions across ministries leading to slow implementation of ongoing projects and programmes;

n.    Poor infrastructure that inhibits access to project sites.

EN

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN KENYA

Kenya found necessary to establish the extent to which the SDGs converge with Kenya’s own development objectives as set out in the Kenya Vision 2030 and therefore identify which SDGs are relevant to Kenya’s development context. This was done by mapping each of the 17 goals with Vision 2030 within the second Medium Term Plan. The mapping indicated that the Kenya Vision 2030 is well aligned to the global development framework and its implementation is directly linked towards achieving both the Vision and SDGs.

The timeframe for the Vision 2030 coincides with the timeframe for the SDGs. This was an opportunity for Kenya as progress towards the national priorities as spelt out in the Vision are matched with progress towards the SDGs. Since vision is implemented at both the national and sub national levels through five-year Medium-Term Plans and County Integrated Development Plans respectively, the SDGs have been mainstreamed at these two levels. Further, the Constitution also establishes that any treaty ratified by Kenya will form part of national law. As a result, the implementation of the new constitution fast tracks the achievement of the SDGs.

The government is responsible for tracking and reviewing of the SDGs. This is done both at the national and sub national levels. At the national level, monitoring and evaluation of policies, projects and Programmes outlined in MTP is done through National Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation System (NIMES) which was established in 2004. It employs a result-based monitoring framework and provides important feedback to policy makers and the general public on the national government’s performance.

The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics(KNBS) has mapped out 128 out of the 230 SDG Global Indicators, whose data can be available within the short term and work is going on to increase the number of indicators within the next five years. The KNBS has identified the period 2009-2014 as the base period for the SDGs. This is based on data availability and the priorities of the country. The indicators will be used to track and report on the process and progress of the implementation.

The National Treasury and Planning has strengthened the National Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation Systems (NIMES) and County Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation Systems (CIMES), including preparation of regular progress reports on the Plan implementation. The County Integrated Development Plans (CIDPs), County Spatial Plans and Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) Strategic Plans (2018-2022) have been aligned to the MTP III and the National Spatial Plan.

EN
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
2. Integration of biodiversity values
3. Incentives
4. Use of natural resources
5. Loss of habitats
6. Sustainable fisheries
7. Areas under sustainable management
8. Pollution
9. Invasive Alien Species
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
11. Protected areas
12. Preventing extinctions
13. Agricultural biodiversity
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
17. NBSAPs
Measure taken has been partially effective

In line with the outcome document of the United Nations Summit for the Sustainable development (paragraph 79) , encouraged  member states to “conduct regular and inclusive reviews of progress at the national and sub-national levels which are country-led and country-driven.

Kenya prepared Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) and shared  experience in the implementation of the SDGs two years after adoption. The overall objective was to assess the progress made in the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals for purpose of continued policy planning and implementation.

The Key challenges noted were:

  • Absence of baseline data for some of the indicators affected monitoring their progress;
  • Inadequate capacity on SDGs implementation, monitoring and reporting affected the adequacy of stakeholder submissions;
  • No clear modalities of engaging the large number of stakeholders in the preparatory process; and
  •  Consolidation of inputs from stakeholders with different views into one report that conforms to the common reporting guidelines

EN

Goal 12: Ensure Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns

In order to enhance efficiency in the use of natural resources and energy, the industrial sector has embraced cleaner production technologies through technical assistance by the Kenya National Cleaner Production Centre. The Centre has built capacity of industries in improving efficiency in the status of production systems/equipment in order to reduce wastage of raw materials and energy aimed at minimizing waste generation at source.

The country has also pioneered the Green Economy Strategy initiatives that aim to support development efforts towards addressing key challenges such as poverty, unemployment, inequality, environmental degradation, climate change and variability, infrastructure gaps and food insecurity. A green growth path results in faster growth, a cleaner environment and high productivity.

The Minerals and Mining Policy was developed and approved in 2016. The enactment of Mining Act 2016 and the development of 14 regulations necessary to operationalize this Act are in their final stages. In addition, the Mining Policy 2016 has put sustainable mining at the core of all extractive industries.

The private sector in Kenya is also championing sustainable consumption and production under the SWITCH Africa Green Project. Several companies have mainstreamed use of biodegradable materials in their production and consumption.

Goal 13: Take Urgent Action to Combat Climate Change and its Impacts

Climate change is considered one of the serious threats to sustainable development globally. Climate is a major driving factor for most of Kenya’s economic activities and therefore high priority has been given to climate change and its impacts on livelihood and economic development. During the period under review, Kenya developed the National Disaster Reduction Strategy and Policy and National Disaster Preparedness and Response Strategies in 2016. Efforts that have been put in place by the Government on Strategies for disaster risk reduction (DRR) include: Establishment of National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) which is created through the Enactment of the National Drought Management Authority Act, 2016 and adoption of the 10 year Ending Drought Emergencies (EDE) Strategy covering the period, 2012-2022.

The Climate Change Act 2016 establishes the Climate Change Council which comprises stakeholders from National Government, sub national Governments, the private sector, civil society, communities and academia. The Act highlights the climate change response measures and actions, the roles of each of the stakeholders in mitigating effects of climate change and how to engage the public. Kenya also ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change which took effect on 27th January 2017.

The Forest Conservation and Management Act, 2016 provides for the conservation and management of public, community and private forests and, areas of forest land that require special protection. Forest play a critical role as Carbon dioxide (CO2) sink as well as building resilience to climate change.

In support of the East Africa Community (EAC) Polythene Materials Control Bill, 2016 which proposes a total ban of plastic bags in the EAC countries, Kenya placed a total BAN on plastic bags with effect from August 2017.

The Government is in the process of integrating climate change into the curriculum for primary and secondary levels of education. This is geared towards taking advantage of the current education curriculum review that is being undertaken by the Kenya Institute of Curriculums Development (KICD). Climate change will be mainstreamed in the current subjects and topics and not as a standalone topic. The Kenya School of Government has also developed a climate change curriculum and training manual that will be used to build capacity of both government and private sector on climate change mitigation, adaptation and finance.

The private sector has set up, an incubation programme that supports the development and deployment of technologies that help communities to either mitigate against or adapt to climate change.  Ecotourism Kenya is involved in Climate Change issues primarily through the Ecorating Certification Scheme, a voluntary scheme that covers accommodation facilities and basically advocates for the sustainable use of resources to reduce negative impacts on the environment and to use the dwindling resources in a more equitable manner.

Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the Oceans, Seas and Marine Resources for Sustainable Development

The concept of blue economy is now adopted to guide policy making and investment so as to ensure economic development of the ocean contributes to true prosperity for the current and future generations. In Kenya, Coast Development Authority (CDA) is mandated to provide integrated development planning, coordination and implementation of projects and programmes within the coast region. The Kenya’s EEZ and adjacent environment is well endowed with unique Coastal resources that include the sea, rivers, springs, lakes, deltas, water catchments, hills and rangelands, marine resources, fisheries, tree crops, forestry (mangroves), Kayas, minerals (gemstones), wildlife (Hirola, butterflies), tourism, diverse cultures, monuments and history.

CDA has been addressing development challenges in the coast region by employing participatory, multi-sectoral and integrated development approach that considers all related factors in sustainable utilization and management of the natural resources for the region’s economic development.

The coverage of protected areas in relation to marine areas was 10% in 2014. The government has undertaken various measures to fast track this goal.  The Government efforts to protect the forest which are the major water towers resulted into increased water volumes especially in the rift valley lakes leading to increase in fish stocks especially in Lake Naivasha.

The Government enacted Fisheries Management and Development Act 2016 and also continue to enforce controls for exploitation of fisheries resources. The Act provides for the conservation, management and development of fisheries and other aquatic resources and seeks to enhance the livelihood of communities that depend on fishing. The Act gives guidance on importation and exportation of fish and fish products, fish quality and safety.

Goal 15: Protect, Restore and Promote Sustainable use of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Sustainably Manage Forests, Combat Desertification, and Halt and Reverse Land Degradation and Halt Biodiversity Loss

The Government enacted the Forest Conservation and Management Act 2016 to guide the sustainable exploitation of forest resources. In addition, a number of initiatives were undertaken. Green Schools and Commercial Tree Growing for a Green Economy programme was established. The Bamboo Development and Commercialization Strategy (2014-2017), Green Economy Assessment Report and Sustainable Environmental and Restoration Programme were launched.

Several initiatives were further undertaken to reclaim the degraded land. The private sector contribution towards this goal includes a programme that encourages and enables schools to participate in environmental activities by developing small forests and woodlots within their compounds for multiple benefits.

Review of regulations on EMCA Act 2015, Forest conservation and Management 2016 and Wildlife Conservation and Management 2016 sets the best implementation methodology. Development of eighteen wildlife regulations forms a long-term solution to benefit sharing and corridors ownership.

Goal 17: Strengthen Means of Implementation and Revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development

In order to ensure quality and adequate data on SDGs, Kenya has strengthened the national statistical office, the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. The policy priority of the Kenya Government is to strengthen the National Statistical System to support planning, and monitoring and evaluation of government policies and programmes. The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) is therefore, expected to generate official statistics that are comprehensive, reliable, timely and disaggregated up to the sub national level. Towards this end, the Bureau has established offices in each of the 47 counties to coordinate statistical capacity building programmes at the sub national level and ensure that international standards are applied in the production and dissemination of county statistics.

The government has rolled out the National Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation System (NIMES) and fast-tracking implementation of electronic Project Monitoring Information System (e-promis) to provide a non-stop information portal where information is easily and readily available.

This multi-level monitoring and evaluation system will be used for monitoring the SDGs in the country. The SDGs indicators are being integrated in regular surveys. Efforts have been made to ensure engagement of stakeholders. Emphasis has been paid to building capacity of the national Statistical System to ensure data availability and credibility.

EN

The Key challenges noted were:

Goal 12: Challenges

i. Inadequate physical and social infrastructure in slums and informal settlements;

ii. Rapid urbanization;

iii. Rapid population growth; and

iv. Proliferation of informal settlements.

Goal 13: Challenges

i. Lack of reliable and adequate data on climate issues

ii. Lack of baseline data to measure the progress on implementation of the SDGs in the environment sector.

iii. Low Investment in climate Change research

Goal 14: Challenges

i. Lack of baseline data on marine life and environment management; and

ii. Evasive and alien species that threaten indigenous species by way of predation, alteration of habitat or disruption of ecosystem processes. The prevention, control and elimination of these species is a big challenge in environmental management efforts; In adequate resources.

Goal 15: Challenges

i. Inadequate institutional capacities;

ii. Lack of participatory coordination frameworks in land and forestry management which allow joint planning, monitoring and reporting by key stakeholders,

iii. Insufficient funding;

iv. Illegal logging, charcoal burning and opening up of lands for farming;

v. Low sewerage coverage and insufficient treatment of effluent; and

vi. Natural calamities and resource based conflicts.

EN

Section III. Assessment of progress towards each national target

1. Awareness of biodiversity values

2020 - Progress towards target but at an insufficient rate
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Category of progress towards the implementation of the selected target
Progress towards target but at an insufficient rate