Sixth National Report
Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level
Similar to outline of Aichi targets, updated NBAP (Addendum Action Plan) is structured such that there are goals, for whose realization targets are set
Previous NBSAP (2007-2018) of Turkey had many elements in line with the Aichi Targets. However there were significant progress about mainstreaming with regards to the projects carried out and legislative arrangements prepared after 2007. The updated NBAP (Addendum Action Plan) reflects this situation.
Section II. Implementation measures, their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets
The National Biodiversity Coordination Council is established for effective implementation of Convention. The newly developed National Biodiversity and Action Plan is directly aiming realization of Aichi Targets.
Time schedule (2010-2020) is not reached as needed. This is why measures are partially effective.
The main problem was the partial lack of coordination. In order to resolve this we have established The National Biodiversity Coordination Council on August 1, 2019.
Section III. Assessment of progress towards each national target
Similar to outline of Aichi targets, updated NBAP (Addendum Action Plan) is structured such that there are goals, for whose realization targets are set
The National Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring Project was prepared and started to implement in 2013 by the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks for the purpose of conserving our biological richness.
With this project, biological diversity will be followed up both database and land based monitoring. Thus, risks such as biopiracy, threaten of species, habitat destruction, pressure to nature will be prevented.
Project has been initiated in 81 provinces so far and has been completed in 74 provinces. By the end of 2019, Project works will be completed in 81 provinces and the Turkey Biological Diversity Map is planned to be prepared.
Within the scope of the project, biodiversity inventory and monitoring studies of Turkey has been continued in the following taxa:
• Vascular plants (Literature and fieldwork)
• Mammals (Literature and fieldwork)
• Birds (Literature and fieldwork)
• Reptiles (Literature and fieldwork)
• Amphibians (Literature and fieldwork)
• Cryptogamic plants (Literature)
• Invertebrate animals (Literature)
Biological diversity data come from all provinces have been stored at Noah’s Ark National Biological Diversity Database. Therefore Turkey’s biological diversity data will be searched by the database on the basis of table, graphic and map, in addition to this it will be able to be monitored for conservation and sustainability of biodiversity.
With the start of the project, 941.358 data entries were provided within the 4 years period between 2014 and 2018 and the total number of data reached 1.460.000. Data were collected from a total of 470.185 location observations within the scope of the completed province of Turkey. As a result of the project, a total of 12.388 taxa were identified which 10.991 are flora taxa and 1.397 fauna taxa. 394 local endemic, 3.519 endemic taxa were also identified and the rates of endemism are 31%.
During the project implentation phase, the indicators for monitoring biodiversity regarding to species nad habitat level are decided and for each indicators is prepared a specific monitoring plan. Also, systematic and sustainable monitoring studies will be carried out having the completed inventory results. It will be ensured effective management of biological diversity through species/ population, habitat/ecosystem and regional level monitoring studies.
Monitoring indicators are identified for each taxa and habitats regarding field locations. Information about the population status of the species, habitat status and the state of the ecosystem that the species is located and represented can be obtained by monitoring the indicators.
Monitoring activities are being implemented currently throughout 74 province. Monitoring activities are conducted either by the regional directorates themselves or by the local universities via protocols.
Inventory studies will be finished in 2019. However, monitoring studies are ongoing studies at local and national level. By monitoring activities, it is planned to be maintained and expanded this studies at national level for taking care of common monitoring species amoung provinces.
Biopiracy Information Sharing System which also includes a database and was established in order to facilitate the follow-up of biopiracy cases, has been used effectively with contribution of Research Permission Information System and Ministry of Interior.
In scope of The Project on Registration of Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity, all publications on traditional knowledge based on biological diversity from the republican period were scanned and recorded in the data table. Field work was completed in 2018 in Aydın, Afyonkarahisar, Hatay, Ankara, Erzurum, Samsun and Çorum and the following year Bursa, Mersin, Kayseri, Gümüşhane and Şanlıurfa field work was completed. Within the scope of the 2019 program of the project, field works have been started in Kırklareli, Mardin, İzmir, Isparta, Aksaray, Sinop, Bartın, Trabzon and Van. It is aimed to complete the field work in all provinces by 2023.
The aim of the Project of Recording Traditional Knowledge Based on Biodiversity is to compile, record and regulate traditional knowledge based on biodiversity in order to contribute to the acquisition of biological diversity into the economy and the utilization of industrial property rights based on our genetic resources in our country. The project aimed to compile information on traditional products such as medicines, yeasts and dyes developed by the public using natural biological resources and to create a national traditional knowledge bank.
Within the scope of the project, on the one hand, previously published scientific publications are compiled and on the other hand, traditional knowledge is recorded by making face-to-face interviews with the elderly population, especially in the villages determined by taking into consideration the geographical characteristics, historical background and cultural richness of each province. Species subject to this information are also identified by experts and samples are taken from traditional products. The literature and the information obtained from the fieldwork are recorded in the data tables.
As a result of the project, obtaining patents directly on the products developed using traditional knowledge based on biodiversity will be prevented in national and international levels. Furthermore, this information in the database will be provided to academicians and researchers for use in research and development activities.
For field studies, teams consisting of botany, ethnobotany, social sciences, zoology and microbiology were formed. All the elements that make up biodiversity in the field studies (plant, animal, microorganism)
Health (applications containing public medicine or healing BGB),
• Nutrition (food, spices, beverages, yeast, etc.),
• Industrial (paint, textile, building material, fuel, crafts, etc.),
• Agriculture-Livestock and
• Information on traditional uses for other purposes (birth-death, wedding customs, incense, etc.) is compiled.
Further, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks carries out the following projects;
Technical Assistance for Strengthening the National Nature Protection System for Implementation of Natura 2000 Requirements
An IPA Project called “Strengthening the National Nature Protection System for Implementation of Natura 2000 Requirements Project” was carried out between September 2015 – September 2018. Total project budget was 6.429.789 Euro. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was the beneficiary.
Outputs of the Project are:
• lists of habitats and species under Habitats Directive and Birds Directive found in Turkey
• Habitat interpretation manual for Turkey,
• A new methodology called “Systematic Conservation Planning” for selection of Natura 2000 sites,
• A list of potential Natura 2000 sites in Central Anatolian ecoregion, (34 potential sites were described)
• Standard Data Forms for Potential Natura 2000 sites,
• A new Natura 2000 database compatible with EU system and Turkey’s Noah’s Ark Database.
• Institutional Need Analysis for Natura 2000 in Turkey,
• Capacity building workshops for NGO’s institutions,
• Draft Secondary legislations for Turkey’s Nature Conservation Law were prepared.
Addressing Invasive Alien Species Threats at Key Marine Biodiversity Areas GEF VI Project
“Addressing Invasive Alien Species (IAS) Threats at Key Marine Biodiversity Areas” project was designed to ensure resilience of marine and coastal ecosystems through strengthened capacities and investment in prevention, detection, control and management of Invasive Alien Species. The project has successfully obtained the approval from Global Environment Facility (GEF) in October 2017 and the Local Appraisal Committee (LPAC) meeting was held on 16th of January 2018. The Project Document was approved and signed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA), Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks (MoFWA) and by UNDP Turkey on 18th of August 2018. The project started in 3rd quarter of 2018 and expected finish in 3rd quarter of 2023.
The long-term project objective is to minimize negative impacts of IAS in support of conservation Turkey’s globally significant native marine biodiversity. The project will be implemented on Turkish coastsal and marine ecosystems in four pilot areas. The project is organized into three components:
• Component 1. Effective national policy framework on IAS
• Component 2. Capacity building, knowledge and information sharing systems to address the IAS threats
• Component 3. Investment in sustainable management, prevention, eradication, and control of IAS and restoration of IAS-degraded habitat at key marine and coastal areas.
Conservation and Sustainable Management of Turkey’s Steppe Ecosystem Project
Within the framework of the FAO-GEF project GCP/TUR/061/GFF “Conservation and Sustainable Management of Turkey’s Steppe Project”, surveys and assessments on biodiversity, socio-economic and socio-cultural aspects, and a comprehensive analysis of on-going grazing activities and livestock situation will be carried out. This will contribute to the objectives of the project which is targeting improving of conservation of Turkey’s steppe ecosystems through effective protected area management and mainstreaming steppe biodiversity conservation into productive landscapes.
The project has three outcomes and nine outputs:
Component/Outcome 1: Effectiveness of protected area system to conserve steppe biodiversity increased
Output 1.1 New steppe protected area established and operational
Output 1.2 Effective management plans for three steppe protected areas created and implemented
Output 1.3 Rigorous monitoring program for three steppe protected areas established
Component/Outcome 2: Steppe biodiversity conservation mainstreamed into production landscapes
Output 2.1 Sustainable grazing management program operational across three steppe protected areas and associated buffer zones
Output 2.2 Sustainable grazing management program impacts monitored at three steppe protected areas
Output 2.3 Model steppe conservation training program for pastoralists in place
Component/Outcome 3: Enabling environment established for the effective conservation of steppe biodiversity across large landscapes
Output 3.1 Sanliurfa Province steppe conservation strategy and associated enabling environment improvements implemented
Output 3.2 National steppe conservation strategy and associated enabling environment improvements established
Output 3.3 National steppe conservation training and awareness program for decision-makers and resource managers
The surveys and assessments as tendered shall contribute to the overall goals of the project and will be carried out in three pilot sites, their associated buffer zones and to be decided ecological corridors for connecting the pilot sites in Sanliurfa Province. The pilot sites are Kızılkuyu Wildlife Development Area, Tek Tek Mountains National Park, and (Sanliurfa part of) Karacadağ.
Project Management Unit from FAO, National Project Implementation Unit (NPIU) and site-based implementation unit is part of survey studies. The staff from provincial levels of the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks (GDNCNP) and General Directorate of Plant Production of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) have actively joined the survey and assessment process. The staff from the national levels of these General Directorates have participated in the survey and assessment process when needed. Other stakeholders and representatives of academic institutions, civil society, and farmer’s organizations may join the surveys and assessment process as well.
Addressing of Invasive Alien Species Threats in Terrestrial Areas and Inland Waters in Turkey
The overall objective of the project titled “Addressing of Invasive Alien Species (IAS) Threats in Terrestrial Areas and Inland Waters in Turkey” is to ensure resilience of inland waters and terrestrial ecosystems with specific focus on invasive alien species. The project was submitted to European Union (EU) for the second period of Instrument for Preaccession Assistance (IPA II) and approved by EU in 2018. The project will be started in the last quarter of 2019 and last for 3 years.
The purpose of the project is to get invasive alien species (IAS) under control in terrestrial areas and inland waters in Turkey, in line with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. Six invasive alien species were selected within the scope of project. List of targeted IAS and their distribution is given below;
1-Bur cucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) in Eastern Black Sea region in Artvin, Rize, Trabzon, Giresun provinces
2-The rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir provinces
3-Red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) in Lakes in İzmir, Antalya and Mersin provinces
4-Nutria (Myocastor coypus) in Meric River (Trakya Region) and Aras River (Eastern Anatolia)
5-The Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) Seyitler Dam Lake (Afyonkarahisar)
6-Eastern mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) Lake Acıgöl and very small spring field and short spring feed streams (Denizli-Afyonkarahisar)
The expected results of the project are;
Result 1-Legal basis for the control of IAS in terrestrial areas and inland waters of Turkey was prepared.
Result 2-Each Invasive Alien Species of interest was controlled / eradicated
Result 3- Improved management capacity of institution staffs
Result 4- Increased Public awareness
This project will be linked with GEF VI Project (Addressing of Invasive Alien Species Threats on Key Marine Biodiversity Areas in Turkey) which was started in 2018. This EU IPA II Project will complete gaps in terrestrial ecosystems and inland waters on the roadmap towards the implementation of EU legislation. GEF VI and EU IPA II projects will be in close cooperation especially on preparing IAS Regulation and The National Strategy and Action Plan covered all ecosystems in Turkey and also setting up IAS data base and other involved cross-cutting issues within the scope EU IPA II Project. Two projects are complementary with each other.
Noah’s Ark National Biodiversity Database’s new version is completed on September 2019.
Species Conservation Studies
Species conservation studies started in 2013 with the determination of the strategic targets of our Ministry. With the strategic target, at least 10 Species Conservation Action Plans will be prepared each year until 2023 and 100 Species Conservation Action Plan is planned to be completed.
Species are identified that need to be intervened urgently. Between 2013-2017, action plans were prepared for 60 of species. In 2018, the preparation of action plans for 20 species are being proceeded. The objectives and activities in the completed action plans are monitored in 5 year-periods.
By monitoring studies, the pressures and threats affecting the persistance of species’ generation will be minimized and maintanence of species will be supported.
With the completion of action plan, monitoring activities are started for the next year and these studies are carried out with the financial means of our Ministry.
Anticipated progresses and outputs were achieved from the projects.
There was no monitoring system for targets until August 2019. Since then, The National Biodiversity Coordination Council has been established for effective monitoring national targets. For this purpose, coordination meetings will be performed inter related institutions.