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Sixth National Report

  published:12 Mar 2020

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Turkey

Similar to outline of Aichi targets, updated NBAP (Addendum Action Plan) is structured such that there are goals, for whose realization targets are set

Previous NBSAP (2007-2018) of Turkey had many elements in line with the Aichi Targets. However there were significant progress about mainstreaming with regards to the projects carried out and legislative arrangements prepared after 2007. The updated NBAP (Addendum Action Plan) reflects this situation.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
2. Integration of biodiversity values
3. Incentives
4. Use of natural resources
5. Loss of habitats
6. Sustainable fisheries
7. Areas under sustainable management
8. Pollution
9. Invasive Alien Species
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
11. Protected areas
12. Preventing extinctions
13. Agricultural biodiversity
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
The Nagoya Protocol is operational, consistent with national legislation
17. NBSAPs
Traditional knowledge, innovations and practices are fully integrated and reflected in implementation of the Convention
19. Biodiversity knowledge
20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

Section II. Implementation measures, their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets

The National Biodiversity Coordination Council is established for effective implementation of Convention. The newly developed National Biodiversity and Action Plan is directly aiming realization of Aichi Targets.

EN
Similar to outline of Aichi targets, updated NBAP (Addendum Action Plan) is structured such that there are goals, for whose realization targets are set
Measure taken has been partially effective

Time schedule (2010-2020) is not reached as needed. This is why measures are partially effective.
The main problem was the partial lack of coordination. In order to resolve this we have established The National Biodiversity Coordination Council on August 1, 2019.

EN

Section III. Assessment of progress towards each national target

Similar to outline of Aichi targets, updated NBAP (Addendum Action Plan) is structured such that there are goals, for whose realization targets are set

2020 - Progress towards target but at an insufficient rate
Similar to outline of Aichi targets, updated NBAP (Addendum Action Plan) is structured such that there are goals, for whose realization targets are set
EN
Category of progress towards the implementation of the selected target
Progress towards target but at an insufficient rate
12 Mar 2020

The National Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring Project was prepared and started to implement in 2013 by the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks for the purpose of conserving our biological richness.


With this project, biological diversity will be followed up both database and land based monitoring. Thus, risks such as biopiracy, threaten of species, habitat destruction, pressure to nature will be prevented.


Project has been initiated in 81 provinces so far and has been completed in 74 provinces. By the end of 2019, Project works will be completed in 81 provinces and the Turkey Biological Diversity Map is planned to be prepared.


Within the scope of the project, biodiversity inventory and monitoring studies of Turkey has been continued in the following taxa:


• Vascular plants (Literature and fieldwork)


• Mammals (Literature and fieldwork)


• Birds (Literature and fieldwork)


• Reptiles (Literature and fieldwork)

• Amphibians (Literature and fieldwork)
• Cryptogamic plants (Literature)
• Invertebrate animals (Literature)
Biological diversity data come from all provinces have been stored at Noah’s Ark National Biological Diversity Database. Therefore Turkey’s biological diversity data will be searched by the database on the basis of table, graphic and map, in addition to this it will be able to be monitored for conservation and sustainability of biodiversity.
Inventory studies
With the start of the project, 941.358 data entries were provided within the 4 years period between 2014 and 2018 and the total number of data reached 1.460.000. Data were collected from a total of 470.185 location observations within the scope of the completed province of Turkey. As a result of the project, a total of 12.388 taxa were identified which 10.991 are flora taxa and 1.397 fauna taxa. 394 local endemic, 3.519 endemic taxa were also identified and the rates of endemism are 31%.
During the project implentation phase, the indicators for monitoring biodiversity regarding to species nad habitat level are decided and for each indicators is prepared a specific monitoring plan. Also, systematic and sustainable monitoring studies will be carried out having the completed inventory results. It will be ensured effective management of biological diversity through species/ population, habitat/ecosystem and regional level monitoring studies.
Monitoring studies
Monitoring indicators are identified for each taxa and habitats regarding field locations. Information about the population status of the species, habitat status and the state of the ecosystem that the species is located and represented can be obtained by monitoring the indicators.
Monitoring activities are being implemented currently throughout 74 province. Monitoring activities are conducted either by the regional directorates themselves or by the local universities via protocols.
Inventory studies will be finished in 2019. However, monitoring studies are ongoing studies at local and national level. By monitoring activities, it is planned to be maintained and expanded this studies at national level for taking care of common monitoring species amoung provinces.
 Biopiracy Information Sharing System which also includes a database and was established in order to facilitate the follow-up of biopiracy cases, has been used effectively with contribution of Research Permission Information System and Ministry of Interior.
 In scope of The Project on Registration of Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity, all publications on traditional knowledge based on biological diversity from the republican period were scanned and recorded in the data table. Field work was completed in 2018 in Aydın, Afyonkarahisar, Hatay, Ankara, Erzurum, Samsun and Çorum and the following year Bursa, Mersin, Kayseri, Gümüşhane and Şanlıurfa field work was completed. Within the scope of the 2019 program of the project, field works have been started in Kırklareli, Mardin, İzmir, Isparta, Aksaray, Sinop, Bartın, Trabzon and Van. It is aimed to complete the field work in all provinces by 2023.
The aim of the Project of Recording Traditional Knowledge Based on Biodiversity is to compile, record and regulate traditional knowledge based on biodiversity in order to contribute to the acquisition of biological diversity into the economy and the utilization of industrial property rights based on our genetic resources in our country. The project aimed to compile information on traditional products such as medicines, yeasts and dyes developed by the public using natural biological resources and to create a national traditional knowledge bank.
Within the scope of the project, on the one hand, previously published scientific publications are compiled and on the other hand, traditional knowledge is recorded by making face-to-face interviews with the elderly population, especially in the villages determined by taking into consideration the geographical characteristics, historical background and cultural richness of each province. Species subject to this information are also identified by experts and samples are taken from traditional products. The literature and the information obtained from the fieldwork are recorded in the data tables.
As a result of the project, obtaining patents directly on the products developed using traditional knowledge based on biodiversity will be prevented in national and international levels. Furthermore, this information in the database will be provided to academicians and researchers for use in research and development activities.
For field studies, teams consisting of botany, ethnobotany, social sciences, zoology and microbiology were formed. All the elements that make up biodiversity in the field studies (plant, animal, microorganism)
Health (applications containing public medicine or healing BGB),
• Nutrition (food, spices, beverages, yeast, etc.),
• Industrial (paint, textile, building material, fuel, crafts, etc.),
• Agriculture-Livestock and
• Information on traditional uses for other purposes (birth-death, wedding customs, incense, etc.) is compiled.
Further, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks carries out the following projects;

 Technical Assistance for Strengthening the National Nature Protection System for Implementation of Natura 2000 Requirements
An IPA Project called “Strengthening the National Nature Protection System for Implementation of Natura 2000 Requirements Project” was carried out between September 2015 – September 2018. Total project budget was 6.429.789 Euro. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was the beneficiary.
Outputs of the Project are:
• lists of habitats and species under Habitats Directive and Birds Directive found in Turkey
• Habitat interpretation manual for Turkey,

• A new methodology called “Systematic Conservation Planning” for selection of Natura 2000 sites,
• A list of potential Natura 2000 sites in Central Anatolian ecoregion, (34 potential sites were described)
• Standard Data Forms for Potential Natura 2000 sites,
• A new Natura 2000 database compatible with EU system and Turkey’s Noah’s Ark Database.
• Institutional Need Analysis for Natura 2000 in Turkey,
• Capacity building workshops for NGO’s institutions,
• Draft Secondary legislations for Turkey’s Nature Conservation Law were prepared.
 Addressing Invasive Alien Species Threats at Key Marine Biodiversity Areas GEF VI Project
“Addressing Invasive Alien Species (IAS) Threats at Key Marine Biodiversity Areas” project was designed to ensure resilience of marine and coastal ecosystems through strengthened capacities and investment in prevention, detection, control and management of Invasive Alien Species. The project has successfully obtained the approval from Global Environment Facility (GEF) in October 2017 and the Local Appraisal Committee (LPAC) meeting was held on 16th of January 2018. The Project Document was approved and signed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA), Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks (MoFWA) and by UNDP Turkey on 18th of August 2018. The project started in 3rd quarter of 2018 and expected finish in 3rd quarter of 2023.

The long-term project objective is to minimize negative impacts of IAS in support of conservation Turkey’s globally significant native marine biodiversity. The project will be implemented on Turkish coastsal and marine ecosystems in four pilot areas. The project is organized into three components:
• Component 1. Effective national policy framework on IAS
• Component 2. Capacity building, knowledge and information sharing systems to address the IAS threats
• Component 3. Investment in sustainable management, prevention, eradication, and control of IAS and restoration of IAS-degraded habitat at key marine and coastal areas.
 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Turkey’s Steppe Ecosystem Project
Within the framework of the FAO-GEF project GCP/TUR/061/GFF “Conservation and Sustainable Management of Turkey’s Steppe Project”, surveys and assessments on biodiversity, socio-economic and socio-cultural aspects, and a comprehensive analysis of on-going grazing activities and livestock situation will be carried out. This will contribute to the objectives of the project which is targeting improving of conservation of Turkey’s steppe ecosystems through effective protected area management and mainstreaming steppe biodiversity conservation into productive landscapes.

The project has three outcomes and nine outputs:
Component/Outcome 1: Effectiveness of protected area system to conserve steppe biodiversity increased
Output 1.1 New steppe protected area established and operational
Output 1.2 Effective management plans for three steppe protected areas created and implemented
Output 1.3 Rigorous monitoring program for three steppe protected areas established
Component/Outcome 2: Steppe biodiversity conservation mainstreamed into production landscapes
Output 2.1 Sustainable grazing management program operational across three steppe protected areas and associated buffer zones
Output 2.2 Sustainable grazing management program impacts monitored at three steppe protected areas
Output 2.3 Model steppe conservation training program for pastoralists in place
Component/Outcome 3: Enabling environment established for the effective conservation of steppe biodiversity across large landscapes
Output 3.1 Sanliurfa Province steppe conservation strategy and associated enabling environment improvements implemented

Output 3.2 National steppe conservation strategy and associated enabling environment improvements established
Output 3.3 National steppe conservation training and awareness program for decision-makers and resource managers
The surveys and assessments as tendered shall contribute to the overall goals of the project and will be carried out in three pilot sites, their associated buffer zones and to be decided ecological corridors for connecting the pilot sites in Sanliurfa Province. The pilot sites are Kızılkuyu Wildlife Development Area, Tek Tek Mountains National Park, and (Sanliurfa part of) Karacadağ.
Project Management Unit from FAO, National Project Implementation Unit (NPIU) and site-based implementation unit is part of survey studies. The staff from provincial levels of the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks (GDNCNP) and General Directorate of Plant Production of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) have actively joined the survey and assessment process. The staff from the national levels of these General Directorates have participated in the survey and assessment process when needed. Other stakeholders and representatives of academic institutions, civil society, and farmer’s organizations may join the surveys and assessment process as well.
 Addressing of Invasive Alien Species Threats in Terrestrial Areas and Inland Waters in Turkey
The overall objective of the project titled “Addressing of Invasive Alien Species (IAS) Threats in Terrestrial Areas and Inland Waters in Turkey” is to ensure resilience of inland waters and terrestrial ecosystems with specific focus on invasive alien species. The project was submitted to European Union (EU) for the second period of Instrument for Preaccession Assistance (IPA II) and approved by EU in 2018. The project will be started in the last quarter of 2019 and last for 3 years.
The purpose of the project is to get invasive alien species (IAS) under control in terrestrial areas and inland waters in Turkey, in line with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. Six invasive alien species were selected within the scope of project. List of targeted IAS and their distribution is given below;
1-Bur cucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) in Eastern Black Sea region in Artvin, Rize, Trabzon, Giresun provinces
2-The rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir provinces
3-Red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) in Lakes in İzmir, Antalya and Mersin provinces
4-Nutria (Myocastor coypus) in Meric River (Trakya Region) and Aras River (Eastern Anatolia)
5-The Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) Seyitler Dam Lake (Afyonkarahisar)
6-Eastern mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) Lake Acıgöl and very small spring field and short spring feed streams (Denizli-Afyonkarahisar)
The expected results of the project are;

Result 1-Legal basis for the control of IAS in terrestrial areas and inland waters of Turkey was prepared.
Result 2-Each Invasive Alien Species of interest was controlled / eradicated
Result 3- Improved management capacity of institution staffs
Result 4- Increased Public awareness
This project will be linked with GEF VI Project (Addressing of Invasive Alien Species Threats on Key Marine Biodiversity Areas in Turkey) which was started in 2018. This EU IPA II Project will complete gaps in terrestrial ecosystems and inland waters on the roadmap towards the implementation of EU legislation. GEF VI and EU IPA II projects will be in close cooperation especially on preparing IAS Regulation and The National Strategy and Action Plan covered all ecosystems in Turkey and also setting up IAS data base and other involved cross-cutting issues within the scope EU IPA II Project. Two projects are complementary with each other.
 Noah’s Ark National Biodiversity Database’s new version is completed on September 2019.

 Species Conservation Studies
Species conservation studies started in 2013 with the determination of the strategic targets of our Ministry. With the strategic target, at least 10 Species Conservation Action Plans will be prepared each year until 2023 and 100 Species Conservation Action Plan is planned to be completed.
Species are identified that need to be intervened urgently. Between 2013-2017, action plans were prepared for 60 of species. In 2018, the preparation of action plans for 20 species are being proceeded. The objectives and activities in the completed action plans are monitored in 5 year-periods.
By monitoring studies, the pressures and threats affecting the persistance of species’ generation will be minimized and maintanence of species will be supported.
With the completion of action plan, monitoring activities are started for the next year and these studies are carried out with the financial means of our Ministry.

EN
Level of confidence
Based on comprehensive indicator information

Anticipated progresses and outputs were achieved from the projects.

EN
Monitoring related to this target is adequate

There was no monitoring system for targets until August 2019. Since then, The National Biodiversity Coordination Council has been established for effective monitoring national targets. For this purpose, coordination meetings will be performed inter related institutions.

EN

Section IV. Description of national contribution to the achievement of each global Aichi Biodiversity Target

1. Awareness of biodiversity values

2. Integration of biodiversity values

3. Incentives

4. Use of natural resources

5. Loss of habitats

6. Sustainable fisheries

7. Areas under sustainable management

8. Pollution

9. Invasive Alien Species

10. Vulnerable ecosystems

11. Protected areas

12. Preventing extinctions

13. Agricultural biodiversity

14. Essential ecosystem services

15. Ecosystem resilience

16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS

17. NBSAPs

18. Traditional knowledge

19. Biodiversity knowledge

20. Resource mobilization

NBSAP (2008-2017) has been updated. NBSAP (2008-2017) with new working schedule entried into force with Minister of Agriculture and Forestry approval together with NBAP (2018-2028) including recent action plans based on country’s biodiversity politics.
The National Biodiversity Coordination Council has been established for effective achievement of related Aichi Targets with national targets.

Being host of COP 16 (UN CBD), Turkey’s preparation works have been continued.

2030 SDG Goal 2 - NBAP (2018-2028) national objective 1 and 3
2030 SDG Goal 6 - NBAP (2018-2028) national objective 4.2 and 1
2030 SDG Goal 7 - NBAP (2018-2028) national objective 5
2030 SDG Goal 8 - NBAP (2018-2028) national objective 6 and 7
2030 SDG Goal 9 - NBAP (2018-2028) national objective 6
2030 SDG Goal 12 - NBAP (2018-2028) national objective 3 and 1
2030 SDG Goal 13 - NBAP (2018-2028) national objective 1.1
2030 SDG Goal 14 - NBAP (2018-2028) national objective 1 and 4.2
2030 SDG Goal 15 - NBAP (2018-2028) national objective 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

EN

Section V. Description of the national contribution to the achievement of the targets of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation

Turkey has national targets related to the GSPC Targets

NBAP (2018-2028) national objective 2

EN

Turkey has two gene banks (National Gene Bank- İzmir, Turkey Seed Gene Bank-Ankara).
The National Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring Project was prepared and launched in 2013 by Former Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks for the purpose of preserving our biological richness. Within the scope of the project, biodiversity inventory and monitoring studies of Turkey continue in the following live groups

• Vascular plants (Literature and fieldwork)


• Mammals (Literature and fieldwork)


• Birds (Literature and fieldwork)


• Reptiles (Literature and fieldwork)


• Amphibians (Literature and fieldwork)


• Cryptogamic plants (Literature)


• Invertebrate animals (Literature)


Biodiversity data from all provinces of Turkey are collected in Noah's Ark National Biodiversity Database. In the scope of project, plant lists have been generated and taxonomic studies have been continued. Taxa records have been increased from 11707 to 11840.

EN

1. An online flora of all known plants

2. An assessment of the conservation status of all known plant species, as far as possible, to guide conservation action

3. Information, research and associated outputs, and methods necessary to implement the Strategy developed and shared

4. At least 15 per cent of each ecological region or vegetation type secured through effective management and/or restoration

5. At least 75 per cent of the most important areas for plant diversity of each ecological region protected with effective management in place for conserving plants and their genetic diversity

6. At least 75 per cent of production lands in each sector managed sustainably, consistent with the conservation of plant diversity

7. At least 75 per cent of known threatened plant species conserved in situ

8. At least 75 per cent of threatened plant species in ex situ collections, preferably in the country of origin, and at least 20 per cent available for recovery and restoration programmes

9. 70 per cent of the genetic diversity of crops including their wild relatives and other socio-economically valuable plant species conserved, while respecting, preserving and maintaining associated indigenous and local knowledge

10. Effective management plans in place to prevent new biological invasions and to manage important areas for plant diversity that are invaded

11. No species of wild flora endangered by international trade

12. All wild harvested plant-based products sourced sustainably

13. Indigenous and local knowledge innovations and practices associated with plant resources maintained or increased, as appropriate, to support customary use, sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care

14. The importance of plant diversity and the need for its conservation incorporated into communication, education and public awareness programmes

15. The number of trained people working with appropriate facilities sufficient according to national needs, to achieve the targets of this Strategy

16. Institutions, networks and partnerships for plant conservation established or strengthened at national, regional and international levels to achieve the targets of this Strategy


Section VI. Description of the national contribution to the achievement of the targets of indigenous peoples and local communities

No information available

Section VII. Updated biodiversity country profile

Of the world’s seven bio-geographic regions, three (Mediterranean, Euro-Siberian, and Irano-Turanian) have elements in Turkey, each of which has unique species and natural ecosystems. The Mediterranean element hosts the largest cypress forests available in the world. The Euro-Siberian element is comprised of the Black Sea mountainous forest involving alpine pastures.
The Irano-Turanian element includes the steppes of Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia. Climatic and geographical features change within short intervals of space due to Turkey’s position as a bridge between two continents. Consequently, it has the character of a small continent from the stand point of biological diversity with forest, mountain, and steppe, wetland, coastal and marine ecosystems and different forms and combinations of thereof.
This extraordinary ecosystem and habitat diversity has produced considerable species diversity. Faunal biological diversity is quite high in Turkey compared with that of other countries in the temperate zone.
Invertebrates account for the largest number of species, with an estimated 60 000 to 80 000 species, the majority of which are insects. The insect subclass Pterygota (winged insects) alone has 22 125 identified species in 18 orders in Turkey.
The total number of vertebrate species identified to date is near 1 500. There are 694 freshwater and marine fish species, 460 bird species, 30 amphibian species, 161 mammal species, and 120 reptile species.
The number of vascular plant species in Europe (excluding Turkey) is about 12 500 with 28% of these species being endemic to Europe. Within Europe, the Mediterranean Region has the highest plant diversity.
A species, or other category of organism that is unique to a defined geographic location such as an island, nation, country, or habitat type is considered endemic to that location. The endemism rate of the Turkish flora is 31.8% and each year new such species are identified. The richest plant family for endemism in Turkey is Asteraceae having a total of 572 endemic taxa, followed by Fabaceae (385 taxa) and Lamiaceae (326 taxa). Also 14 genera are endemic.
The rate of endemism is relatively high when compared with other European countries such as 18% in Spain, 15% in Greece, 3% in France, and only 0.1% in Poland.
Due to exceptional amount of endemism that brings a huge responsibility to Turkey, it is to ensure that these species are adequately protected from threats or extinction, particularly for those which are related to the crops upon which much of the world depends. Of the country’s seven geographical regions, the Mediterranean Region boasts the highest number of endemic species confined to a single region.
Within that region, Antalya is the richest province with 587 endemic plant species. High levels of endemism within Turkey are concentrated in specific areas, such as the Amanos Mountains, the Ilgaz Mountains, the Central Taurus Mountains, the Taşeli Plateau, the Bolkar and Aladağlar Mountains, the Kaz Mountains, Uludağ Mountain, the mountains between Gümüşhane and Erzincan, the Munzur Mountains, and Lake Tuz and its saline steppes. Of the 3 649 endemic plant taxa in Turkey, several are relatives of crop species that feed the world, i.e., some field crops (such as wheat, barley, rye, oat, linseed, lentil, chickpea and pea), pasture plants (such as alfalfa, clover, sainfoin, vetch, and grasses), and horticultural plants (such as cherry, apricot, plum, almond, fig, and grape).
Further, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks carries out the following projects;
 The National Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring Project
 The Project on Registration of Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity
 Technical Assistance for Strengthening the National Nature Protection System for Implementation of Natura 2000 Requirements
 Addressing Invasive Alien Species Threats at Key Marine Biodiversity Areas GEF VI Project
 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Turkey’s Steppe Ecosystem Project
 Addressing of Invasive Alien Species Threats in Terrestrial Areas and Inland Waters in Turkey.

EN

The main pressure on biodiversity in Turkey is insufficiency of legal mechanisms for conservation, sustainable use of biodiversity and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from use of genetic resources and related traditional knowledge.
The other pressures are over-consumption and exploitation of natural resources, invasive alien species, land-use change, climate change, pollution, genetic erosion, etc.

EN

NBSAP (2008-2017) has been updated. NBSAP (2008-2017) with new working schedule entried into force with Minister of Agriculture and Forestry approval together with NBAP (2018-2028) including recent action plans based on country’s biodiversity politics.
The National Biodiversity Coordination Council is established for effective implementation of Convention.


EN

The National Biodiversity Coordination Council is established.

EN

The National Biodiversity Coordination Council is established.

EN

The National Biodiversity Coordination Council is established for monitoring and reviewing implementation.

EN