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Sixth National Report

  published:09 Jan 2020

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Suriname

Section II. Implementation measures, their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets

1. Conservation of biodiversity: 1.1 Adjusted national laws and rules for the conservation of biodiversity inside and outside protected areas.

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were, among others, to evaluate options for the establishment of protected areas (PAs) by communities, to evaluate effectiveness of current national laws/rules, to adjust and approve, where necessary, laws and regulations and also terminology. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:

- In 2016, initiatives for a new Mining Act (Mijnbouwwet) have started. A committee was established to finalize the draft in 2018.

- In 2016, a Draft Coastal Protection Act (Wet Bescherming Kustgebied) was prepared by the Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Communication (OWTC) and submitted to Parliament. According to Parliament, it is still under review. It is unclear when this Act will be approved. This Coastal Protection Act is specifically designed to protect the vulnerable coastal ecosystems, such as the mangrove forests, from anthropogenic pressures such as urban development and climate change.

- In March 2017, a process to review the Nature Conservation Act 1954 (Natuurbeschermingswet) was started by Conservation International (CI) Suriname with the project “Project Onze Natuur op 1”. While a stakeholders’ consultation process (which did not include ITP consultations) took place, it is necessary that this draft law is further streamlined with existing national policies and strategies. In August 2018, this draft law was presented to Parliament, however only after acceptance by the Government will it be considered.

- In 2017, the Act on Maritime zones (Wet Maritieme Zones) has been endorsed by Parliament. According to this act, the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Suriname is expended from 200 to approximately 345 sea miles. In this zone, the State has sovereign rights for the exploration, exploitation, preservation and management of the natural resources.

- Preparations for the adjustments of retribution, licensing rights, inspection fees and tariffs were done by the Foundation for Forest Management and Production Control (SBB) and enforced by the Ministry of Spatial Planning, Land and Forest Management (RGB), the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Tourism (HI&T) and Ministry of Finance.

- In September 2018, the Draft Environmental Framework Act (Milieu Raamwet) has been further elaborated by Coordination Environment at the Cabinet of the President and submitted to Parliament. It contains provisions regarding Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and pollution control, which should counteract the major drivers of Suriname’s forest degradation and deforestation. Adoption of an Environmental Act providing the major elements for the regulation of environmental protection in the country, as well as mandatory Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA), will strengthen the legal basis for an effective, efficient and sustainable protection of the forests and the environment.

- The Animal Welfare Act (Wet Dieren Welzijn 2017) was approved by Parliament in 2017 and was enacted in 2018. It promotes the general welfare of animals, regulates captivity of wild animals and sets rules for the conditions in which animals in captivity should be living.
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11. Protected areas
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient.

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- Insufficient technical expertise, capacity and skilled personnel within the various Government Institutes.


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1. Conservation of biodiversity: 1.2 Preserving the biodiversity of Suriname in an adequate and effective national system of protected areas and in areas beyond this system.

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were among others to identify species and areas that need effective protection urgently, to prepare or adjust management plans for nature reserves and vulnerable species, to implement the Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZM Plan), and to conduct EIA for the establishment of new PAs. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:

- Restructuring of the Suriname Forest Service (LBB) at the Forestry Directorate (Ministry of RGB) for effective control and enforcement and actions towards the establishment of the Forest and Nature Authority (BOSNAS) for an integrated approach to biodiversity preservation.

- Established National Forest Monitoring System by SBB, which includes Near Real Time Monitoring. This makes it possible to help detect deforestation and illegal logging activities using satellite images.

- Rewriting of 3 coastal management plans within the Global Climate Change Alliance+ (GCCA+) project (2016-2019), namely for the Bigi Pan, North Coronie and North Saramacca Multiple Use Management Areas (MUMAs). The focus will be on the regulations for hunting, fishing and tourism in specially appointed zones.
- There are currently four proposed protected areas: Nani, Kaburi, Mac Clemen and Snake Creek for a total area of 132,000 ha (Environmental Statistics 2016). Noteworthy, the Coronie swamp is being considered as a Protected Area.
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11. Protected areas
12. Preventing extinctions
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient.

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- Insufficient technical expertise, capacity and skilled personnel within the various Government Institutes.


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1. Conservation of biodiversity: 1.3 Rational designation and use of land, taking into account biodiversity conservation and the impact of disasters

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were, among others, to evaluate current land use based on environmental impact, to zone land based on sustainable use, to conduct Social Environmental Assessment (SEA) for inter-linked development projects and policies, to evaluate compulsory EIA of independent development projects, and to develop plans to minimize environmental damage in case of disasters. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:

- In 2015, capacity in land use and forest cover mapping has been built within the Ministries through technical collaboration. All data is being shared through the online geoportal www.gonini.org

- A land use map is being produced by SBB in collaboration with several stakeholders, Ministries and government institutes. This provides current data on land use, which is a good start for land use planning.

- Finalization of a land use land change map of 2017 by SBB. 

- The launch of the Gonini Geoportal in 2016 as a national land monitoring tool. - No actions have been taken for the actual land use in relation to environmental impacts. However, initiatives for sustainable land use planning, including an evaluation of the current laws and regulations for land use, evaluation of the human and organizational capacities to realize sustainable land use planning and an evaluation of the existing data gaps, have been taken.

- An inter-departmental commission is currently working on a concept law for Spatial Planning, under coordination of the Spatial Planning department of the Ministry of RGB.

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7. Areas under sustainable management
14. Essential ecosystem services
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, as no research has been done. Also, the provided and/or available data/information is insufficient. 

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- Insufficient technical expertise, capacity and skilled personnel and data.

- Insufficient knowledge on the link between biodiversity conservation and impact from land use.

- Overlapping laws and regulations that relate to land use planning resulting in unclear mandate for Ministries and institutes.

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1. Conservation of biodiversity: 1.4 Responsible mining with minimisation of damage to the environment and biodiversity and environmental restoration

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were to evaluate mining policy and practice regarding sustainability, to adjust mining policy and mining legislation, to adjust mining permits, and to enhance practices that limit environmental impact from small-scale mining. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:

- In 2016, the National Oil Spill Contingency Plan (NOSCP) was formulated. This Plan has been approved the same year and is under the responsibility of the National Coordination Center for Disaster Management (NCCR) for implementation and coordination. In 2018, a process has started to revise this Plan.

- Since 2016, together with the National Institute for Environment and Development in Suriname (NIMOS), the Ministry of Natural Resources (NH) is implementing the Minamata Initial Assessment (MIA) project (2016-2017). This project allows Suriname to identify the national mercury challenges and the extent to which legal, policy and regulatory framework will enable the country to implement obligations under the Minamata Convention on Mercury. Awareness activities to emphasize the risks of mercury use are also part of the project implementation.

- In 2017, initiatives for the establishment of a mineral institute for coordinated monitoring and control of the mining policy were started. The Ministry of NH together
with the existing mining institutes Geological Mining Service (GMD), Bauxite Institute Suriname (BIS) and part of the committee for Ordering the Gold Mining Sector in Suriname (OGS) developed an implementation plan for a smooth transformation of these institutes into one mineral institute. With this initiative, the first phase of the establishment of a national mineral institute was finalized.

- Initiatives by the Ministry of NH for public private partnerships in the small-scale mining industry to promote environmentally friendly technologies.

- Implementation of the Artisanal and Small- Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) National Action Plan project (2017-2019) to develop a National Action Plan (NAP) to reduce, and where feasible, eliminate mercury use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. With funds from the Global Environmental Fund (GEF) the government of Suriname can support artisanal and small-scale enterprises by creating policies and market incentives, connecting them to international markets and supplying chains that favor gold which use less or no mercury in its extraction.

- The Ministry of NH is currently in the phase of operationalizing a seven-year project named: “Improving Environmental Management in the Mining Sector, with Emphasis on the ASGM sector in Suriname”, which is funded by the GEF. This project will focus on the introduction of sustainable mining techniques, including mercury free mining in the ASGM sector through the introduction of education centers in different mining regions in the country. Also, as part of its policy plans, the Ministry is actively implementing measures to register and formalize illegal miners within the country and guide them to better and adequate mining activities that are in line with the national and international commitments of the country.

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10. Vulnerable ecosystems
15. Ecosystem resilience
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient.

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- The informal character of a large part of the mining sector is a major obstacle to promote responsible mining and identify critical issues that are harmful to the environment.

- The lack of awareness about responsible mining, of small-scale miners.

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1. Conservation of biodiversity: 1.5 Spread of dangerous objects, substances or organisms in natural ecosystems limited and under control

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were, among others, to conduct inventory of hazardous objects, substances and organisms, to develop and approve (new) laws/regulations regarding Invasive Alien Species (IAS), to revise the list of import of hazardous objects, substances and organisms, to intensify control on the import of substances and organisms, to inspect and clean up hazardous objects, substances and organisms in protected areas. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:

- In 2016, a Level 1 inventory of mercury pollution was done under the Mercury Storage and Disposal project by Coordination Environment, making use of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Mercury Toolkit.

- In 2016, a pre-inventory of IAS management in Suriname was done. This research showed that there is no unambiguous definition for IAS. Participating organizations are using different definitions. Also, that there are insufficient and lack of legal regulations and laws with regards to IAS, in particular protection against IAS. Furthermore, there is no coordinated program of protocol in place with regards to management of IAS.

- In 2016, 96,4 tons of obsolete pesticides (six of 40 feet containers) have been removed and shipped to the United Kingdom (UK) for incineration.

- In 2017, a more elaborated survey on IAS Management was done in collaboration with the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) Secretariat. Preparations for a National IAS Management workshop are in progress.

- In 2017, small-scale goldminers were granted permission to mine in the Roma Pit, an area within the Iamgold Rosebel Gold Mines concession area. Their activities, however, are being monitored and they are not allowed to use mercury in the process.

- In 2018, inventories for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) were done under the Regional POPs Project (2015-2020). An inventory was made for the following POPs: polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenylethers (POP-PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and unintentional POPs (UPOPS). The Stockholm Convention National Implementation Plan of 2011 was updated in 2018 with addition of PFOS. Ways are being discussed to do further testing, management and disposal of the PCBs at the Suriname Energy Company (N.V. EBS). To reduce UPOPs production, a new design for the waste dump at Ornamibo in the district of Para was made. A chemicals communications plan and chemical legislation are being drafted.

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8. Pollution
9. Invasive Alien Species
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient.

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- Insufficient control and enforcement to prevent the spread of dangerous objects in the environment.
- Insufficient capacity to carry out control and enforcement
- Insufficient data, instruments and equipment within the organizations responsible for control and enforcement.

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2. Sustainable use of biodiversity: 2.1 Sustainable fisheries in the marine, estuary and inland waterways

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were to evaluate the fisheries offshore, in the estuary zone and also the fresh water fisheries regarding sustainability, and to adjust the fisheries policy for more sustainability. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:

- The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries (LVV) has developed a Fisheries Management Plan for the period 2014-2018. This plan was developed using principles of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and the general policy goals of the Ministry of LVV. The Plan sets out general measures regarding the permit system, fishing zones, the use of the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), and specific measures for the different fishing categories (such as reporting of fish species caught, shrimp and seabob research, net and boat criteria, criteria per fishing zone). Preparations are carried out to revise/update the Plan.

- The fisheries sector is regulated by the following national laws: the Fish Stocks Protection Act 1961 (Visstandbeschermingswet), the Sea Fisheries Act 1980 (Zeevisserijwet) and the Fish Inspection Act 2000 (Viskeuringswet). The Sea Fisheries Act has been adjusted in 2017 (SB 2017 no. 41), which relates to aligning the definition of the fishing zones in the Sea Fisheries Act with the definitions used in the Maritime Zones Act 2017 (Wet Maritieme Zones).


- The GEF/FAO project Sustainable Management of Bycatch in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) Trawl Fisheries (REBYC-II- LAC project) started in 2016, which aimed at sustainable management of bycatch in order to minimize food waste. Under this project, data collection at sea has started to obtain an overview of the catch composition, bycatch and discards in the finfish fishery. This information will be used to understand the current needs for bycatch reduction and gear improvements, a prerequisite for the introduction of effective bycatch reduction measures in fishery. The data is collected in partnership with the Anton de Kom University of Suriname (AdeKUS), and will continue throughout the fishing season. 

Within this project, a flexible Turtle Exclusion Device (TED) for fin fish trawlers has been developed and is being tested. The results were presented in late 2017 and several ideas for adaptations of the gear were proposed. The flexible TEDs have proven very effective in reducing unsustainable bycatch, reducing the discard rates for rays by up to 95%. This also has a positive effect on the quality of the fish and the catch sorting process. 

The loss of target catches, however, is still too high to make the device acceptable for the industry at present. In 2018, further improvements to the TEDs are being tested to overcome this problem.

- Preparations are carried out to conduct a gender study in the fisheries sector in late 2018 until 2019.

- In 2017, the Suriname Coast Guard has been trained in fisheries inspection, and they will collaborate closely with the Fisheries Department regarding this aspect.

- Preparations are being carried out to start a regional demonstration project regarding artisanal fisheries under the Caribbean and North Brazil Shelf Large Marine Ecosystems (CLME+) project (2015-2020), which will locally be implemented by NIMOS and LVV.

- In early 2018, awareness sessions for small-scale fishers have started regarding concepts of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries.
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4. Use of natural resources
6. Sustainable fisheries
7. Areas under sustainable management
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient. According to stakeholders, the objective of the sustainable use of biodiversity has partly been achieved.
The definition of indicators and targets is needed, to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken.

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- Insufficient human resources available and an extended hiring process is involved.
- Financial resources within the government system is not easily made available.
- Assistance and additional means needed to combat piracy at sea.

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2. Sustainable use of biodiversity: 2.2 Sustainable forestry – both logging and harvest of plant non-timber forest products (NTFP) – and forest restoration

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were, among others, to evaluate exploitation of timber and Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) regarding sustainability and productivity, adjust laws and regulations to the sustainable and productive utilization of forests, to ensure enforcement of laws on forest exploitation and forest conversion, to facilitate certification of forestry companies, and to restore damaged areas. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:


- Forest management measures are implemented according to the Forest Management Act 1992 (Wet Bosbeheer), National Forest Policy 2006 and Interim Strategic Action Plan 2009 – 2013. These measures include, among others, measures regarding land use planning, timber and non-timber forest production, and ecological and environmental protection. The policy documents have been reviewed and were integrated in the country’s Draft National Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)+ Strategy.

- Legislation has been adjusted; related to retribution, concession rights, inspection fees and tariffs. According to SBB, there are also plans to implement measures that discourage the export of round wood and to strengthen the local processing capacities.

- The government supports any initiative regarding Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification of the forestry companies. The number of certified forestry companies in Suriname increased from four in 2014 to five in 2016 according to SBB’s publication ‘Rapport Bosbouw Sector 2016’.
- A Roadmap for a National Forest Monitoring System (NFMS) was developed in 2017. The NFMS which includes the Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) System for REDD+ has the following sub-systems:
o Satellite Land Monitoring System (SLMS) or mapping of land/forest cover/use change in close collaboration with the relevant Ministries and institutions. As an online platform for data exchange, http://www.gonini.org/ was developed. This geoportal is maintained at SBB.
o Near Real Time Monitoring System (NRTM), where unplanned activities in the forest are followed on a day-to-day basis. This system involves an effective response system, which is currently strengthened for unplanned logging activities.
o Sustainable Forestry Information System Suriname (SFISS): updating and improving the LogPro system, by integrating technology and enhancing the role of the stakeholders. This program will support a structural implementation of the draft Code of Practice, and will be complemented by a long-term capacity building program.

o National Forest Inventory (NFI): Currently being developed for mangrove forest, designed with a multipurpose character to include the assessment of national biodiversity data as one of its targets.

o Community-Based Monitoring: Enhancing the role of communities within the different sub-systems, among others, through the role of the REDD+ Assistants Collective.

o Reporting: Developing systems for structural reporting on the state of Suriname’s forest.

- Investments are being made to strengthen the human capacity of SBB: they are currently (throughout the end of 2018 and together with other  Ministries/institutes) participating in an international ‘train the trainers’ course “Conservation of Biodiversity through Ecologically Responsible Forest Management in the Productive Forest of the Amazon”, which is held within the context of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) project “Building capacities of ACTO Member Countries in ecological responsible forest management and biodiversity conservation in managed forests of the Amazon”.


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5. Loss of habitats
7. Areas under sustainable management
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient. According to stakeholders, the objective of the sustainable use of biodiversity has partly been achieved.

The definition of indicators and targets is needed, to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken.


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- The laws and regulations are not fully up to date, capacity-strengthening activities are not sufficient, infrastructure in the hinterlands as well as work facilities for the forest rangers are not properly and regularly maintained and they are also not sufficient.
- The local wood processing industry is not sufficiently capable to process all harvested round wood, so Suriname mainly exports round wood. The recovery rate of round wood processing is low, which results in a lot of wood waste.
- Capacity-strengthening of SBB personnel for monitoring and enforcement.
- Improvement of the wood processing industry in Suriname in order to encourage the export of wood products.
- Increase coverage of forest rangers in the hinterland.
- Additional equipment and transportation vehicles are needed.
- Insufficient funds to cover operational costs, regular maintenance on existing forest ranger’s checkpoints.
- Awareness-raising activities regarding sustainable forest management is also needed.

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2. Sustainable use of biodiversity: 2.3 Sustainable use of wildlife (terrestrial)

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were to evaluate hunting and collecting animals as a form of sustainable use, including the system of catch/export quota, to revise the Game Act 1954, to intensify the control on commercial catch/export of wild animals, and to adjust the catch and export quota. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:


- Wildlife management measures are being implemented according to the Game Act 1954 (Jachtwet), Nature Conservation Act 1954 (Natuurbeschermingswet), Fish Stock Protection Act 1961 & 1981 (Visstandbeschermingswet), Fish Stock Protection State Order 1961 (Visstandbeschermingsbesluit), Sea Fisheries Act 1980 (Zeevisserij wet), Forest Management Act 1992 (Wet Bosbeheer) and Game State Order 2002 (Jachtbesluit).

- In 2002, the Game Act has been amended by Game State Order 2002, but further efforts are dependent on the set up of a Forest and Nature Authority (BOSNAS), of which preparations have only recently begun, and also the approval of the Environment Framework Act.

- Efforts are in progress to adjust the game quota system, in which wildlife exporters have participated, and it is expected to finalize these efforts by the end of 2018.


- Cooperation between Game Wardens, Police, Attorney General and Prosecution Department has been established in order to increase the control on gaming and export of wildlife.

- A project “Awareness program for the protection of shorebirds, including the Scarlet Ibis” has been initiated with the goal to reduce poaching of shorebirds and to better protect these birds. This was done in collaboration with Suriname Conservation Foundation (SCF), David Mizrahi (an American biologist for sandpipers) and Arie Spaans (from the National Audubon Society, New Jersey).


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4. Use of natural resources
12. Preventing extinctions
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient. According to stakeholders, the objective of the sustainable use of biodiversity has partly been achieved.
The definition of indicators and targets is needed, to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken.

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- Training personnel on issues regarding protected areas management, research, management and trade in protected plants and animals.
- No scientifically sound quota lists available due to lacking data on population monitoring.

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2. Sustainable use of biodiversity: 2.4 Responsible tourism, particularly nature and ecotourism

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were to evaluate nature and eco-tourism regarding growth potential, impact, and sustainability, to develop national standards for responsible business practices in the tourism sector, to adjust tourism policy to enhance responsible tourism, and to facilitate certification of eco-tourism companies. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:


- The United Tour Guides Suriname (UTGS) was founded in 2014 to unite and certify tour guides active in the tourism sector, and to strengthen their capacities. They have organized training sessions to broaden the competencies of the tour guides and they are actively cooperating with the Suriname Bureau of Standards (SSB) on developing standards for the tourism sector.

- In 2016, the Suriname Hospitality and Tourism Association (SHATA) was established. SHATA is a non-governmental organization, which offers essential services to improve tourism in Suriname with the aim of increasing the number of travelers and tourist spending. SHATA has closely collaborated with the government Foundation for Tourism (Stichting Toerisme Suriname, STS), until STS’ closing in 2018.

- In 2017, the tourism policy area became one of the responsibilities of the Ministry of Trade and Industry, thus becoming the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Tourism (HI&T). By November 2017, the Ministry of HI&T published the National Strategic Tourism Plan 2018-2030 (NSTP) describing the vision, mission and strategic goals regarding tourism, which will focus on nature and culture tourism. In the NSTP a SWOT analysis for the nature and culture tourism is described. Sustainable tourism is the leading principle for the tourism policy.

- Mid 2018, a draft national standard for tour guides was developed by a technical working group headed by the SSB and is awaiting approval for enactment as a national standard.

- End 2018, permit guidelines are drafted by the Ministry of RGB for the tourist lodges in the Bigi Pan MUMA.
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2. Integration of biodiversity values
4. Use of natural resources
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient. According to stakeholders, the objective of the sustainable use of biodiversity has partly been achieved.
The definition of indicators and targets is needed, to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken.

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- Research needed on the link between biodiversity and tourism.
- Human and technical assistance is needed to further develop the tourism potential of Suriname’s biodiversity.

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2. Sustainable use of biodiversity: 2.5 Responsible agriculture, causing less environmental damage

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were to evaluate and adjust agricultural policy/practice regarding mitigation of negative impacts, to evaluate the use and the advantages of local strains/varieties, to encourage the sparingly use of pesticides, and to stimulate the transition to sustainable agriculture. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:


- In March 2016, the Ministry of LVV published its National Master Plan for Agricultural Development in Suriname containing a comprehensive national policy and its implementation through specific regional projects (for aquaculture, citrus, rice and vegetables). The Master Plan is rooted in two main values, namely agriculture and population, and sustainable agriculture. The Master Plan also seeks to protect ecological values through three central strategies, namely: concentrating expansion of cultivation within previously abandoned agricultural areas, so as not to harm the surrounding natural forests; adopting environmentally friendly cultivation methods, in order to protect the surrounding natural ecology; defining the coastal strip as a shield for the entire coastal plain of Suriname against the penetration of seawater, whereby natural growth in this strip (mangrove forests) will be preserved in order to protect development just South of it, as well as the natural habitat of several endangered species.

- The Anne van Dijk Rice Research Centre Nickerie (SNRI/ADRON) organizes farmer field schools where rice farmers are educated about the principles of water management and integrated pest management. In the past 15 years, rice farmers have been informed about responsible pesticide use and responsible agricultural practices through brochures and information videos through local TV stations.

- From October 2017 – October 2018 a school project called ‘Everyday food: Growing vegetables no matter what weather’ was conducted in the district of Commewijne. It was funded by the Japan Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (JCCCP) in collaboration with NIMOS and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Suriname. The objective of this project was to raise the awareness of the youth at the primary school level regarding climate change and the impact on agriculture. Among others, about 150 youths have participated in this project.
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2. Integration of biodiversity values
4. Use of natural resources
7. Areas under sustainable management
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient. According to stakeholders, the objective of the sustainable use of biodiversity has partly been achieved.
The definition of indicators and targets is needed, to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken.

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- Additional resources are needed for research on how to address challenges imposed by climate change on rice production.


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2. Sustainable use of biodiversity: 2.6 Responsible application of biotechnology

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were to evaluate risks of import and use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), and to revise and approve laws and regulations on GMOs in accordance with international obligations. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:


- The National Biosafety Framework that was developed in 2004 is still in use, but must be updated, especially regarding the institutional framework.

- Suriname participated in the Global Environment Facility (GEF)-funded Regional Biosafety Project in the period of 2012-2016. The main goal of the project was to
implement effective, operable, transparent and sustainable National Biosafety Frameworks. This caters to national and regional needs, delivers global benefits and is compliant to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in 12 Caribbean countries to ensure that their biodiversity will be less vulnerable to any potential risks from introduced Living Modified Organisms (LMO). In this project, national laws and regulations regarding biosafety and biotechnology were drafted and laboratory equipment was purchased.

- In 2017, steps were taken to finalize these laws and regulations through an inter-Ministerial Committee on Biosafety and Biotechnology for Food Security and Food Safety, which consists of representatives of the Ministry of LVV, Ministry of Health, Ministry of HI&T, the AdeKUS and Coordination Environment (CM).

- No imports or exports regarding GMOs were reported nor have any risk analyses been carried out for the use of GMOs.
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13. Agricultural biodiversity
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient. According to stakeholders, the objective of the sustainable use of biodiversity has partly been achieved.

The definition of indicators and targets is needed, to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken.

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- Legislation and policy need to be updated, insufficient human capacity and financial resources.
- The biosafety policy also needs to be updated.

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2. Sustainable use of biodiversity: 2.7 Ecosystems valued for the services they supply

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were to make an overview of measurable services of Suriname’s ecosystems, and to carry out a pilot project to pass on the ecological value in the price of a product/service. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:


- From 2014-2017, Tropenbos International (TBI) Suriname together with the Association of Saamaka Authorities (VSG) has implemented projects in the Upper Suriname River, with the goal to map ecosystem services using Participatory-3D-Mapping (P3DM).

- The Suriname Coastal Protected Areas Management (SCPAM) Project (2011-2015) resulted in revised management plans, business plans and economic valuation reports for three Multiple Use Management Area (MUMAs).

- The SCPAM project is followed-up by the Global Climate Change Alliance+ (GCCA+) (2016- 2019). The projects aim to develop a National Mangrove Strategy and conduct an economic (monetary) valuation study of the mangrove ecosystems ex. of Scarlet ibis and Tarpon.

- Annually, SBB produces analysis reports of the forestry sector. These reports include, among others, activities in the forestry sector, production and export statistics.
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2. Integration of biodiversity values
14. Essential ecosystem services
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient. According to stakeholders, the objective of the sustainable use of biodiversity has partly been achieved.
The definition of indicators and targets is needed, to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken.

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- Insufficient human capacity and knowledge, especially regarding the link between economics and ecosystem services.

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3. Regulated access to genetic material and associated traditional knowledge, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits: 3.1 Regulated access to genetic material in the territories of Indigenous and Maroons, with fair and equitable sharing of derived benefits

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were to evaluate existing agreements/laws/regulations with regard to access and intellectual property rights (IPR), to develop participation mechanisms regarding territories of Indigenous and Tribal peoples (ITP), to consult traditional communities on laws and regulations that need to be developed, to develop and approve (new) laws/regulations regarding the access and use of genetic material, to give a body/institute the responsibility for the control and enforcement of the access and use of genetic material and benefit sharing, to develop model agreements for research and development, to develop procedures regarding benefit sharing from the use of genetic material, to develop and approve regulations on benefit sharing. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:

- In the beginning of 2016, a Community Engagement Strategy For the Government was developed by the Association of Indigenous Village Leaders in Suriname (VIDS) and Association of Saamaka Leaders (VSG) within the Widening Informed Stakeholder Engagement (WISE) REDD+ project. However, this strategy has not been widely used by the government.

- At the end of 2017, the protection of residential areas and areas of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Act (Wet Bescherming Woon- en Leefgebieden) was approved by Parliament, but not enacted by the President of the Republic of Suriname, which aims to prevent that residential areas and areas of ITP are included in concession areas.

- At the beginning of 2018, the government came to an agreement with the ITP to implement the action plan regarding the land rights of these communities. This action plan consists of components on the development of legislation, the demarcation of the areas of ITP and to raise awareness.

- During consultation sessions with the ITP, it was mentioned that any successful regulation regarding Access and Benefit Sharing will depend on the recognition of their land rights.

EN
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient. However, according to stakeholders, little progress has been made in achieving the objective of regulating access to genetic material and associated TK, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits.

The definition of indicators and targets is needed, to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken.

EN

- There is a lack of laws and regulations on the access to genetic material in the territories of Indigenous and Tribal communities, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits.
- Capacity development needed regarding access and benefit sharing for the general public and the government.
- ITPs need legal assistance when drafting benefit sharing contracts and agreements with third parties.
- ITPs see the recognition of their land rights as a prerequisite for any regulation regarding Access and Benefit Sharing.

EN

3. Regulated access to genetic material and associated traditional knowledge, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits: 3.2 Regulated access to genetic material in other areas, with fair and equitable sharing of derived benefits

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were to evaluate existing agreements/laws/regulations with regard to access and IPR, to develop and approve (new) laws/regulations regarding the access and use of genetic material, to give a body/institute the responsibility for the control and enforcement of the access and use of genetic material and benefit sharing, to develop model agreements for research and development, to develop procedures regarding benefit sharing from the use of genetic material, and to develop and approve regulations on benefit sharing. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:

There has been no policy and strategy developed as yet regarding access to genetic material in other areas, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits.
EN
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient. However, according to stakeholders, little progress has been made in achieving the objective of regulating access to genetic material and associated TK, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits.
The definition of indicators and targets is needed, to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken.

EN

- There is a lack of laws and regulations on the access to genetic material with the fair and equitable sharing of benefits.
- Capacity development needed regarding access and benefit sharing.

EN

3. Regulated access to genetic material and associated traditional knowledge, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits: 3.3 Regulated access to traditional knowledge, with fair and equitable sharing of derived benefits

The desired actions that were identified under this sub-objective were to develop participation mechanisms for discussion about the use of traditional knowledge (TK), to define what TK comprises within the context of Suriname, to develop and approve regulations to protect TK, to give a body/institute the responsibility for the control and enforcement, and to develop a strategy to encourage further regulated use of TK. The activities that were implemented in the reporting period, include the following:

- In 2016, the Bureau on Intellectual Property (Bureau Intellectuele Eigendom), which is responsible for the protection of intellectual property, was transferred from the Ministry of Justice and Police (JusPol) to the Ministry of HI&T. In that same year, the Ministry of HI&T held a workshop on TK in order to develop a legal framework to protect TK within the context of improvement of the investment and entrepreneurial environment in Suriname.

- Currently there is no national definition for the term ‘Traditional Knowledge’. Also, there has been no policy and strategy developed yet regarding TK.
EN
18. Traditional knowledge
Unknown

The effectiveness of the measures taken could not be assessed, because the provided and/or available data/information was insufficient. However, according to stakeholders, little progress has been made in achieving the objective of regulating access to genetic material and associated TK, with fair and equitable sharing of benefits.
The definition of indicators and targets is needed, to enable the assessment of the effectiveness of measures taken.

EN

- There is a lack of laws and regulations regarding access to and the use of TK, and benefit sharing regarding TK.

- Capacity development needed regarding TK for the general public and the government.

- ITPs see the recognition of their land rights as a prerequisite for any regulation regarding TK, which cannot be granted readily due to provisions in the Constitution.

EN

Section III. Assessment of progress towards each national target

1. Awareness of biodiversity values

2018 - Progress towards target but at an insufficient rate
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Category of progress towards the implementation of the selected target
Progress towards target but at an insufficient rate
12 Aug 2018

Awareness on the value of biodiversity is raised through the implementation of many projects. This is an ongoing process and does not always occur at the same pace. Although not all of these projects specifically target the overall awareness on the value of biodiversity, they are often indirectly targeting specific areas of biodiversity, such as the value of the rainforest, medicinal plants, and specific animals such as sea turtles. Awareness activities in the country are often collaborative, meaning that government, local Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and international organizations often work together in the implementation. This has created a network of partner organizations (both government and non-government) that are active when it comes to raising awareness.

In this regard, an overview is provided of the most recent biodiversity-related awareness activities that have been or are in the process of being implemented by the different partners based on subject:

Plastics: the detrimental effects of single-use plastics have become more evident in Suriname. The rivers, creeks and other waterways are polluted, and ultimately end up clogging drainage ways to the rivers and ocean. In this regard, combined efforts of organizations such as Green Heritage Fund Suriname (GHFS), World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Guianas, the National Institute for Environment and Development in Suriname (NIMOS), Support Recycling Suriname Foundation (SuReSUR) and Amazona Recycling Company (AmReCo) help raise awareness on this problem. They are regularly organizing plastic clean up days, where volunteers go out to different locations in the country and collect as much plastic waste as possible. These activities have a dual purpose: for one they contribute to
the extraction of plastic waste from our rivers, thus preventing this waste from reaching the ocean. Secondly, through media attention and postings on social media, such as Facebook, they help create more awareness on this subject. The effects are getting more noticeable, with many different private sector initiatives rising. SuReSUR and AmReCo have a partnership and are also collecting Poly-Ethylene Terephthalate (PET), other plastics and aluminum through collections bins that are situated at many locations throughout the country. Their aim is to have 450 collection bins spread over the whole country. Currently, WWF Guianas is preparing an awareness campaign focused on individual responsibilities for the use of single- use plastics.

Forests & wildlife conservation: the focus on Suriname’s forest and its functions has increased, due to government initiatives for the further conservation of its forests. Historically, Suriname has always maintained a more conservationist standpoint with regards to the use of its forest. This has translated into a current forest cover of 93%. With regards to raising awareness on the functions of forests, through the years, different organizations have implemented awareness activities on forest conservation, sustainable use of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs), medical uses of plants and protection of wildlife. The REDD+ project (2014-2018), along with the Foundation for Forest Management and Production Control (SBB), has been at the forefront of mapping forest cover, land use and the drivers of deforestation. During project implementation, information sharing sessions were held all over the country for a broad range of stakeholder groups, such as schools, coastal and hinterland communities, etc. The focus of these sessions is to make stakeholders aware of climate change, the effects of climate change
on our country and how the forest and its biodiversity can play a role in combatting climate change. 

Other organizations have also focused on other areas of forest and wildlife conservation. For example, together with the AdeKUS, Conservation International Suriname (CI Suriname) is protecting and restoring the mangrove habitat at the ‘Weg naar Zee’ area for coastal protection.

Also, sustainable livelihood projects with local Indigenous communities are promoted, ensuring the continued focus of local communities on conservation.

Other organizations, such as GHFS, are focused on specific animals such as sloths. Their Xenarthra Program (Xenarthra is an order of animals that includes the sloths, armadillos and anteaters), includes the shelter, care, rehabilitation and release of these animals. This means that orphaned and distressed animals are adopted temporarily until they are healthy and prepared to return to the forest. The ultimate goal of this project is to have children and adults rediscover their bond with nature and their own humanity and compassion by becoming engaged in the fate of the sloths.

Marine environment: a healthy marine environment starts with healthy mangroves. In 2015, initiatives were taken to establish a Mangrove Education Center in the district of Coronie by the Ministry of Spatial Planning, Land and Forest Management (RGB) as part of the GEF funded Suriname Coastal Protected Areas Management Project (SCPAM) Project (2011-2015). This Center is unique for both the district of Coronie and the total Surinamese community, because it is the first if its kind. Mangrove forests are of eminent importance for coastal protection. It also functions as a breeding ground for shrimps and sea fish and serves as a habitat for local coastal birds and food areas for the many migratory birds from Northern regions. However, it appears that the mangrove forests are threatened by various factors. The goal of the Mangrove Education Center is to raise awareness for the importance of mangrove forests among the community. The renovation and set-up of the center was realized, among others, by Staatsolie Foundation, KOSMOS Energy and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Furthermore, there is an increased focus on marine animals and the impacts of human activities on their habitats. GHFS has been implementing a Dolphin Program. This program includes the collection of basic data, training of volunteers and other stakeholders, and providing education and information to the general public.

Also, WWF Guianas has been actively campaigning against the local consumption of the eggs of the Greenback Turtle. The campaign involves the use of well-known Surinamese who speak out against the consumption of the eggs.

These activities are done in close collaboration with the Ministry of RGB that has nature conservation as one of its responsibilities. In early 2018, awareness sessions for small-scale fishers have started regarding concepts of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries by the Fisheries Department.

Environmental education: through many initiatives of governmental and nongovernmental actors, there are many projects and programs on overall environmental education. One such initiative is the ‘Groene Leskist’ (translated as Green Teaching Kit),which is focused on combining the efforts of different organizations in creating educational materials for schools into one cohesive package. Various environmental organizations have developed a lot of material and numerous projects on the environment in recent years; and this is valuable material that should not be lost. The central point of the schools, the media library, was provided with this teaching kit.

In 2014, more than 30 environmental organizations met in the Paramaribo Zoo to train teachers of different schools in the structured way of providing environmental education. The Ministry of RGB also participated in this project. During the training, the teachers were taught didactic forms for processing the material in the lesson, writing projects and looking for sponsors for the projects. In addition to the teaching kit, a general website was created that is linked to the various environmental organizations and their activities.

Furthermore, through Coordination Environment, at the Cabinet of the President, where all environmental activities of the government are coordinated at the highest level, there have been specific activities. These include the publication of articles and news items, through the government media National Information Institute (NII) on International Environmental Days, such as World Biodiversity Day, World Forest Day, etc.

Another organization that has been promoting environment through its activities is the Foundation “Stichting Projekten Christelijk Onderwijs Suriname” (Stichting Projekten). Their goal is to foster good reading behavior with young people by promoting literature in various forms to young people and making them accessible through the annual organization of one or more children's books festivals. This foundation has multi-year themes with ‘Environment’ being one of them from 2005 to 2007. Currently, in collaboration with a number of partners, preparations are being made to put the Children's Education Center into use in 2018. This Center will offer children, educators, schools and organizations a 'Nature Education Center', where various topics such as renewable energy, environmental protection, climate change, healthy lifestyle, can be read, watched, listened to and learned in a unique way. In 2017, they organized a school quiz with subject
“Biodiversity” for Middle School students.

In collaboration with the Suriname REDD + project (2014-2018), Stichting Projekten is preparing the initiation of the project “The forest, the environment, our survival, our future”. With this project, awareness is being raised regarding the following aspects: the meaning of the words REDD+, forest, ecosystem, environment, oxygen, climate change, ‘blue carbon', etc.

Furthermore, learning about current national and international activities concerning conservation of the forest, climate, soil, etc.; learning how to use these concepts in daily life and to transfer them to their 'peers'; information about the flora and fauna of the project area; and learning to interact with each other in nature, using field attributes such as the binoculars and magnifying glasses.

Also, in collaboration with the Suriname REDD+ Project, Villa Zapakara Foundation, a Children’s Museum, the Sranan Krakti exhibition will be setup. By means of this exhibition, awareness will be raised about services that the natural environment offers to young and old. The exhibition consists of various exhibition components, namely the Mini-forest, the Nature pharmacy, the Technical Waterpark and the Media library. In addition to the exhibition, Villa Zapakara is involved in various events such as World Water Day, Children's Day, World Environment Day, etc., allowing them to be the platform for young and old, where translations are made of, sometimes difficult, topics in interactive workshops.

The “Fighting Mosquito-Borne Illnesses through STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Education” project aims to promote knowledge and monitoring of mosquitoes that carry vector-borne diseases. This is done by teacher and student training, using the Citizen Science Mosquito Protocol of the Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program. Through the implementation of “Fighting Mosquito-Borne Illnesses through STEM education” project, funded by the United States Embassy in Paramaribo, many community organizations have become involved in the GLOBE Mosquito habitat mapping project. In total three Country Mosquito Trainings (CMTs) were organized. During the first CMT 27 trainers were trained from six different districts. During the second training 25 trainers were trained from four different districts. During the third training 21 trainers were trained from three different districts. The material used for the CMTs was provided by GLOBE and translated to Dutch by GHFS. The Bureau for Public Health provided accurate data about mosquitoes in Suriname.

GHFS is also implementing the See Marine Interactions Project. This project focuses on people-centered advocacy required to successfully confront and reduce human threats to the marine environment and enhance climate resilience and food security in the coastal and marine environment. The GHFS engages with coastal communities, the general public, civil society groups as well as political parties to engender a positive change in societal attitudes towards the marine environment by enhancing awareness and knowledge of Suriname’s unique marine environment. Activities to strengthen capacity and enhance national awareness are carried out to facilitate the ability of coastal communities, civil society, and the general public to advocate their interests and better understand and positively influence their environment. The expected outputs and planned activities of See Marine Interactions have a common orientation, empowerment of coastal communities, and increasing knowledge and awareness of the marine environment in Suriname to promote a positive shift in societal attitudes and behavior towards the environment. The expected outputs are designed to maximize the feasibility of achieving the project objectives and to address the challenges and mitigate the threats to sustainable development, climate resilience, and food security in the coastal and marine environment of Suriname.

Also, can be mentioned activities from non-government organizations in organizing on either annual basis or periodically, awareness activities. Activities around World Ocean Day organized by GHFS and car-free days by the Foundation for Community Work in Latour (Stichting Buurtwerk Latour, Stibula) are examples of these awareness activities.

Although many actions are taken at different levels towards raising awareness about the value of biodiversity, currently no recent studies have been done on the impact of these awareness projects on the overall level of awareness of the population about the value of biodiversity. This makes an assessment of Suriname’s progress towards the attainment of this target difficult. 

An overall increase in awareness projects has become more noticeable through the years, which is why for this target it can be said that there is progress towards the achievement of the target, but at an insufficient rate. The target of 2020, where Surinamese people as a whole will be aware of the value of biodiversity and have taken steps to conserve and use it sustainably, will probably not be reached due to the fact that a more coordinated and structured approach is needed.

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Indicators and Activities
  • Data on awareness and attitudes toward biodiversity​
  • Data on public engagement regarding biodiversity
EN

Desktop study, expert opinion and stakeholder consultations (questionnaires and interviews) during the period of July – November 2018.

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Level of confidence
Based on partial indicator information and expert opinion