National Target 18: Development of local wisdom and innovations as well as bioprospecting capacity building for the conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity
It is possible to utilize the local wisdom because there is still much local wisdom still practised by the community in the conservation and utilization of biodiversity until now. Various local wisdom that supports the preservation of environment and forest areas along with their biodiversity can be utilized to manage forest areas, especially adat forests. Local wisdom can also be utilized in the management of coastal areas and small islands. Adat law communities and traditional fishermen can be involved in strengthening the zoning plans for coastal areas and small islands with the government and business sector; the local community may take the initiative to propose zoning plans. The rights of the adat law communities to regulate marine areas which are managed for generations have also been embodied in the laws and regulations. The utilization of space and resources of coastal waters and small islands within the adat law area is authorized by the relevant local adat law community. Meanwhile, traditional fishermen and their fishing areas are recognized through the inclusion of traditional fishing areas as sub-zones in the zoning plans, providing them with complete legal protection. Conservation of marine resources for local communities such as sasi (oath) has proven to increase the production of targeted fish with low levels of exploitation while increasing recovery of fish stocks and income of the local people. Therefore, the use and development of local wisdom may be used to support the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources.
The formulation of National Targets was carried out in a participatory manner through (1) evaluation and mapping of suitability and implementation of the IBSAP 2003-2020; (2) as a whole, formulating action plans and programs for achieving national and global targets by updating data and information regarding the current status of Indonesian biodiversity and key documents such as the National Medium-Term Development Plan 2015-2019 and Government Work Plan in 2015 which are published by five Ministries/Government institutions, i.e. the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Forestry (since January 2015, both ministries have merged and became the Ministry of Environment and Forestry), the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI); and (3) consultations, as the results of identification of national targets along with the action plans and programs, with relevant biodiversity experts, biodiversity managers in Ministries/Agencies, Regional Governments, private sector/biodiversity actors, and civil society organizations through various workshops, seminars, focus group discussions during the period 2013 - 2014 at the national level and some in the regional level (KemenPPN/BAPPENAS, 2016, pp. 17-19).