National Target 10: Reduced level of anthropogenic pressure on coral reefs and other vulnerable ecosystems affected by climate change
National Target (NT) 10 was prepared following the Aichi Target (AT) 10 framework as a reference for formulating a number of action plans and activity programs related to reducing pressure on vulnerable ecosystems, which have been adapted to national conditions and needs.
Climate change is a major challenge in the implementation of the IBSAP 2015-2020 which is amended from the IBSAP 2003-2020. Biodiversity of coral reefs ecosystems built from ecological processes for hundreds or even thousands of years contains the highest diversity out of a few major ecosystems in Indonesia. Climate change impacts on the coral reef’s damages, particularly by triggering coral bleaching. Therefore, strategies are needed to ensure climate adaptation and mitigation at all levels.
Based on the IBSAP 2015-2020, the implementation of NT 10 supports the IBSAP Action Plan 3, 'Maintenance and preservation of biodiversity ', through several Activity Groups (KK) including:
§ More reviews on climate change mitigation and adaptation (KK-1);
§ Improvement of activities dealing with climate change adaptation and mitigation at national and local levels (KK-2)
The formulation of National Targets was carried out in a participatory manner through (1) evaluation and mapping of suitability and implementation of the IBSAP 2003-2020; (2) as a whole, formulating action plans and programs for achieving national and global targets by updating data and information regarding the current status of Indonesian biodiversity and key documents such as the National Medium-Term Development Plan 2015-2019 and Government Work Plan in 2015 which are published by five Ministries/Government institutions, i.e. the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Forestry (since January 2015, both ministries have merged and became the Ministry of Environment and Forestry), the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI); and (3) consultations, as the results of identification of national targets along with the action plans and programs, with relevant biodiversity experts, biodiversity managers in Ministries/Agencies, Regional Governments, private sector/biodiversity actors, and civil society organizations through various workshops, seminars, focus group discussions during the period 2013 - 2014 at the national level and some in the regional level (KemenPPN/BAPPENAS, 2016, pp. 17-19).