National Target 3: Realization of incentives and disincentives system in business and the sustainable management of biological resources
Based on the IBSAP 2015-2020, the second mission (out of three) of biodiversity management in Indonesia is to make biodiversity a source of prosperity and the sustainability of the life of Indonesian people. One way to achieve this mission is through policies on biodiversity usage development for daily activities and livelihood within the relevant society. One strategy related to such policy is to support a biodiversity industry that maintains its awareness of sustainability through the incentives/disincentives system in line with sustainable use of biodiversity. This strategy is carried out in parallel with the development of the biodiversity-based industry.
As part of the evaluation of the IBSAP 2003-2020, National Target 3 was determined from the arising need to develop an incentive and funding scheme to control anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity. Those who capable of applying rewards and/or punishments and market mechanisms (i.e. producers and consumers) will adjust their behaviour through mechanisms of incentives and disincentives to environmental impacts. In efforts to control climate change, for example, the development of such instruments/policies is expected to manifest in a legal umbrella relating to the implementation and operationalization of incentive and funding schemes which may include guidance for funding mechanisms and provision of incentive schemes.
The formulation of National Targets was carried out in a participatory manner through (1) evaluation and mapping of suitability and implementation of the IBSAP 2003-2020; (2) as a whole, formulating action plans and programs for achieving national and global targets by updating data and information regarding the current status of Indonesian biodiversity and key documents such as the National Medium-Term Development Plan 2015-2019 and Government Work Plan in 2015 which are published by five Ministries/Government institutions, i.e. the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Forestry (since January 2015, both ministries have merged and became the Ministry of Environment and Forestry), the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI); and (3) consultations, as the results of identification of national targets along with the action plans and programs, with relevant biodiversity experts, biodiversity managers in Ministries/Agencies, Regional Governments, private sector/biodiversity actors, and civil society organizations through various workshops, seminars, focus group discussions during the period 2013 - 2014 at the national level and some in the regional level (KemenPPN/BAPPENAS, 2016, pp. 17-19).