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Sixth National Report

submitted on: 29 Jun 2019   last updated: 30 Jun 2019

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Egypt

01- NATIONAL TARGET 1: By 2030, PAs network secured and expanded to cover 17% of total terrestrial and inland water and at least 5% of coastal and marine representative areas, especially priority sites of particular importance for biodiversity and key ecological processes, and Effective management of PAs.

Challenges 

 The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:

  • Weak operational, administration and management system for protected areas
  • lack of proper updated PA management plans
  • Insufficient staff and financial resources.
  • Unsatisfactory law enforcement mechanisms for PAs.
  • Weak use of GIS in planning process
  • Lack of accurate information system on the number of fauna and flora species in Egypt
  • Limited Institutional Capacities for protected area
  • Absent proper criteria for defining critical habitats
  • lack of international cooperation to support PAs
  • Lack of regular monitoring of PAs
  • Limited environmental awareness, and lack of knowledge of current activities
  • Perceived conflict of interest between protected areas and local communities


Priorities

 

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:

  • Establish a new self-financed for conservation of biodiversity based on the current initiative by the Sustainable Finance of Protected Areas Project.
  • Establish coherent and resilient ecological network of PAs with especial attention to marine PAs.
  • Set programmes for the capacity building of staff members
  • Set up GIS-based national planning and evaluation system in accordance with the international standards.
  • Define and implement proper criteria for proper management of key biodiversity hotspots.
  • Establish standardized national monitoring systems within PAs based on the current monitoring efforts.
  • Increase close cooperation with international organizations at both technical and financial levels
  • Develop and implement CEPA strategy for PAs in accordance with the Global CEPA for NBSAPs.
  • Develop five years action plans that include required staff, equipment and infrastructure based on the actual financial gaps.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
11. Protected areas
At least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas are protected.
At least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas are protected
Areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services protected
Protected areas are ecologically representative
Protected areas are well connected and integrated into the wider landscape and seascape
 
12. Preventing extinctions
Extinction of known threatened species has been prevented
The conservation status of those species most in decline has been improved and sustained
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • 30 declared protected areas.
  • Existing protected areas coverage is 150,000 km2
  • 25% of sharks are endangered
  • Five species of turtles (out of seven) are endangered.
  • 14 PAs have management plans (8 of them are out of date).
  • 12 PAs passed through management effectiveness evaluation (all are out of date)
  • 3 PAs have business plans
  • Average annual income is LE 20 Million/year.
  • 4 international Ramsar sites
  • 34 international important areas (IBAs)
  • One World Heritage Site (WHS)
  • Two biosphere reserve
EN

02- NATIONAL TARGET 2: By 2020, develop and implement unified Egyptian methodology for the identification and monitoring of priority of all components of biodiversity according to the international standards to ensure the maintenance or rehabilitation of 50% of our most threatened species focusing on mammals and reptiles to a favorable conservation status.

Challenges 

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:

  • Current status of most species is out of date.
  • Limited data to evaluate the species against the Red List criteria.
  • Quotas have not been established for economically important plant and animal species.
  • Habitats host endangered species are under continued stress.
  • Over exploitation of resources.
  • Weak law enforcement of wildlife protection measures outside PAs.

Priorities  

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
Degradation and fragmentation are significantly reduced
6. Sustainable fisheries
All fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches
Fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems
The impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits, i.e. overfishing avoided
12. Preventing extinctions
The conservation status of those species most in decline has been improved and sustained
 
11. Protected areas
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • Limited data on endemic species distribution and abundance.
  • No official national Red List of species adopted by both Egyptian Scientific Institutions and IUCN.
  • Several national lists (butterflies – mammals – reptiles – birds – plants).
  • Primary, globally important and sensitive species communities have not been identified.
  • Update the limited information on important areas for biodiversity outside protected plant, bird & marine areas.
EN

03- NATIONAL TARGET 3: By 2030, National conservation and rehabilitation programmes of threatened and endemic species at risk are developed and implemented with measures to evaluate its implementation.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Limited mechanisms for re-introduction of captive/breeding animals into wild inside PAs.
•    No guidelines for establishment and operation of captive breeding centres.
•    Scarce data available about the produced generations in captivity.


Priorities

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Practice and adopt a national policy on ex-situ conservation.
•    Inspire ex-situ conservation through the establishment of natural history museum, gene banks, seed banks captive breeding,        zoos and public gardens.
•    Develop guidelines and mechanism for collection, maintenance, reproduction and reintroduction of plants and animal species in ex-situ programmes

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
The loss of all habitats is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero
Degradation and fragmentation are significantly reduced
6. Sustainable fisheries
All fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches
Recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species
7. Areas under sustainable management
Areas under agriculture are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity
Areas under aquaculture are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity
12. Preventing extinctions
 
6. Sustainable fisheries
7. Areas under sustainable management
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE 

  • Complementary ex-situ conservation measures for 17 animal and plant species (e.g. Arabian Oryx, Dorcas
    Gazelle, turtles, Acacia, etc.)
  • The exact baseline numbers for the above species are available in the 5th NR. 
EN

04- NATIONAL TARGET 4: By 2030, all IAS and pathways are identified and prioritized with measures in place to update and verify these pathways, with national programmes for 30% of identified pathways to control and manage IAS.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Insufficient information about number, trends and extent of invasive species in Egypt.
•    Limited information about the impacts of AIS on ecosystems, economy and human health.
•    Poor well-defined figures about human, financial and technical resources needed for combating AIS.
•    Weak institutional capacities in evaluating and preserving alien species.
•    Lack of national monitoring system for alien invasive species.
•    Shortage of adequate legislative tools to control introductions of alien invasive species.
•    Lack of preventive and remediation measures.


Priorities 

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Update and verify a list of alien invasive species and identify the most dangerous ones.
•    Monitor and control the expansion of key AIS with relevant authorities.
•    Reinforce quarantine measures to control intentional and unintentional introduction of AIS.
•    Launch and strengthen database of alien species
Institute a specialized unit to be concerned with AIS.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
9. Invasive Alien Species
Invasive alien species identified and prioritized
Pathways identified and prioritized
Priority species controlled or eradicated
Introduction and establishment of invasive alien species prevented
 
6. Sustainable fisheries
12. Preventing extinctions
13. Agricultural biodiversity
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • 137 alien plant species: causals (50 species), neutralizers (50 species), weeds (31 species), invaders (5 species) and transformer (1 species) (Ref. 5th NR),
  • 211 invasive species: aquatic plants (44 ssp.), terrestrial plants (40 ssp.), crustaceans (16 ssp.), insects (26 ssp.), spiders (1 ssp.), fish (29 ssp.), mammals (3 ssp.), birds (5 ssp.), reptiles (1 ssp.), amphibians (1 ssp.), viruses (17 ssp.), fungi (8 ssp.), bacteria (6 ssp.), nematodes (5 ssp.), mollusks (5 ssp.), echinoderms (1 ssp.), coelenterates (1 ssp.) and polychaetes (2 ssp.) (Ref. 5th NR),
  • No established programmes and weak implementation of AIS.
EN

05- NATIONAL TARGET 5: By 2020, Conservation of natural resources through the adoption of ecologically sustainable agricultural management practices.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Little attention is paid to the conservation of agrobiodiversity at the national level.
•    Lacking information on Egypt’s agrobiodiversity, its current status, associated products and traditions.
•    Import/export of genetic materials is not legislatively controlled.
•    Access to genetic materials is limited for both farmers and research programmes.
•    Economic incentives for the conservation of Egyptian agrobiodiversity are lacking.
•    Gaps exist in current legislation relating to agriculture and fishing.
•    The recovery of certain economically important fish species will require specific restoration efforts.

  • Specific mechanisms for fish stock restoration and protection have not been put in place.

Priorities

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Develop a national agrobiodiversity conservation program with relevant authorities in association with public organizations.
•    Improve capacity for the recovery and preservation of agrobiodiversity.
•    To create an agrobiodiversity and fisheries inventory.
•    To conduct research and conservation relating to the wild relatives of native domestic species and varieties.
Strengthen the capacity of relevant governmental agencies through (among other mechanisms) provision of specialized training.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
6. Sustainable fisheries
All fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches
Recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species
7. Areas under sustainable management
Areas under agriculture are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity
Areas under aquaculture are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • Currently total agriculture production exceeded one million ton annually and accounted for 13.2% of Egypt’s GDP (81.3 billion Egyptian pounds) and employed 32% of the total work force (more than 6 million jobs in agriculture and fisheries) (Ref. 5th NR).
  • Over 1.3 million tons, having a value of EGP 18 billion, were produced from marine and inland capture fisheries and brackish and freshwater aquaculture.
  • The total area of clean farming estimated roughly at 170,000 hectares (70 farms – 160 companies).
EN

06- NATIONAL TARGET 6: By 2018, apply CBD tools to monitor and control the impact of tourism on biodiversity, in particular in protected areas and vulnerable ecosystems.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:

  • Unsatisfactory regulation of ecotourism.• 
  • Low level of environmental awareness and ecological education.
  • Generalized deficiency in eco-tourism facilities.
  • Inadequate legislative framework and weak enforcement of eco-tourism legislation.
  • Fragile local communities and private sector participation in tourism management and investment in this sector.​


Priorities 

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:•    Sustainable management of ecosystems, its heritage and cultural resources based on best conservation and tourism models for the socio-economic wellbeing of the communities and other stakeholders.

•    Promote environmentally sound, sustainable tourism through “wise use”, ecotourism practices and technologies, in particular at South Sinai, Red Sea, and Western Desert.
•    Promote marine conservations and ecotourism in the business community and general public.
•    Promote desert safari to be ecologically reliable avoiding destruction and degradation of natural habitats, landscapes, cultural heritage sites and other resources.
•    Carry out surveys of areas suitable for eco-tourism, taking into account habitat vulnerability.
•    Reduce the impact of tourism activities on biodiversity and natural habitats.
•    Assess impacts of recreational activities in coastal areas.
•    Encourage eco-tourism in established and managed national parks.
•    Launch projects to establish infrastructure and management programs for marine tourism at key sites to mitigate negative environmental impacts
•    Set up guidelines and licensing procedures for the desert tourism industry.
•    Develop environmental education and awareness campaigns to generate awareness about desert conservation, ecotourism and encourage support for management program
•    Enhance the infrastructure and natural resource base of all protected areas to make them attractive destinations for tourists and tourism investors and to improve the working environment.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
4. Use of natural resources
Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve, or have implemented, plans for sustainable production and consumption
Have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits
 
3. Incentives
Incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity, eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize of avoid negative impacts
Positive incentives for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity developed and applied
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • Ecotourism in Egypt contributed to more than LE 96.8 billion (5.6% of total GDP) in 2013.
  • Tourism directly supported 1,251,000 jobs (5.1% of total employment) in Egypt in 2013.
  • 14.7 million Tourists in 2010.
  • 2.5 million Tourists visited PAs.
  • Tourism is estimated to have accounted for 20.5% of GDP in 2011, and it is a key that links Egyptian economic development with poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation (as described in the 5th NR).
EN

07- NATIONAL TARGET 7: By 2020, measures, including waste management plans and law enforcement, are in place to prevent and reduce the impact of pollution and waste on ecosystems, especially on wetlands and coastal and marine areas.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Weak enforcement of laws related to pollution.


Priorities

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Set up periodical national assessment of pollution within different ecosystems taking into account habitat vulnerability.
•    Establish criteria for monitoring of pollution inside protected areas and associated buffer zones.
•    Set Capacity building for research and development regarding combating pollution.
•    Undertake measures to minimize the impacts from local pollution instances such as oil spills, harmful algal blooms and hydrogen sulphide events at the coast
•    Update greenhouse gas inventory and take action to reduce Greenhouse Gas emissions.
•    Develop and implement Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) for all urban areas.
•    Develop and implement National Implementation Plans (NIPs) for the Stockholm and Basel Conventions.
•    Promote increased adoption of the "reduce, re-use and recycle" principle by residents, as well as the public and private sector. Bill on waste management and pollution control enacted and implemented.
•    Investigate and install alternative systems to make use of solid waste as an economic resource.
•    Develop, monitor and enforce minimum national standards on soil, water and air quality as well as occupational health.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
8. Pollution
Pollutants (of all types) has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity
Pollution from excess nutrients has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning
Multiple anthropogenic pressures on other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • Levels of pollutants concentration in the Nile River, northern lakes, inland water and marine ecosystems, are given in the 5th NR on 2014 (e.g. fertilizers, nutrients, pesticides, heavy metals, etc.).
  • Through large scale irrigation (particularly in North-Eastern Regions), pollution is damming and over-abstraction of groundwater (as described in the 5th NR).​
EN

08- NATIONAL TARGET 8: By 2025, negative effects of different sectoral policies (land-use planning, transport, energy, uncontrolled urbanization, etc.) on priority elements of biodiversity are minimized, and measures to correct these effects are applied through developing and implementing land use plans.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Damage of natural habitats because of desertification and land conversion.
•    Destruction of sensitive natural habitats caused by unplanned land reclamation.
•    Rapidly growing population with intensive use and pressure on natural resources particularly in the densely populated centres of the country.

Priorities

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Uphold environmentally friendly land use practices.
•    Enhance the implementation of land regulation, pricing and registration.
•    Minimize the uncontrolled urbanization and enhance land-zoning and land use management plans.
•    Develop mapping of soil degradation and desertification
•    Expand desertification control programs focusing on conservation of plant cover, reduction of soil erosion and watershed management.
•    Develop guidelines for strategic EIA for projects.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
2. Integration of biodiversity values
Biodiversity values integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies
Biodiversity values integrated into national and local planning processes
Biodiversity values incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate
Biodiversity values incorporated into reporting systems
 
3. Incentives
Incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity, eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize of avoid negative impacts
Positive incentives for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity developed and applied
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • Existing land use planning practices neglect the concept of health ecosystems and their thresholds.​
EN

09- NATIONAL TARGET 9: By 2021 rate of wetland loss reduced by 25% and water efficiency in irrigation improved by 50%.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Discharge of untreated or partially treated industrial and household waste water.
•    Discharge of agricultural drainage loaded with fertilizer, pesticide and herbicide residues.

Priorities

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Develop and communicate a science-based strategic process that identifies and prioritize wetlands important for biodiversity.
•    Capacity building for integrated management of wetlands.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
6. Sustainable fisheries
8. Pollution
Pollutants (of all types) has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity
Pollution from excess nutrients has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning
Multiple anthropogenic pressures on other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • Species diversity in Nile includes: 87 aquatic weeds, 100 zooplankton and 80 phytoplankton species (algae), 58 species of fish, 31 amphibian species and reptiles, and more than 200,000 bird species were recorded.
  • Status of species diversity in inland water and northern lakes is well reported in the 5th NR as a baseline.
EN

10- NATIONAL TARGET 10: By 2027, promote the implementation of good fishing practices in both Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea, favorable to fish protection and their habitats.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Over-exploitation, pollution and mismanagement of fishing in the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea and Egyptian Islands.
•    Over-fishing and lack of quality controls.
•    Damage of coral reefs and underwater habitats caused by bottom trawling, ornamental fishing
•    Weak conservation and sustainable use of marine and fishery resources.

Priorities

  There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Develop habitat mapping, and sensitivity analysis of the entire coastline.
•    Develop data base management systems of fishery resources based on stock assessment.
•    Prepare and implement pilot Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plans
•    Conserve key threatened coastal, coral relief, mangrove and marine species, habitats and ecosystems.
•    Re-plant/re-forest mangroves wherever feasible.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
6. Sustainable fisheries
All fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches
Recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species
The impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits, i.e. overfishing avoided
 
4. Use of natural resources
Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve, or have implemented, plans for sustainable production and consumption
Have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • Status of species diversity in marine ecosystems is well reported in the 5th NR as a baseline.
EN

11- NATIONAL TARGET 11: By 2020, Effective operational biosafety and ABS mechanism (measures and legislation) in place, in accordance with national laws and relevant international obligations and serving as national priorities relating to biodiversity.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    No legislation to control the national, or international movement of GMOs and give the rights to public to monitor these GMOs
•    There is little information on the short- or long-term impacts (ecological, social or economic) of GMOs
•    There is little information concerning alternative options to the use of GMOs
•    There is little capacity to assess the risks of biotechnology use
•    There is poor understanding of how to prevent the accidental release of GMOs in to the environment, and low capacity of how to respond in this situation
•    Lack of participation of local communities.

Priorities

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Systematic update of existing biotechnologies applications and uses.
•    Building the capacity of NCS as the entity responsible for the management and control of biosafety issues.
•    Build up National Biosafety Database and operational BCH based on the requirements of the CBD.
•    Normalize, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of LMOs.
•    Develop operational guidelines for issues related to biosafety within PAs.
•    Institute "polluter pays” legislation to recover rehabilitation costs of damaged resources affected by applications of GMOs.
•    Establishment of a national gene bank for all Egyptian species (economic and wild species).
•    Establishment of national framework for trading Egyptian’s native genetic resources and for pharmaceutical and biotechnological uses.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
13. Agricultural biodiversity
The genetic diversity of cultivated plants is maintained
The genetic diversity of farmed and domesticated animals is maintained
The genetic diversity of socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species is maintained
Strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding genetic diversity
16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
The Nagoya Protocol is in force
The Nagoya Protocol is operational, consistent with national legislation
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • No national legislation and mechanisms for controlling the transfer and use of GMOs.
  • No national legislation for ABS.
  • here is a national strategy for researches related to biotechnology developed by the Ministry of Scientific Researches.
  • Number of plant genetic resources recorded and preserved in the national gene bank as reported in the 5th NR.
  • There are some activities related to Biosafety legal frameworks implemented by the Biosaefty Project.
EN

12- NATIONAL TARGET 12: By 2020, to promote sustainable hunting and harvesting through adequate planning, restoration and protection of key biological resources.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Weak Institutional structures and financial resources to ensure the sustainable use of natural wildlife.
•    Current levels of illegal hunting and trade of wild species.
•    Current application of hunting and harvesting practices do not take into consideration principles of biodiversity conservation.
•    Hunting and harvesting on monetary value rather than their conservation status.
•    Smuggling and uncontrolled exporting of wildlife (fauna and flora) and threaten medicinal plants species

Priorities

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Conserve and management of wild species under the pressures of illegal hunting.
•    Develop effective tools for combating illegal hunting of wild animals (e.g. illegal birds hunting).
•    Improve the licensing procedure for hunting of migratory birds.
•    Define hunting quotas for migratory birds and conduct studies on hunting.
•    Understand and implement the concept of sustainable legal hunting.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
The loss of all habitats is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero
Degradation and fragmentation are significantly reduced
12. Preventing extinctions
The conservation status of those species most in decline has been improved and sustained
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • Egyptian baseline for wildlife trade & CMS global database in 2014.
  • Illegal wildlife trade regulations developed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR) are not enforced.
EN

13- NATIONAL TARGET 13: By 2030, Research and implement measures and strategies to strengthen local-level biodiversity resilience to desertification.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Degradation of irrigated farmland as a result of using low quality water in irrigation.
•    Degradation of rain-fed farmland (northern coastal belt and northern Sinai rainfall.
•    Degradation of range and (northern coastal belt) through overgrazing, degradation of plant cover.
•    Encroachment of sand formations, especially from the Western desert, on the Nile Valley land (southern Egypt).

Priorities

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Enhance synergies in efforts to address desertification/land degradation and drought.
•    Promote sustainable land management and contribute to land degradation neutrality
•    Share and implement measures for sustainable land management and the combating ofdesertification/land degradation
•    Establish policies and enabling environments for promoting and implementing solutions to combat desertification/land degradation and mitigate the effects of drought, including prevention, relief and recovery;

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning
Multiple anthropogenic pressures on other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning
 
5. Loss of habitats
8. Pollution
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
12. Preventing extinctions
13. Agricultural biodiversity
14. Essential ecosystem services
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • Mainstreaming of the status of desertification and synergies with climate and biodiversity conservation as given in the 5th NR.
EN

14- NATIONAL TARGET 14: By 2025, investigate and monitor all the effects of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Poor mechanisms to predict the impacts of climate change.
•    National assessment needs including financial assistance, technical and technology transfer, monitoring systems, education, and public awareness

Priorities

  There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Assess the impact of climate change on biodiversity in vulnerable areas and protected areas.
•    Conduct a feasibility assessment of the application of international mechanisms, suggested by UNFCCC (e.g. international carbon market), in Egypt.
•    Implement Climate Change Capacity Building Phase II.
•    Continue the implementation of Integrated Solar Thermal/Natural Gas Power Plant (e.g. Kuraymat).
•    Continue the implementation of the Energy Efficiency Improvement and Greenhouse (GHG) Reduction Projects.
•    Promotion of wind energy for electricity generation.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
The loss of all habitats is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero
Degradation and fragmentation are significantly reduced
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning
Multiple anthropogenic pressures on other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning
 
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
Relevant documents and information

BASELINE

  • Impacts and status of climate change as reported in the 5th NR.
EN

15- NATIONAL TARGET 15: By 2020, the knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared, transferred, and applied.

Challenges

The national biodiversity target had been selected due to the following challenges:
•    Poor integrated methods of biodiversity research & monitoring.
•    Integrated information exchange between responsible agencies is weak.

Priorities

There is a need to do the following as priority activities:
•    Strengthen the role of NCS in the field of biodiversity research & monitoring.
•    Improve & maintain a regularly up-dated biodiversity data base.
•    Provide oriented systematic reports for the general public about the status of biodiversity
•    Designate an entity (center responsible for biodiversity data analysis and for the development of recommendations from monitoring within the NCS.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
18. Traditional knowledge
Traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities are respected
Traditional knowledge, innovations and practices are fully integrated and reflected in implementation of the Convention
With the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities
19. Biodiversity knowledge
Knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are i