Sixth National Report
Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level
By 2025, all people in Botswana appreciate how biodiversity contributes to their lives, and are aware of steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably. ()
The target addresses depletion of natural resources leading to biodiversity loss.In Botswana there are knowledge gaps, as people are not fully aware of the benefits of biodiversity yet at the same time biodiversity has a value and contributes to their livelihoods.
There are attempts to make people aware of the value of biodiversity is anchored around the National Environmental Education Strategy and action plan which is in line with Agenda 21.Furthermore, to ratify agenda 2030 for sustainable development Botswana has developed an action plan for SDG 4 education for sustainable development which seeks to improve understanding of biodiversity from grass root level.
Botswana is a signatory to various conventions that encourage commemorations of environmental days to make people aware of biodiversity value;e.g International day of Biodiversity,World wetlands day through RAMSAR Convention,World's day to combat Desertification through United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification ,Ozone Day through United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and others.Furthermore, there are some awareness raising activities and environmental education programmes conducted by different sectors.
The process of developing the national target involved various stakeholders which was then adopted by National Biodiversity Authority (NBDA). The NBDA is mandated to oversee the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Botswana. The target is addresed in the implementation of the National Environmental Education Strategy and Action Plan (NEESAP).
By 2025 ,planning processes at all (District, urban and National) levels ,and National accounting and reporting systems in Botswana contain explicit actions to promote biodiversity conservation. ()
-the national accounting and reporting systems do not incorporate biodiversity valuation -national planning processes such as the National Development Plan 11 do not incorporate biodiversity conservation -relates to Aichi target 2 where biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local planning processes and incorporated into national accounting and reporting systems. -Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystems Services (WAVES) _Gaborone Declaration for Sustainability in Africa (GDSA) -The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB).
The measure is addressing fragmentation of environmental issues into the planning processes of key sectors.
By 2025,incentives and subsidies across all sectors are revised,designed or introduced to improve support for sustainable consumption and production and promote biodiversity conservation. ()
This target addresses the issue of lack of incentives for sustainable production and consumption across all sectors and relates to Aichi target 3 which calls for elimination, phasing out or reforming of incentives and subsidies that are harmful to biodiversity. Moreover, Aichi target 3 emphasizes that positive incentives are developed and applied. This will include the identification of those incentives which are harmful to biodiversity and opportunities to implement positive incentives.
Botswana is implementing the target through various subsidy programmes such as ;
- Integrated Support Programme for Arable Agriculture Development (ISPAAD) which includes provision of alternative fencing materials to reduce harvesting of poles,controlled application of agro-chemicals along the river bank, free soil testing to guide fetiliser application and appropriate technology to control pests (target-control 80% of quelea birds).
- Livestock Management and Infrastructure Development (LIMID) program which provides subsidized packages
to farmers such as ;smallstock,kraals,fodder support,borehole equipping,abbattoir for small scale poultry.
- Establishment of backyard forestry nurseries
- Provision of tree seedlings
- Issuance of permits for natural resources at differentiated values for commercial and subsistence categories.
- Provision of subsidized fire fighting equipments
- community engagements to remove weeds and invansive species through public works scheme.
- Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) incentives include-alternative livelihood options for communities residing within the catchment of natural resources.
By 2025, at all levels,policy and regulatory instruments are in place to ensure production and consumption by government,industry and society are kept within sustainable levels and safe ecological limits. ()
This target addresses the issue of unsustainable use or overexploitation of resources as main threats to biodiversity. Efforts are needed to ensure that the use of other natural resources is within sustainable limits. This is an integral part of the Vision of the Strategic Plan.
Botswana has policy and regulatory instruments in place to ensure production and consumption within sustainable levels and safe ecological limits;
- Agricultural resources conservation act
- Control of goods Act
- Plant protection regulations 2009
- Agro-chemicals Act
- Biosafety policy
Renewable energy strategy
Town and Country Planning Act 2013
- Herbage preservation act
- Community Based Natural Resources Management Policy 2006
- Environmental Assessment Act
By 2025,the rate of natural land conversion is at least halved,and degradation and fragmentation are significantly reduced. ()
The target addresses land degradation and loss of natural habitats and relates to Aichi target 5 which states that by 2020 ,the rate of all natural habitats,including forests,is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero ,and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.
By 2025,animal and plant resources in Botswana's wetlands,woodlands and savannas are sustainably managed using the ecosystem approach so that the impacts of harvesting remain within safe ecological limits. ()
Overexploitation is a severe pressure on wetlands, woodlands and savanna ecosystems in Botswana, and has led to the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem structure. Animal and plant resources need to be managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches. Botswana 's wetlands,woodlands and savannas are sustainably managed through implementation of ecosystem management plans some of which were formulated during the previous NBSAP (2007-2015) and are being implemented.
- Okavango Delta Management Plan
- Makgadikgadi Framework Management Plan
Kavango Zambezi Integrated Management plan (2013-2017)
Further there has been other initiatives and implemented with development partners which adapted ecosystem based approaches. They include the following;
- Sustainable Land Management
- Northern Botswana human wildlife coexistence
The implementation of the ecosystem management plans is highly decentralised. Most initiatives are being spearheaded by the communities within the relevant districts. There are structures put in place at district level which involves the committees consisting of the members of the relevant communities. These committees report to the overaching committee comprising of government, private sector and Non Governmental Organisations.
By 2025,wetlands,woodlands and savannas,particularly where used for use for range or crops,are managed sustainably ,ensuring conservation of biodiversity. ()
The sustainable use and management of wetlands, woodlands and savannas especially those used as rangelands or croplands is being addressed through various agricultural efforts;
- Practising Conservation agriculture
- Holistic rangeland management approaches
- To reduce the impact of deforestation, a subsidy is provided to farmers in the form of Cluster fencing.
- Implemented BioOkavango project - sustainable management of fish.
- Forestry initiatives.
By 2025,levels of air,water and soil pollution are maintained below levels that would threaten ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. ()
The target addresses the issues of pollution of ecosystems which then disturbs biodiversity existence. It relates to Aichi target 8 which states that pollution levels are brought to levels that are not harmful to the ecosystem.
Botswana has Environmental mananagent systems for water quality basic parameters in the Okavango, Chobe and Zambezi available and undertaken under project on systematic quality water management through targettted confluence within okavango river systems and its tributaries. Another control by Ministry of Agriculture is that there is no use of fertilisers along flood recession farming and Plant protection Dvision undertook study on the prevalence of POPs around the country.
By 2025,key alien invansive species are identified and controlled or eradicated, and pathways for their spread are managed to prevent further introduction and establishment. ()
Invasive alien species are one of the main direct drivers of biodiversity loss at all levels. In some ecosystems, such as many ecosystems, invasive alien species are the leading cause of biodiversity decline. Invasive alien species primarily affect biodiversity by preying on native species or competing with them for resources. This target focuses on two types of actions, the control or eradication of invasive alien species and the management of their introduction pathways. Botswana has developed an Invansive Alien Species Strategy for the management of terrestrial species and implementation of Aquatic Weeds Control Act for the management of aquatic weeds.
By 2025,the anthropogenic pressures on wetlands,woodlands and savannas are minimised,so that the impacts of climate change and other external perturbations on their ecological integrity and functioning can be managed. ()
To achieve the target, Botswana is undertaking the following;
- Declared the Okavango Delta as a Ramsar Site and listing it as World Heritage Site
- Regulated development to protect biodiversity hotspots areas such as the Okavango Delta Ramsar Site (ODRS) and Makgadikgadi wetland system
- The Sustainable Land Management (SLM) project developed good practices to reduce pressure from the livestock sector. Further provided alternative livelihoods skills such as firewood, charcoal, wood curving. Moreover, the project addresses bush encroachment.
By 2025, at least 25 percent of all Botswana's ecoregions,particularly the wetlands,rivers and pans in them,are effectively conserved through an ecosystem approach that integrates their management with that of the surrounding landscapes and involves resident communities. ()
The initiatives to implement the Target addresses the problem of mismanagement of wetlands by communities around them. The following management strategies had been developed using the ecosystem approach principles and their implementation in some area is led by communities;
Makgadikgadi Framework Management Plan (MFMP)
The overall aim of the plan is to improve peoples livelihoods through wise use of the wetlands natural resources. It is premised on several guiding principal;
- Holistic planning must prevail over largely sectoral planning, which causes many conflicts
- Development must benefit rural livelihoods and the environment
- Special attention is needed for vulnerable groups
- Local stakeholders should be involved in the preparation, planning and plan implementation
- The local population must develop must develop a sense of ownership of the plan
- implementation is the shared responsibility of the government, private sector and civil society
- Resource conservation and management benefits long term development opportunities and livelihoods
By 2025,the conservation status of species in Botswana that are listed as threatened has been improved or sustained. ()
This target addresses inadequate updated list of threatened species. The following initiatives are being implemented to conserve the listed threatened species.
- Updating of species inventory and monitoring of the species regeneration patterns including the translocation of species.
- Compensation programme as an incentive for people not to kill
- National Anti poaching strategy
- Species specific strategies and Action plan
- Management Oriented Monitoring System (MOMS) used for performance of fauna population
- Communities trained on use of MOMS tool
- Vulture poisoning action plan under Convention on Migratory Species implemented in partnership with Birdlife Botswana
- Bi lateral relations on protection of threatened species
Even though Action plans are being implemented for conservation initiatives example on vulture poisoning, cases are in the increase. This therefore calls for education and awareness raising activities for behavioral change, incentives for conservation and alternatives for predator management strategies.
By 2025,the genetic resources of traditional agricultural species and their wild relatives are protected and strategies for minimizing genetic erosion and safe guarding their genetic diversity have been implemented. ()
The target guards against depletion of genetic resources and ensures that proper measures are put to protect them.
The genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed or domesticated animals and of wild relatives is in decline as is the genetic diversity of other socio-economically and culturally valuable species. The genetic diversity which remains needs to be maintained and strategies need to be developed and implemented to minimize the current erosion of genetic diversity, particularly as it offers options for increasing the resilience of agricultural systems and for adaptation to changing conditions (including the escalating impacts of climate change).
The Department of Agricutural Research has traditional seeds held in the Gene Banks.
By 2025,ecosystem services are identified and restored or maintained in all Botswana's ecoregions and contribute to livelihood improvement through strategies that enable equitable access by all vulnerable groups including women,the poor and local communties. ()
- Identification of the ecosystem services in the development of the ecosystem management plans valuation reports
Allocation of quotas for flora and fauna offtake
- The implementation of the Community Based Natural Resources Management Policy on access and benefits through sustainable use
- Equitable price user strategy in the Water Accounts
- Concession areas
- Number of local communities engaged
- Number of communities benefiting from biological resources
- Number of poverty-biodiversity activities in the LED Strategies
By 2025,ecosystem integrity in all Botswana's ecoregions will be conserved through the adoption of ecosystem-level management approaches built around key ecological processes,so that they contribute to climate change mitigation and to combating desertification. ()
- An overview of current, past and future hydrological and meteorological conditions as well as remote sensing and environmental data from the Okavango Delta and its environs
- Ecosystem restoration projects in degraded lands;
- Forest Conservation Botswana initiatives
By 2025,the Nagoya protocol is domesticated and operational,and specific actions that ensure fair and equitable access and benefeit sharing are implemented. ()
- Undertaken legal and institutional review which recommended a stand alone legislation on the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol. The national legislative drafting processes has commenced and its at Draft Cabinet Memorandum stage.
- The development of the Pilot Bio cultural Community Protocols for Kgetsi ya tsie community trust dealing with Morula (Sclerocarya birrea) for cosmetic oils and Basadi Ba Matute a Mongongo dealing with Mongongo (Schinziophyton rautanenii) nuts for extracting cooking oil. This included capacity development initiatives.
- Development of consultation and communication strategy
- Development of the Draft Access and Benefit SharingTraining Manual.
Education and awareness on the Nagoya Protocol
- To satify the obligation of the Nagoya Protocol Article 13, Botswana has designated the ABS National Focal Point.
In existence is the Industrial Property Act of 2010 which is under Revision to align it to the provisions of the Nagoya Protocol on ABS. A situational analysis for the indigenous knowledge in Botswana was undertaken in the country. The Community Based Natural Resources Management Policy also have aspects of benefit sharing. Ministry of Youth Empowerment Sports Development and Culture implements the Intangible cultural heritage Act.
By 2015, Botswana's revised NBSAP has commenced implementation with the full support of all sectors and levels of governance. ()
This target addresses the issue of adaptation and implementation of the NBSAP components by all sectors and levels. Botswanas NBSAP was revised to align it to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets from which Botswana adapted its National Targets. The NBSAP was developed through a multistakehoder engagment and the revised NBSAP was approved in 2016 at a Ministerial level. The implementation of the NBSAP commenced in 2016 until 2025.
By 2025,the indigenous knowledge of Botswana's various communities as it relates to the conservation and sustainable use of biodversity in all the country's ecoregions,will be documented,assessed and legally protected,and-where relevant-integrated into programmes and projects supporting biodiversity conservation ()
The target addresses the challenges of protecting intellectual property of indigenous communities.Botswana implements the target through the following initiatives;
- implementation of industrial act (CIPA)
- documentation of indigenous knowledge (CESRIKI)
- Draft indigenous knowledge systems (DRST)
Botswana will be undertaking documentation and protection of traditional knowledge as an activity under the Global Access and Benefits Sharing project on strengthening human resources, legal frameworks and institutional capacities to implement Nagoya Protocol (2017-2019).