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Sixth National Report

  published:05 May 2019

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

United Republic of Tanzania

Target 1: By 2020 at least 60% of the population is aware of the importance of biodiversity and its impact on human well-being and socio-economic development of the country

Limitedknowledge, education, and information to the public regarding the importance of biodiversity and its impact to socio-economic development has a bearing effect on biodiversity.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Relevant documents and information

The target was developed through 

EN

Target 2: By 2020, Programmes for the valuation of biodiversity and payments for ecosystem services developed and integrated into national and local development strategies and plans.

Limited knowledge on the ecosystem and actual (monetary) value of  goods and services obtained as well as inadequate tangible benefit arising from conservation of biodiversity.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
 
2. Integration of biodiversity values
Relevant documents and information

The process and stakeholders involved during preparation of the national targets are included in NBSAP. This information and the provided link applies to all targets. 

EN

Target 3: By 2020, incentives harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed and positive incentives conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied.

Some policies and practices formulated to achieve development objectives may have harmful impacts to biodiversity. Hence there is a need to eliminate them and form positive incentives which enhance biodiversity conservation and sustainable uses.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
3. Incentives

Target 4; By 2020 investments in systems of production and consumption based on sustainable eco-friendly practices increased.

Unsustainable utilization of biodiversity resources in the production and consumption system has paused a significant challenge to biodiversity conservation.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
4. Use of natural resources

Target 5: By 2020, the rate of degradation and fragmentation of ecosystems and the loss of habitats is significantly reduced.

Tanzania has lost about 38% of its forest cover at an annual rate of about 400,000 hectares  and 61% of the land is threatened to degradation due to demographic and economic pressures. Various habitats are under serious threats of degradation therefore require protection.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats

Target 6: By 2020, at least three Legislations that govern exploitation of aquatic and associated terrestrial resources are reviewed and enforced

Over-exploitation of aquatic resources as well as illegal harvesting methods including dynamite fishing are among the causes of habitat degradation and biodiversity loss in Tanzania. This has resulted significant decline in ecosystem goods and services from the aquatic ecosystems. Redressing this challenge requires appropriate and effective legislation that promote conservation and sustainable use of aquatic resources.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
6. Sustainable fisheries

Target 7: By 2020, biodiversity and agriculture related policies, laws and strategies promote sustainable management of forest, agricultural and aquaculture ecosystems.

Unsustainable  agricultural practices and grazing pressure has led to fragmentation of natural habitats and consequent biodiversity loss in Tanzania. In order to address this challenge there is a need to strengthen implementation and enforcement of agriculture and biodiversity related laws  to enhance  sustainable management of forests, agriculture and aquaculture ecosystems.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
7. Areas under sustainable management

Target 8: By 2020, all forms of pollution from water and land-based activities are brought to levels that are non-detrimental to biodiversity ecosystem functions.

Pollution originating from domestic, industrial, agricultural and mining activities has been identified as one of the threats to  biodiversity in Tanzania. Preventing pollution and effects on biodiversity is a priority to the country given the current development prospects in both land, coastal and marine environment.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
8. Pollution

Target 9: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to prevent their introduction and establishment.

Spread of invasive alien species is one of major threats to biodiversity in Tanzania where about 75 invasive species have been reported country-wide.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
9. Invasive Alien Species

Target 10: By 2020, the multiple anthropogenic pressure on coral reef, and vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climatic change are minimized

The increase of anthropogenic pressure coupled with climate change on coral reefs and other vulnerable ecosystems has led to serious degradation of coral reefs and vulnerable ecosystems.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
10. Vulnerable ecosystems

Target 11: By 2020, area covered under marine protected areas be increased from 6.5% to 10% and effectively manage existing terrestrial and marine protected areas.

About 40% of the terrestrial area is set aside as wildlife and forestry protected areas, however only 6.5% of the marine area is protected leaving a substantive size of ecologically and biologically significant areas out of total protection. 

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
11. Protected areas

Target 12: By 2020, species that require special attention are identified and managed for long-term sustainability in a nationwide biodiversity assessment.

Due to anthropogenic activities and climate change impacts there has been an increase in threatened and endangered species in the country. In order to manage such species sustainably, more information or data are required.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
12. Preventing extinctions

Target 13:By 2020, Strategies to reduce genetic erosion developed and implemented to maintain genetic diversity of cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals and their wild relatives.

Recent studies demonstrate that genetic diversity is declining in natural ecosystems as well as in agricultural and livestock production systems. The extent of such decline and its overall impacts has not been adequately documented. Establishment of inventory and management plan of threatened genetic species of cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals including their wild relatives non timber forest products and establishment and strengthening of gene banks are considered as key steps towards protecting genetic diversity of species in the country.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
13. Agricultural biodiversity

Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, local and vulnerable communities.

Different ecosystems have continued to provide essential services to human being  and other life forms, however population increase and unsustainable human activities has led to deterioration of these ecosystems rendering them ineffective in providing the ecosystem services.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
14. Essential ecosystem services

Target 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.

Deforestation and forest degradation increases at alarming rates where 38% of its forest cover is lost at an annual rate of 400,000 ha. This trend jeopardizes the capacity of forest biodiversity to sequestrate carbon as mitigation and adaptation measures to climate change.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
 
15. Ecosystem resilience

Target 16: By 2020, Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits from utilization of biodiversity resource is in force and operational, consistent with national and international legislation

Establishment of a functional framework for ABS promotes sustainable use of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge while strengthening opportunities for access , fair and equitable sharing of benefits in Tanzania.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
 
16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS

Target 17: By 2016, Tanzania has adopted NBSAP as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementation with effective, participation.

Tanzania adopted the first NBSAP, 2001 as a policy instrument to address loss of biodiversity in the country. Following adoption of Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 Tanzania reviewed its NBSAP (2015 - 2020) to reflect the strategic plan and its Aichi Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
17. NBSAPs

Target 18: By 2020, traditional knowledge, innovation and practices relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity respected and safeguarded.

Being a society of mixed tribes and ethnic groups, Tanzania is well endowed with valuable traditional knowledge and innovations that can complement biodiversity conservation measures. However such use of Traditional knowledge and innovation are not realized and utilized to its full potentials.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
18. Traditional knowledge

Target 19: By 2020, significant increase in the contribution of knowledge, technology and scientifically based information generated and shared.

Limited capacity for research, technology and generation of accurate information and data on biodiversity limit its contribution in planning and decision making process. The need to increase knowledge base on biodiversity is a matter of necessity to enhance conservation of biodiversity.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
19. Biodiversity knowledge

Target 20: By 2020, financial resources in support of biodiversity programmes significantly increased

Inadequate financial resources for biodiversity component is one of the challenges  to a successful implementation of various initiatives generated to halting biodiversity loss in the country.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
20. Resource mobilization

Section II. Implementation measures, their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets

1. Policy formulation and Review

Tanzania has taken several initiatives to ensure biodiversity conservation. Among these initiatives are the development and review of various sectoral Policies to mainstream biodiversity issues in the plans and programs. Formulated Policies include National Fisheries Policy 2015 and the policies under review include National Environmental Policy, Forest Policy, Education and training Policy, National Water Policy and Land Policy. The review of these policies intends to provide comprehensive and clear guidance on matters related to Biodiversity conservation in the country and therefore contribute to the implementation of NBSAP.

EN
Target 6: By 2020, at least three Legislations that govern exploitation of aquatic and associated terrestrial resources are reviewed and enforced
Target 7: By 2020, biodiversity and agriculture related policies, laws and strategies promote sustainable management of forest, agricultural and aquaculture ecosystems.
Measure taken has been partially effective

The measure is partially effective due to inadequate cross-sectoral Policy planning coupled with inadequate  evidence based environmental information & data for informed decision making.

Some methodologies used include Monitoring and evaluation regimes, stakeholders consultation and midterm reviews.


EN

        Inadequate technology, inadequate financial resources, Low level of public awareness,   Limited institutional capacity and inadequate information access and sharing.

EN


2. Strategies

Several Strategies and action plans have been developed and implemented aimed at conservation of biodiversity. These strategies and action plan includes; Strategy and Action Plan on Invasive Alien Species (2019 - 2029), the revised National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), the revised National Strategy on urgent Actions for Conservation of Land and water Catchments and the revised National Strategy for Conservation of Marine coastal environment, Lakes, rivers and dams. National Anti-poaching Strategy 2014, Biosphere Reserve Strategy 2019, Species Management Action Plan 2018, Agriculture Climate Resilience Plan 2014, Integrated Pest Management Plan 2014, Fisheries Sector Development Strategy 2018, Agricultural Sector Development Strategy 2016, Deep Sea Fishing Strategy 2015 and National Aquaculture Development Strategy 2018. These strategies and action plan facilitated  the implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP).

EN
Target 12: By 2020, species that require special attention are identified and managed for long-term sustainability in a nationwide biodiversity assessment.
Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, local and vulnerable communities.
Target 7: By 2020, biodiversity and agriculture related policies, laws and strategies promote sustainable management of forest, agricultural and aquaculture ecosystems.
Target 9: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to prevent their introduction and establishment.