Sixth National Report
Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level
Target 1: By 2020 at least 60% of the population is aware of the importance of biodiversity and its impact on human well-being and socio-economic development of the country ()
Limitedknowledge, education, and information to the public regarding the importance of biodiversity and its impact to socio-economic development has a bearing effect on biodiversity.
The target was developed through
Target 2: By 2020, Programmes for the valuation of biodiversity and payments for ecosystem services developed and integrated into national and local development strategies and plans. ()
Limited knowledge on the ecosystem and actual (monetary) value of goods and services obtained as well as inadequate tangible benefit arising from conservation of biodiversity.
The process and stakeholders involved during preparation of the national targets are included in NBSAP. This information and the provided link applies to all targets.
Target 3: By 2020, incentives harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed and positive incentives conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied. ()
Some policies and practices formulated to achieve development objectives may have harmful impacts to biodiversity. Hence there is a need to eliminate them and form positive incentives which enhance biodiversity conservation and sustainable uses.
Target 4; By 2020 investments in systems of production and consumption based on sustainable eco-friendly practices increased. ()
Unsustainable utilization of biodiversity resources in the production and consumption system has paused a significant challenge to biodiversity conservation.
Target 5: By 2020, the rate of degradation and fragmentation of ecosystems and the loss of habitats is significantly reduced. ()
Target 6: By 2020, at least three Legislations that govern exploitation of aquatic and associated terrestrial resources are reviewed and enforced ()
Over-exploitation of aquatic resources as well as illegal harvesting methods including dynamite fishing are among the causes of habitat degradation and biodiversity loss in Tanzania. This has resulted significant decline in ecosystem goods and services from the aquatic ecosystems. Redressing this challenge requires appropriate and effective legislation that promote conservation and sustainable use of aquatic resources.
Target 7: By 2020, biodiversity and agriculture related policies, laws and strategies promote sustainable management of forest, agricultural and aquaculture ecosystems. ()
Unsustainable agricultural practices and grazing pressure has led to fragmentation of natural habitats and consequent biodiversity loss in Tanzania. In order to address this challenge there is a need to strengthen implementation and enforcement of agriculture and biodiversity related laws to enhance sustainable management of forests, agriculture and aquaculture ecosystems.
Target 8: By 2020, all forms of pollution from water and land-based activities are brought to levels that are non-detrimental to biodiversity ecosystem functions. ()
Pollution originating from domestic, industrial, agricultural and mining activities has been identified as one of the threats to biodiversity in Tanzania. Preventing pollution and effects on biodiversity is a priority to the country given the current development prospects in both land, coastal and marine environment.
Target 9: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to prevent their introduction and establishment. ()
Spread of invasive alien species is one of major threats to biodiversity in Tanzania where about 75 invasive species have been reported country-wide.
Target 10: By 2020, the multiple anthropogenic pressure on coral reef, and vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climatic change are minimized ()
The increase of anthropogenic pressure coupled with climate change on coral reefs and other vulnerable ecosystems has led to serious degradation of coral reefs and vulnerable ecosystems.
Target 11: By 2020, area covered under marine protected areas be increased from 6.5% to 10% and effectively manage existing terrestrial and marine protected areas. ()
About 40% of the terrestrial area is set aside as wildlife and forestry protected areas, however only 6.5% of the marine area is protected leaving a substantive size of ecologically and biologically significant areas out of total protection.
Target 12: By 2020, species that require special attention are identified and managed for long-term sustainability in a nationwide biodiversity assessment. ()
Due to anthropogenic activities and climate change impacts there has been an increase in threatened and endangered species in the country. In order to manage such species sustainably, more information or data are required.
Target 13:By 2020, Strategies to reduce genetic erosion developed and implemented to maintain genetic diversity of cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals and their wild relatives. ()
Recent studies demonstrate that genetic diversity is declining in natural ecosystems as well as in agricultural and livestock production systems. The extent of such decline and its overall impacts has not been adequately documented. Establishment of inventory and management plan of threatened genetic species of cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals including their wild relatives non timber forest products and establishment and strengthening of gene banks are considered as key steps towards protecting genetic diversity of species in the country.
Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, local and vulnerable communities. ()
Different ecosystems have continued to provide essential services to human being and other life forms, however population increase and unsustainable human activities has led to deterioration of these ecosystems rendering them ineffective in providing the ecosystem services.
Target 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification. ()
Deforestation and forest degradation increases at alarming rates where 38% of its forest cover is lost at an annual rate of 400,000 ha. This trend jeopardizes the capacity of forest biodiversity to sequestrate carbon as mitigation and adaptation measures to climate change.
Target 16: By 2020, Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits from utilization of biodiversity resource is in force and operational, consistent with national and international legislation ()
Establishment of a functional framework for ABS promotes sustainable use of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge while strengthening opportunities for access , fair and equitable sharing of benefits in Tanzania.
Target 17: By 2016, Tanzania has adopted NBSAP as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementation with effective, participation. ()
Tanzania adopted the first NBSAP, 2001 as a policy instrument to address loss of biodiversity in the country. Following adoption of Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 Tanzania reviewed its NBSAP (2015 - 2020) to reflect the strategic plan and its Aichi Targets.
Target 18: By 2020, traditional knowledge, innovation and practices relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity respected and safeguarded. ()
Being a society of mixed tribes and ethnic groups, Tanzania is well endowed with valuable traditional knowledge and innovations that can complement biodiversity conservation measures. However such use of Traditional knowledge and innovation are not realized and utilized to its full potentials.
Target 19: By 2020, significant increase in the contribution of knowledge, technology and scientifically based information generated and shared. ()
Limited capacity for research, technology and generation of accurate information and data on biodiversity limit its contribution in planning and decision making process. The need to increase knowledge base on biodiversity is a matter of necessity to enhance conservation of biodiversity.
Target 20: By 2020, financial resources in support of biodiversity programmes significantly increased ()
Inadequate financial resources for biodiversity component is one of the challenges to a successful implementation of various initiatives generated to halting biodiversity loss in the country.
Section II. Implementation measures, their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets
1. Policy formulation and Review
Tanzania has taken several initiatives to ensure biodiversity conservation. Among these initiatives are the development and review of various sectoral Policies to mainstream biodiversity issues in the plans and programs. Formulated Policies include National Fisheries Policy 2015 and the policies under review include National Environmental Policy, Forest Policy, Education and training Policy, National Water Policy and Land Policy. The review of these policies intends to provide comprehensive and clear guidance on matters related to Biodiversity conservation in the country and therefore contribute to the implementation of NBSAP.
The measure is partially effective due to inadequate cross-sectoral Policy planning coupled with inadequate evidence based environmental information & data for informed decision making.
Some methodologies used include Monitoring and evaluation regimes, stakeholders consultation and midterm reviews.
Inadequate technology, inadequate financial resources, Low level of public awareness, Limited institutional capacity and inadequate information access and sharing.
Several Strategies and action plans have been developed and implemented aimed at conservation of biodiversity. These strategies and action plan includes; Strategy and Action Plan on Invasive Alien Species (2019 - 2029), the revised National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), the revised National Strategy on urgent Actions for Conservation of Land and water Catchments and the revised National Strategy for Conservation of Marine coastal environment, Lakes, rivers and dams. National Anti-poaching Strategy 2014, Biosphere Reserve Strategy 2019, Species Management Action Plan 2018, Agriculture Climate Resilience Plan 2014, Integrated Pest Management Plan 2014, Fisheries Sector Development Strategy 2018, Agricultural Sector Development Strategy 2016, Deep Sea Fishing Strategy 2015 and National Aquaculture Development Strategy 2018. These strategies and action plan facilitated the implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP).