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Sixth National Report

  published:29 Mar 2019

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Sweden

Specification: Habitats and species that occur naturally in Sweden have a favourable conservation status and the status of threatened species has improved, and sufficient genetic variation is maintained within and between populations.

The environmental status stipulated in the target is required in order to halt the loss of biological diversity. This means that species should have viable populations within their natural ranges, that suitable habitats as well as routes of dispersal should be secured, so that genetic variability is maintained.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
8. Pollution
12. Preventing extinctions
13. Agricultural biodiversity
Relevant documents and information

This is a specification of the Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life. This EQO presents a comprehensive objective relating to biological diversity and facilitates references to international agreements such as in particular the CBD. There is a great degree of overlap between the EQO:s relating to the biological diversity of various ecosystem types (fully reported in Sweden's 5th National Report). Biological diversity is also included in the objectives on Zero Eutrophication (specification: Atmospheric deposition and land-use activities do not result in ecosystems showing any substantial long-term harmful effects of eutrophying substances in any part of Sweden) and A Non-Toxic Environment (specification: Total exposure to chemical substances though all routes is harmless for people as well as for biological diversity). Measures under these two EQO:s are not reported in section II as they are not included in Sweden's NBSAP as such, but summarised in section IV.

This specification is one among several specifications to the Environmental Quality Objectives that were adopted by Parliament in 1999 (Government Bill 1997/98:145) and 2004 (Government Bill 2004/05:150). The specification was developed on the basis of a proposal by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency on commission from the government. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier) outlines how milestone targets and their associated implementation measures contribute to the achievement of the Environmental Quality Objectives, with their specifications.

EN

Specification: The increased risk of extinction indicated by climate scenarios is reduced regarding species and habitats facing the greatest risk of being affected adversely by climate change.

See rationale for the targets on favorable conservation status, resilient ecosystems, and green infrastructure.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Relevant documents and information

This is a specification of the Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life. This EQO presents a comprehensive objective relating to biological diversity and facilitates references to international agreements such as in particular the CBD. There is a great degree of overlap between the EQO:s relating to the biological diversity of various ecosystem types (fully reported in Sweden's 5th National Report).

This specification is one among several specifications to the Environmental Quality Objectives that were adopted by Parliament in 1999 (Government Bill 1997/98:145) and 2004 (Government Bill 2004/05:150). The specification was developed on the basis of a proposal by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency on commission from the government. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier) outlines how milestone targets and their associated implementation measures contribute to the achievement of the Environmental Quality Objectives, with their specifications.

EN

Specification: Ecosystems have the ability to cope with disturbances and adapt to change, such as a changed climate, so that they can continue to provide ecosystem services and contribute to combating climate change and its effects.

The capacity of ecosystems to generate ecosystem services in the long term depends on their resilience. In order to secure important functions and ecosystem services such as they are described within the Environmental Quality Objectives related to different habitat types, a favorable conservation status needs to be maintained or achieved for a diversity of species and habitat types, while processes and structures that are important for ecosystem functions need to occur in a certain amount. Non-reversible, large scale changes of ecosystems, need to be avoided. This means that boundaries for use and disturbance must not be surpassed.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
2. Integration of biodiversity values
4. Use of natural resources
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
Relevant documents and information

This is a specification of the Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life. This EQO presents a comprehensive objective relating to biological diversity and facilitates references to international agreements such as in particular the CBD. There is a great degree of overlap between the EQO:s relating to the biological diversity of various ecosystem types (fully reported in Sweden's 5th National Report).

This specification is one among several specifications to the Environmental Quality Objectives that were adopted by Parliament in 1999 (Government Bill 1997/98:145) and 2004 (Government Bill 2004/05:150). The specification was developed on the basis of a proposal by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency on commission from the government. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier) outlines how milestone targets and their associated implementation measures contribute to the achievement of the Environmental Quality Objectives, with their specifications.

EN

Specification: A functioning green infrastructure is in place and maintained through a combination of protection, restoration and sustainable use within sectors, so that fragmentation of populations and habitats does not occur and the biological diversity the biological diversity of the landscape is preserved.

Dispersal is of critical importance for the preservation of biological diversity and ecosystem resilience in the light of climate change and other stresses. Barriers and disturbance that hinder dispersal means that the functions of the landscape are weakened. To achieve well structured landscapes, a combination of protection, restoration and sustainable use within sectors is needed, which taken together support a functioning green infrastructure. This also secures the production of ecosystem services. Hunting and fishing needs to allow the long term survival of populations, while game animals must not negatively affect biological diversity and ecosystem structure and function.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
2. Integration of biodiversity values
7. Areas under sustainable management
11. Protected areas
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
Relevant documents and information

This is a specification of the Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life. This EQO presents a comprehensive objective relating to biological diversity and facilitates references to international agreements such as in particular the CBD. There is a great degree of overlap between the EQO:s relating to the biological diversity of various ecosystem types (fully reported in Sweden's 5th National Report).

This specification is one among several specifications to the Environmental Quality Objectives that were adopted by Parliament in 1999 (Government Bill 1997/98:145) and 2004 (Government Bill 2004/05:150). The specification was developed on the basis of a proposal by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency on commission from the government. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier) outlines how milestone targets and their associated implementation measures contribute to the achievement of the Environmental Quality Objectives, with their specifications.

EN

Specification: Genetically modified organisms that can threaten biological diversity are not introduced

Deliberate introduction of organisms into the environment need to be preceded by risk analysis. Preventive measures must be taken to prevent involuntary introductio ns. See also the rationale for the milestone target on invasive alien species. For further information on Swedens work with GMO's see the Third National Report on the implementation of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Relevant to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
EN
Relevant documents and information

This is a specification of the Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life. This EQO presents a comprehensive objective relating to biological diversity and facilitates references to international agreements such as in particular the CBD. There is a great degree of overlap between the EQO:s relating to the biological diversity of various ecosystem types (fully reported in Sweden's 5th National Report).

This specification is one among several specifications to the Environmental Quality Objectives that were adopted by Parliament in 1999 (Government Bill 1997/98:145) and 2004 (Government Bill 2004/05:150). The specification was developed on the basis of a proposal by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency on commission from the government. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier) outlines how milestone targets and their associated implementation measures contribute to the achievement of the Environmental Quality Objectives, with their specifications.

EN

Specification: Alien species and genotypes do not threaten biological diversity

Deliberate introduction of organisms into the environment need to be preceded by risk analysis. Preventive measures must be taken to prevent involuntary introductions. See also the rationale for the milestone target on invasive alien species.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
9. Invasive Alien Species
Relevant documents and information

This is a specification of the Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life. This EQO presents a comprehensive objective relating to biological diversity and facilitates references to international agreements such as in particular the CBD. There is a great degree of overlap between the EQO:s relating to the biological diversity of various ecosystem types (fully reported in Sweden's 5th National Report).

This specification is one among several specifications to the Environmental Quality Objectives that were adopted by Parliament in 1999 (Government Bill 1997/98:145) and 2004 (Government Bill 2004/05:150). The specification was developed on the basis of a proposal by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency on commission from the government. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier) outlines how milestone targets and their associated implementation measures contribute to the achievement of the Environmental Quality Objectives, with their specifications.

EN

Specification: The biological cultural heritage is managed so that important natural and cultural values are preserved and the conditions for continued preservation and development of these values are in place.

The biological cultural heritage is part of the biological diversity. It is composed of ecosystems, habitat types and species that have been formed, developed or supported by human utilization of the landscape. A particular emphasis is given to traditional use and knowledge within agriculture, including in coastal ecosystems, and in mountainous areas. A varied agricultural landscape with natural and cultural values depends to a large extent on traditional land management practices. Securing these values is important for maintaining the attractiveness of the agricultural landscape and for recreation. The genetic diversity of domesticated species are part of the biological cultural heritage and their wild relatives are a resource for the long term development and breeding of these species. Many cultuvated plant species and domesticated animal breeds that have been traditionally used constitute an important gene pool that risks being lost in the absence of dedicated measures, thereby risking the fulfilment of potential future needs relating to such traits that are neglected in commercial plant and animal breeding. Cultural environment values in the mountain areas that bears traces of human influence should have a long term protection against exploitation. The influence from traditional reindeer herding among the Sami people is especially highlighted in this context. Local and traditional knowledge pertaining to historical and present utilization of land, biological resources and biological cultural heritage should be documented and used for identification, selection, restoration and management of valuable mountain areas. Humanity's role as an ecological factor should be clarified. Long term survival and development requires continued use and conservation management. 

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
2. Integration of biodiversity values
6. Sustainable fisheries
7. Areas under sustainable management
13. Agricultural biodiversity
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
18. Traditional knowledge
Relevant documents and information

This is a specification of the Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life. This EQO presents a comprehensive objective relating to biological diversity and facilitates references to international agreements such as in particular the CBD. There is a great degree of overlap between the EQO:s relating to the biological diversity of various ecosystem types (fully reported in Sweden's 5th National Report).

It summarizes specifications pertaining to biological cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and customary sustainable use related to relevant habitat types among the Environmental Quality Objectives, where a particular emphasis is given to traditional use and knowledge within agriculture, including in coastal ecosystems, and in mountainous areas.

This specification is one among several specifications to the Environmental Quality Objectives that were adopted by Parliament in 1999 (Government Bill 1997/98:145) and 2004 (Government Bill 2004/05:150). The specification was developed on the basis of a proposal by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency on commission from the government. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier) outlines how milestone targets and their associated implementation measures contribute to the achievement of the Environmental Quality Objectives, with their specifications.

EN

Specification: Natural environments near urban areas that are valuable for outdoor recreation, cultural heritage and biological diversity are safeguarded and maintained, and are accessible to the public.

Access to natural and cultural environments with a rich fauna and flora contributes to awareness of the value of biological diversity and to recreation and health. Urban areas are particularly important in this respect.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
5. Loss of habitats
11. Protected areas
14. Essential ecosystem services
Relevant documents and information

This is a specification of the Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life. This EQO presents a comprehensive objective relating to biological diversity and facilitates references to international agreements such as in particular the CBD. There is a great degree of overlap between the EQO:s relating to the biological diversity of various ecosystem types (fully reported in Sweden's 5th National Report).

This specification is one among several specifications to the Environmental Quality Objectives that were adopted by Parliament in 1999 (Government Bill 1997/98:145) and 2004 (Government Bill 2004/05:150). The specification was developed on the basis of a proposal by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency on commission from the government. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier) outlines how milestone targets and their associated implementation measures contribute to the achievement of the Environmental Quality Objectives, with their specifications.

EN

Milestone target on ecosystem services and resilience: Important ecosystem services and factors that affect their maintenance are to be identified and systematised by 2013.

To enhance resilience of ecosystems and secure important ecosystem services is of crucial importance for national work to achieve the Swedish Generational goal and several of the national Environmental Quality Objectives, and also of central importance for climate change adaptation. The milestone target should be seen as a first step towards building the basis for securing a well-functioning green infrastructure and securing ecosystem services in the short and long term. At the same time, it provides an important basis for achieving the milestone target on the importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
 
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
2. Integration of biodiversity values
3. Incentives
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
18. Traditional knowledge
19. Biodiversity knowledge
20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

This target was formulated on the basis of a proposal by the Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, a parliamentary committee that was tasked with developing strategies and milestone targets for the national Environmental Quality Objectives. It was adopted by the government in 2012, following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities (Ds 2012:23). The target was formally included in the NBSAP that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier).

EN

Milestone target on the importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services: By 2018, the importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services are to be generally known and integrated into economic positions, political considerations and other decisions in society where it is relevant and reasonable to do so.

In order to achieve the Environmental Quality Objectives related to biological diversity, an increased awareness is required of the importance of biological diversity and ecosystem services for human well-being. Incentive measures may need to be developed that take account of the economic values of ecosystem services. Their purpose would be to create mechanisms that benefit the capacity of ecosystems to deliver services and that provides incentives for a long-term sustainable management. By determining the economic value of ecsosystem services, and integrating these values in economic positions, political considerations and other decisions in society, we strengthen our capacity to sustainably use the ecosystems and enhance their capacity in the long term. Many ecosystem services lack a defined price, and as a consequence deterioration of ecosystem services are treated as so called external effects and are not measured in economic terms. This may lead to a situation where decisions and planning will be sub-optimal in terms of societal welfare and well-being. Loss of biodiversity and deterioration of ecosystem services may lead to future costs related to replacement or restoration. Estimations of the cost of not counteracting such losses can provide a valuable basis for judging which conservation measures are motivated. Enhanced knowledge about the economic values of ecosystem services will also contribute to the awareness of the importance of conserving and sustainably use biological diversity, which in turn enhances the conditions for securing biological diversity for the future. The methods being developed should be made available for the education system, thereby promoting and enhanced public awareness.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
2. Integration of biodiversity values
3. Incentives
7. Areas under sustainable management
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
18. Traditional knowledge
19. Biodiversity knowledge
20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

This target was formulated on the basis of a proposal by the Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, a parliamentary committee that was tasked with developing strategies and milestone targets for the national Environmental Quality Objectives. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The target was formally included in the NBSAP that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier).

EN

Milestone target on threatened species and habitat types: Action plans to achieve favourable conservation status for those threatened species and habitat types that cannot be safeguarded through ongoing measures for sustainable use of land and water and existing site protection are to be implemented, or in the process of being implemented, by 2015.

The Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life means that the conservation status of naturally occurring habitat types and species is favourable and that the status of threatened species has been improved and sufficient genetic variation is being maintained within and between populations. Sweden shall also, in accordance with European Union directives and international agreements, preserve threatened species and habitat types. It is important to coordinate the work with corresponding processes in other countries. Transboundary aspects need to be considered which demands cooperation with other countries. An improvement of the status of threatened species and habitat types needs to be achieved in all larger ecosystems and for all groups of species and habitat types. Threatened species and habitat types is primarily being preserved through sustainable use and management of land and water, which includes protection of particularly valuable areas. For certain species, with specific requirements, there is however a need for more targeted conservation actions. The work with species action plans will be further developed, strengthened and broadened.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
12. Preventing extinctions
Relevant documents and information

This target was formulated on the basis of a proposal by the Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, a parliamentary committee that was tasked with developing strategies and milestone targets for the national Environmental Quality Objectives. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The target was formally included in the NBSAP that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier).

EN

Milestone target on invasive alien species: The impact of invasive alien species in Sweden as regards biodiversity, and their socio-economic impact on health etc., are to be assessed and prioritised measures to control them are to be initiated by 2015.

In order to achieve the Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life, and other objectives concerning management of ecosystems, alien species that can threaten human health or decrease biological diversity must not be introduced. Several species have nevertheless already been introduced, and these pose a threat to biological diversity or human health, or are causing othere socioeconomic damages. The milestone target corresponds to an immediate need for information and priorisation. It is important that Sweden promotes the creation of good conditions for dealing with the problem in the most efficient way, and also promotes an active engagement of the European Union in international cooperation activities. In order to reach the Aichi target on invasive alien species, eradication measures must be initiated by 2015 at the latest. In cases where it is already established that there are great dangers with particular species, measures should be taken immediately to prevent risks related to biological diversity, health or socioeconomic values.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
9. Invasive Alien Species
Relevant documents and information

This target was formulated on the basis of a proposal by the Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, a parliamentary committee that was tasked with developing strategies and milestone targets for the national Environmental Quality Objectives. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The target was formally included in the NBSAP that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier).

EN

Milestone target on knowledge about genetic diversity: Mapping and monitoring of genetic diversity are to be initiated by 2020.

The Environmental Quality Objective A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life means, inter alia, that the conservation status of naturally occurring habitat types and species is favourable and that the status of threatened species has been improved and sufficient genetic variation is being maintained within and between populations. In addition, the objective A Varied Agricultural Landscape means that the genetic resources of traditional livestock breeds and cultivated plants are preserved in a sustainable way. The genetic diversity of domesticated species is also a part of the biocultural heritage, and wild relatives of these species constitute a resource for their long term breeding and development. Genetic diversity is of importance for maintaining viable populations of species and ensure ecosystem resilience. Therefore, it is important to enhance knowledge about the genetic diversity within fishery, agriculture, forestry and wild animals and plants in order to maintain a broad genetic basis.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
13. Agricultural biodiversity
19. Biodiversity knowledge
Relevant documents and information

This target was formulated on the basis of a proposal by the Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, a parliamentary committee that was tasked with developing strategies and milestone targets for the national Environmental Quality Objectives. It was adopted by the government in 2012 (Ds 2012:23), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The target was formally included in the NBSAP that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier). It was to be reached by 2015. However, this was not achieved and in 2017, the Government prolonged the target to 2020, in anticipation of reports from the responsible agencies on their activities in the area of mapping of genetic diversity.

EN

Milestone target on a holistic approach to the use of land: Coordination in central government administration has been strengthened by 2016 so that the holistic approach to the use of land has increased.

A holistic perspective on the landscape is required for achieving a long term sustainable use of land. The Cross-Party Committe on Environmental Objectives has concluded that the current national administration makes it difficult to apply such a perspective, which can cause problems for society at large. The difficulties stem from, inter alia, the fact that issues of importance for the use of land are divided among government authorities and local municpalities. When land-use issues are handled within separate sectors there is a risk that decisions do not take due account of issues and goals of other sectors. According to the Committee, a more pronounced holistic perspective is needed in order to achieve a long term sustainable use of land, and for reaching the Environmental Quality Objectives and other societal goals. The government shares this conclusion and is of the opinion that the need for a coordinated national administration will increase even more in the future.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
7. Areas under sustainable management
14. Essential ecosystem services
Relevant documents and information

This target was formulated on the basis of a proposal by the Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, a parliamentary committee that was tasked with developing strategies and milestone targets for the national Environmental Quality Objectives. It was adopted by the government in 2014, following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities (M2014/593/Nm). The target was formally included in the NBSAP that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier).

EN

Milestone target on the protection of land areas, freshwater areas and marine areas: at least 20 per cent of Sweden’s land and freshwater areas, and 10 per cent of Sweden’s marine areas, by 2020 contribute to achieving national and international biodiversity targets. This will take place through protection or other conservation in areas of particular importance to biodiversity or ecosystem services. This conservation will take place with ecologically representative and well-connected systems, which include reserves, other effective area-based protective measures or environmentally sound usage. These systems are to be well integrated in the surrounding landscape and managed in an efficient and inclusive way. Between 2012 and 2020, at least 1 142 000 additional hectares are to be protected as follows: - High nature value forests are to be protected from tree-felling. This will take place through an increase in formally protected forest land of approximately 150 000 hectares of high nature value forests in need of formal protection below the montane forest zone. - Voluntary set-asides by the forestry industry should have increased by approximately 200 000 hectares to a total of 1 450 000 hectares of forest land in areas that are, or may develop into, high nature value areas. - The formal protection of wetlands has increased by 210 000 hectares as a result of mires (natural peatlands) of high nature value being protected under the ‘National mire protection plan. - The formal protection of lakes and watercourses has increased by at least 12 000 hectares. - The formal protection of marine areas has increased by at least 570 000 hectares. - The ecological connections have been strengthened so that protected areas and areas and biotopes conserved in other ways are well connected and integrated in the landscape, including the water and marine environment.

It is of great importance for biological diversity and ecosystem services to strengthen the ecologial connections in the landscape. The government therefore wants this to be developed within the landscape as a whole, and applies the term “Green infrastructure” to this issue.In addition to formal area protection, such as nature reserves, Natura 2000 sites, biotope protection areas, nature conservation areas and conservation agreements, other area-based conservation measures can in many cases be suitable components in a green infrastructure. These include the general shoreline protection that is statuted in the Environmental code, environmental considerations within forestry activities, voluntary set-asides and the legal exemption of unproductive forest areas from forestry.

This milestone target is important for achieving the Environmental Quality Objectives. It is also important in an international perspective, by showing how Sweden wants to contribute to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The government emphasises the need to achieve ecological representation and therefore includes quantitative area targets for forests as well as wetlands, lakes and streams and marine areas.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
7. Areas under sustainable management
11. Protected areas
15. Ecosystem resilience
Relevant documents and information

This target was formulated on the basis of a proposal by the Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, a parliamentary committee that was tasked with developing strategies and milestone targets for the national Environmental Quality Objectives. The marine aspects of the target was based on a commissioned report from the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management. It was adopted by the government in 2014 (M2014/593/Nm), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The target was formally included in the NBSAP that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier).

EN

Milestone target on environmental consideration in forestry: By 2015 the expectations of society on environmental considerations in forestry are clarified and known to the forestry industry so that they can be applied in practice.

The Forestry Act requires consideration of the interests of environmental protection and the protection of the cultural environment. This is called “environmental consideration”. Environmental consideration, together with an adaptive mangament and voluntary set-asides, is of crucial importance for several Environmental Quality Objectives related to forests, biological diversity, wetlands, lakes and streams, groundwater and climate change. In addition, when combined with other protective and preservative measures, it contributes to improving the conservation status of certain red-listed species, in particular when combined with measures for green infrastructure. However, the voluntary set-asides in forestry have weaknesses in that they are difficult to track and locate, and their time span is unclear.

There has been a positive development for the environmental concerns within forestry activities since 1993 when the new forest policy was established. Yet, a situation remains in which the range of different forest biotopes has been limited by forestry, hydrology has been negatively affected by earlier draining activities. This is mostly due to the development of large scale forestry in the 1960:s to 1980:s, but to some degree also to current forestry activities. According to the National Board of Forestry, current practices are often adequate in terms of the extent of environmental consideration, but sometimes suboptimal in terms of conservation of biological diversity. The most common shortcomings are related to damage to the ground or soil, water concerns, historical relics and particularly sensitive biotopes. Evaluation of environmental consideration is methodologically complex and relies to some degree on subjective assessments rather than measurable parameters. Currently, the fact that opinions on this matter differs widely among stakeholders and authorities makes it difficult to take legislative measures to improve the situation. Continued and improved dialogue between stakeholders is an important next step.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
7. Areas under sustainable management
Relevant documents and information

This target was formulated on the basis of a proposal by the Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, a parliamentary committee that was tasked with developing strategies and milestone targets for the national Environmental Quality Objectives. It was adopted by the government in 2014 (M2014/593/Nm), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The target was formally included in the NBSAP that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier).

EN

Milestone target on varied forestry: Provisions have been clarified so that by 2015 there are good conditions for varied forestry.

Forests can be used for many purposes, for example wood or biomass production, recreation, hunting, raindeer herding and tourism. One may speak about multifunctionality and multi-use. In current forestry, clear-cutting is the dominant practice. There is however a number of alternatives to this. A varied forestry can be achieved in many different ways, partly within current clear-cutting practice and partly with alternative methods. The definition of clear-cutting is not precise. Knowledge is limited when it comes to the effect of alternative management practices on production, economy, climate, biological diversity, cultural environment values, forest water etc. This is due to the fact that these practices have been used to a very limited extent during the last 60-70 years. The government has taken a three-year initiative for developing adaptive forest management. A model has been developed that facilitates the testing and evaluation of forest management practices in terms of production as well as environmental aspects. New methods may be developed through a successive learning process. There should not be unnecessary obstacles for certain forestry practices. It is therefore important not to obstruct alternative management practices. At the same time, the Forestry Act stipulates a number of conditions, inter alia with a purpose of securing the land’s wood production potential and of avoiding so-called exploitative forestry. These provisions may need to be reviewed in order to ensure that they do not obstruct management practices that may be in a land-owners interest and that may be suitable in the particular case.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
7. Areas under sustainable management
Relevant documents and information

This target was formulated on the basis of a proposal by the Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, a parliamentary committee that was tasked with developing strategies and milestone targets for the national Environmental Quality Objectives. It was adopted by the government in 2014 (M2014/593/Nm), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The target was formally included in the NBSAP that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier).

EN

Milestone target on a dialogue process in a national forestry programme: An open dialogue with stakeholders in forests and their value chain has been established by 1 July 2015. This dialogue covers economic, social and environmental values and aims for forests and their value chain to further contribute to the development towards a sustainable society and a growing bio-based economy.

National forest programmes were introduced as a concept by the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests in 1997. Further guidance has been provided by the pan-European process and the Ministerial Conference in 2003. National forest programmes have been described as processes for policy planning, with a broad and cross-sectoral participation, aiming at continued development of sustainable forest management and contributing to sustainable development. The dialogue intended by the milestone target should encompass economic, social, and environmental values. Its purpose should be to promote the further contribution of forests and the forest value chain to the development of a sustainable society and a growing bio-based economy. The process is an important end in itself, and therefore the expected date for the completion of the programme should not be predetermined at present. In the programme process good conditions will be created for actors to collaborate and experience participation and ownership. Sub-processes pertaining to forest issues can be assembled and promoted clearly. The programme can also contribute to reaching goals within areas such as infrastructure, energy, rural development, labour markets, gender equality, research and innovation, education, culture and health. It can therefore contribute to competitive advantages regionally, locally and internationally.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
7. Areas under sustainable management
Relevant documents and information

This target was formulated on the basis of a proposal by the Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, a parliamentary committee that was tasked with developing strategies and milestone targets for the national Environmental Quality Objectives. It was adopted by the government in 2014 (M2014/593/Nm), following a wide consultation with stakeholders and institutions, including relevant research institutions and authorities. The target was formally included in the NBSAP that was adopted by Parliament in 2014 (Government Bill 2013/14:141 - submitted earlier).

EN

Interim target on methods for urban green spaces and ecosystem services in urban environments: By 2020, municipalities must have access to a refined method for making use of and integrating urban green spaces and ecosystem services in urban environments in the planning, building and managing of cities and towns

Urban green spaces include nature areas, parks, trees, tree avenues, shrubberies, hedges, plantations, churchyards, green roofs and walls in urban areas. In addition, certain beaches, water areas, wetlands, watercourses, ditches and stormwater management installations can be counted as urban green spaces.

Urban green spaces constitute an important condition for ecosystem services, such as clean air, noise reduction, stormwater runoff management, conservation of biodiversity and cultural environment heritage, and also offer recreation and health-promoting environments. Urban green environments also help regulate temperature, winds, air quality and moisture, and thereby mitigate the effects of climate change in cities. Cities are particularly sensitive to climate change such as flooding and increased temperatures. Therefore, it is important that spatial planni