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Sixth National Report

  published:19 Dec 2018

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Switzerland

Use biodiversity sustainably, Strategic Goal 1

A wide variety of sectors have a significant influence on biodiversity and also benefit from numerous ecosystem services. Hence the use, conservation and promotion of biodiversity must be optimally coordinated. This cannot be achieved through nature conservation measures alone. To maintain the ecosystem services, the economic and political sectors must recognise the importance of biodiversity and take it into account in their actions and decisions. Fields of action have been described within several sectors (forestry, agriculture, hunting and fishing, tourism, sport and leisure, transport, renewable energies, sites, buildings and facilities in federal ownership, production services/trade and consumption). Most sectors possess specific environmental objectives, which are derived from existing legislation. Spatial planning with its coordination function assumes a particularly important role.

Goal of the Swiss biodiversity Strategy:

By 2020, the use of natural resources and interventions involving them are sustainable so that the conservation of ecosystems and their services as well as of species and their genetic diversity is ensured.

The Swiss Biodiversity Strategy Strategic Goal 1 is directly relevant to the Aichi Target 4, because it aims at establishing and implementing sustainable production and consumption practices across the several above-mentioned sectors of activity. It is also relevant to the Aichi Target 7, because it directly addresses the sustainability of forestry and agriculture practices.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
4. Use of natural resources
7. Areas under sustainable management
Relevant documents and information

The measures of the Action Plan 1.3, 2.2, 2.3, 2.6, 3.2, 3.3, 3.5 are central to the Strategic Goal 1. The measures 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 2.1, 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 3.1, 3.4, 3.6, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.5, 5.6, 5.8 represent a further contribution towards the goal.

Several strategies and programs that include sustainable use of biodiversity are implemented at the national level:

Swiss Landscape Concept (currently under revision)

Landscape 2020

Forest policy 2020

Agricultural policy 2014-2017

Action plan Green Economy

Sustainable development strategy and its action plan

EN

Develop ecological infrastructure, Strategic Goal 2

Effectively conserved, interconnected and functioning habitats constitute a fundamental prerequisite for a biodiversity that is rich and has the capacity to react to change (e.g. climate change). Existing protected areas must be extended and improved in qualitative terms. Ecological connection areas shall ensure the passability between the protected areas.

Goal of the Swiss biodiversity Strategy:

By 2020, an ecological infrastructure consisting of protected and connected areas is developed. The state of threatened habitats is improved

The Swiss Biodiversity Strategy Strategic Goal 2 is directly relevant to the Aichi Target 5, because it aims at reducing habitat fragmentation and loss. It is also relevant to the Aichi Target 11, because it aims at increasing the national area that is protected and improving the ecological connection between these areas. Eutrophication and further pollution are amongst the main drivers of habitat destruction in Switzerland. Improving the quality of the protected areas thus implies to tackle those issues in direct relation to the Aichi Target 8. Measures to improve the quality of protected areas as well as the conservation of forests and mires are directly linked to the Aichi Target 15. The Strategic Goal 2 finally aims at conserving the functionality of habitats, which is essential for the safeguarding of ecosystem services as stated in the Aichi target 14.

The Strategic Goal 2 is also essential to fulfil the objectives of the European Emerald Network of the Bern Convention that require the extension of protected areas.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
8. Pollution
11. Protected areas
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
Relevant documents and information

The measures of the Action Plan 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 3.1 and 5.1 are central to the Strategic Goal 2. The measures 1.3, 1.4, 2.3, 2.5, 2.7, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 5.2 and 5.8 represent a further contribution towards the goal.

EN

Improve the conservation status of national priority species, Strategic Goal 3

Individual species or groups of species cannot be promoted sufficiently through habitat protection alone and also need additional specific measures in future to guarantee the survival of their populations. Introduced invasive species can pose a threat to native species and lead to their loss.

Goal of the Swiss biodiversity Strategy: By 2020, the conservation status of the populations of national priority species is improved and their extinction prevented insofar as possible. The spread of invasive alien species with the potential to cause damage is contained.

The Swiss Biodiversity Strategy Strategic Goal 3 is directly relevant to the Aichi Target 12, because it aims at preventing the extinction of native species that are known to be threatened, for which Switzerland has a particular responsibility and whose conservation requires urgent action. It is also relevant to the Aichi Target 9 as it aims at containing the spread and damage of invasive alien species.

Threatened species and invasive alien species are referred in several international treaties. Switzerland has undertaken to cooperate at the international level to conserve wild flora and fauna and combat invasive alien species under the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention, concluded in 1979 and ratified by Switzerland in 1982). In particular, Switzerland has to strictly control the establishment of non-native species.

The Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of alien invasive species entered into force on January 1st 2015. The centrepiece of the Regulation is a list of priority species, i.e. alien invasive species considered of concern to the Union as a whole. The list must be established within twelve months of the entry into force of the Regulation. Although they are not legally binding on our country, these provisions are relevant to Switzerland because of its geographical position at the heart of the European continent.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
9. Invasive Alien Species
12. Preventing extinctions
Relevant documents and information

The Strategic Goal 3 is central to the elaboration of the Swiss Invasive Alien Species strategy that was published in 2016 and the Swiss species conservation plan and action plans for species of national priority.

The measures of the Action Plan 1.4 and 3.4 are central to the Strategic Goal 3. The measures 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.3, 2.7, 3.1, 3.3, 3.5, 3.6, 5.1, 5.2 and 5.8 represent a further contribution towards the goal.

EN

Conserve and promote genetic diversity, Strategic Goal 4

A high level of genetic diversity enables species to adapt better to altered environmental conditions. It is the basis for the survival of species and maintenance of ecosystem services. It is also a source of genetic resources for agriculture and forestry research and industry. As for animal genetic resources, a concept has been developed to conserve agricultural livestock. The Confederation supports and promotes various measures and projects to conserve and sustainably use genetic diversity in the forest, such as the implementation of near-natural forestry with natural regeneration, the conservation of locally adapted populations and their potential adaptability in forests of particular genetic interest, or the use of locally adapted reproductive material (seeds, seedlings) for the artificial regeneration of populations. As for microorganisms, the Confederation contributes to the development of a national collection of microorganisms.

Goal of the Swiss biodiversity Strategy:

By 2020, genetic impoverishment is decelerated and, if possible, halted. The conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources, including that of livestock and crops, is ensured.

The Swiss Biodiversity Strategy Strategic Goal 4 is directly relevant to the Aichi Target 13, because it asks for the continuation and further development of the conservation and sustainable use of genetic diversity. It is also relevant to the Aichi Target 16, because it requires the ratification of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
13. Agricultural biodiversity
16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Relevant documents and information

The genetic diversity of wild species is promoted through species conservation measures and its protection is one of the central tenet of the national plan for species conservation. The measures aiming at building a functioning ecological infrastructure will also indirectly promote the genetic diversity of wild species by enabling genetic exchange between populations. The Confederation is committed to protecting and promoting genetic diversity in crop plants by implementing the “National Action Plan for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture” (NAP-PGREL) through the financial support and the regulation of the Federal ordonnance on conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRELV). The FOEN also supports the “Swiss Barcode of Life” (SwissBOL) network, whose goal is to record Switzerland's biodiversity through DNA barcodes. This knowledge is used for national monitoring of biological diversity and, by extension, the improvement of protection strategies.

The measures of the Action Plan 5.2 and 5.3 are central to the Strategic Goal 4. The measures 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, 2.3, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 and 5.8 represent a further contribution towards the goal.

EN

Evaluate financial incentives, Strategic Goal 5

In addition to incentives that promote biodiversity, today’s tax and funding system (subsidies in the broad sense) contains some incentives that have a negative impact on biodiversity. As a result, taxes and subsidies must be examined. Important action fields exist at cantonal and international levels in addition to national level. Positive experience has already been gained in individual cantons with incentive and funding mechanisms for the promotion of the ecosystem services that are not directly marketable.

Goal of the Swiss biodiversity Strategy:

By 2020, the negative impacts of existing financial incentives on biodiversity are identified and avoided, if possible. Where appropriate, new positive incentives are created.

The Swiss Biodiversity Strategy Strategic Goal 5 has a similar goal and is thus directly relevant to the Aichi Target 3.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
3. Incentives
Relevant documents and information

The measure 2.4 of the Action Plan is central to the Strategic Goal 5. The measures 2.3, 2.8, 3.2, 5.3 represent a further contribution towards the goal.

Study: Rodewald R., Neff C. 2001: Bundessubventionen – landschaftszerstörend oder landschaftserhaltend? Praxis-analyse und Handlungsprogramm. Bern: Stiftung Landschaftsschutz Schweiz

EN

Record ecosystem services, strategic goal 6

A healthy environment is crucial for the well-being of a country. Gross domestic product (GDP), the standard measure of growth, does not provide any information on this as it is based on financial transactions; the services provided by ecosystems and hence the importance of biodiversity for well-being are not visible in this form of measurement. To conserve and promote biodiversity, it is important to record ecosystem services using indicators and incorporate these into both public and private decision-making and market mechanisms. The indicators do not have to be monetary, however; the services can also be made visible in the form of bio-physical indicators (e.g. the accessibility of urban recreational areas).

Goal of the Swiss biodiversity Strategy:

By 2020, ecosystem services are recorded quantitatively. This enables their consideration in the measurement of welfare as complementary indicators to gross domestic product and in regulatory impact assessments.

The Swiss Biodiversity Strategy Strategic Goal 6 is relevant to the Aichi Target 2, as it aims at incorporating ecosystem services indicators to official statistics such as the gross domestic product. It also relates to the Aichi Target 3 because the quantitative recording of ecosystem services should provide a basis for the assessment of conflicts of both harmful and positive incentives on biodiversity. While the Strategic Goal 6 does not directly address the mobilization of financial resources, it is a prerequisite to reach the Aichi Target 20. Indeed, valuing ecosystem services modifies the cost-benefits balance and thus helps mobilizing resources for biodiversity financing.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
2. Integration of biodiversity values
3. Incentives
20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

The Strategic Goal 6 involves several Departments of the Swiss administration but also researchers and international collaborations.

The measure 2.5 of the Action Plan is central to the Strategic Goal 6. The measures 2.9 and 5.4 represent a further contribution towards the goal.

EN

Generate and disseminate knowledge, Strategic Goal 7

Economic and social decision-makers influence biodiversity directly or indirectly through their daily actions. Conversely, they also benefit in a variety of ways from biodiversity as the central basis of life. Detailed knowledge about species, ecosystems and their services, and an understanding of how personal and political decisions influence biodiversity are the basis on which responsibility can be taken for the conservation of biodiversity. The precondition for this is the availability of the necessary knowledge and information for the administration, practitioners, politicians and the public.

Goal of the Swiss biodiversity Strategy:

By 2020, sufficient knowledge about biodiversity is available to society and provides the basis for the universal understanding of biodiversity as a central pillar of life, and for its consideration in relevant decision-making processes.

The Swiss Biodiversity Strategy Strategic Goal 7 has very similar aims to both Aichi target 1 and 19 as it aims at increasing the awareness of society to biodiversity and knowledge at the same time.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
19. Biodiversity knowledge
Relevant documents and information

The Strategic Goal 7 involves the administration (Confederation, cantons and communes), institutions such as museums, zoological and botanic gardens, and nature conservation centres, researchers and the Swiss National Science foundation (SNF) as well as different actors in the practice, business and politics.

The measures of the Action Plan 3.6, 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6 are central to the Strategic Goal 7. The measures 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.5, 2.6, 2.9, 3.1, 3.4, 3.5, 5.2, 5.3, 5.7 and 5.8 represent a further contribution towards the goal.

EN

Promote biodiversity in settlement areas, Strategic Goal 8

Biodiversity must also have a place in settlement areas. It fulfils important natural and climate functions, and also promotes good health, recreation and awareness among the population. Green and open spaces in settlement areas must be increasingly secured and connected; above all, their quality must be improved in the interest of their multifunctional use.

Goal of the Swiss biodiversity Strategy:

By 2020, biodiversity in settlement areas is promoted so that settlement areas contribute to the connection of habitats, settlement-specific species are conserved and the population is able to experience nature in the residential environment and in local recreational areas.

Because of the spread of settlement areas in Switzerland, it is particularly important to take those surfaces into account while addressing the underlying causes of biodiversity loss. The Swiss Biodiversity Strategy Strategic Goal 4 aims at promoting biodiversity in settlement areas and thus making development in those areas more sustainable. The Strategic Goal 4 is thus relevant to the Aichi Targets 4 and 7.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
4. Use of natural resources
7. Areas under sustainable management
Relevant documents and information

The measure 2.7 of the Action Plan is central to the Strategic Goal 8. The measures 3.1, 3.5, 3.6, 5.1 and 5.2 represent a further contribution towards the goal.

EN

Strengthen international commitment, Strategic Goal 9

In addition to conserving its own biodiversity, Switzerland is reliant on the conservation of biodiversity at global level for its economic and social well-being. The maintenance of the stability of ecosystems at global level is also in the interest of Switzerland. Hence, the efforts made at international level must be strengthened.

Goal of the Swiss biodiversity Strategy:

By 2020, Switzerland’s commitment to the conservation of global biodiversity at international level is strengthened.

Switzerland’s biodiversity footprint is far in excess of a level that can be accommodated by the planetary boundaries. It has increased significantly in recent years. The ris­ing resource consumption is causing an ever larger share of the consumption-based biodiversity footprint to take its toll abroad: It was just over half in 1996 and more than roughly two-thirds in 2011. This high share is tied to the fact that Switzerland’s small open economy is increasingly dependent upon imports. The maintenance of the global ecosystems are thus highly important for Switzerland.

Switzerland, as a landlocked country, is not directly affected by coral bleaching or ocean acidification. However, over 90% of the fish, shellfish and crustaceans consumed in Switzerland are imported from abroad. The ordinance on controlling the lawful origin of imported marine fishery products came into force on 1 March 2017. This new ordinance is designed to ensure that only fishery products of lawful origin – i.e. no products from illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing activities – are imported into Switzerland. In general, the high ecological footprint of Switzerland (GHG emissions, international trade and tourism) impacts the conservation of coral reefs. Switzerland has thus a particular responsibility to strengthen its commitment to the conservation of global biodiversity at international levels. In the context of the Strategic Goal 9, it is particularly relevant to the Aichi Target 6 and 10.

Switzerland is committed to conserve and sustainably use agrobiodiversity, and to promote coherency and mutual supportiveness among the relevant international instruments. This is done though Switzerland’s involvement with the CBD, but also through its strong engagement with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA), the Sustainable Food Systems Programme (SFS) and the Global Soil Partnership. International commitment is also strengthened by the ratification of the Nagoya Protocol, making this Strategic Goal directly relevant to the Aichi Target 16.

Switzerland has no indigenous communities as understood by the Convention. Switzerland's local communities, however, are fully integrated in the implementation of the Convention, as described in the principles of Swiss federalism, e.g. through environmental protection organisations' collective right of appeal. The protection of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices as well as the rights of the indigenous and local communities, is an important pillar of Switzerland’s technical cooperation at the international level, making this Strategic Goal relevant to the Aichi target 18.

Assuring sufficient funding is a main goal of the Strategic Goal 9 making it directly relevant to the Aichi Target 20.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
6. Sustainable fisheries
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
18. Traditional knowledge
20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

The measures of the Action Plan 2.8, 2.9 and 5.7 are central to the Strategic Goal 9. The measures 2.5 and 5.4 represent a further contribution towards the goal.

EN

Monitor changes in biodiversity, Strategic Goal 10

The reliable observation of changes in biodiversity in Switzerland must be made possible. Based on the monitoring system that already exists today, a monitoring system shall be developed for all levels of biodiversity (diversity of ecosystems, species and genes). This is an important precondition for the monitoring of the implementation and success of national and sectoral environmental targets and the Swiss Biodiversity Strategy.

Goal of the Swiss biodiversity Strategy:

By 2020, the monitoring of changes in ecosystems and in species and genetic diversity is ensured.

Because the Strategic Goal 10 is a precondition to monitor the success of the Swiss Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan it is thus directly related to the Aichi Target 17. Monitoring programs are central to knowledge acquisition making this Strategic goal directly relevant to the Aichi Target 19.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
17. NBSAPs
19. Biodiversity knowledge
Relevant documents and information

The measure 5.8 of the Action Plan is central to the Strategic Goal 10. The measures 1.2, 2.2, 2.5 and 3.5 represent a further contribution towards the goal.

EN

Section II. Implementation measures, their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets

Sustainable use of biodiversity

The protection and use of biodiversity are not necessarily mutually exclusive. For example in spaces in which biodiversity is under pressure (e.g. agricultural land and built-up areas), there is major potential for the promotion of biodiversity (e.g. near-natural areas with connectivity and habitat function as a part of the ecological infrastructure) with direct positive impacts for the population (e.g. conservation and improvement of soil quality, regulation of air quality and microclimate, noise reduction, nature as an alternative to the built environment). Several measures of the Action Plan aim at making the use of natural resources more sustainable. The agriculture and forestry sectors are each concerned by a measure. A further measure aims at incorporating biodiversity factors into existing sustainability standards. Finally the Confederation is developing a Swiss soil strategy with the aim of ensuring the long-term conservation of the soil as a non-renewable resource and of its natural functions.

Agriculture: In accordance with the findings of the report compiled in response to parliamentary postulate 13.4284 and in fulfilment of the objectives of the Swiss Biodiversity Strategy, the target deficits identified in the environmental objectives for agriculture will be remedied, particularly in relation to biodiversity and nitrogenous atmospheric pollutants.

To remedy the deficit in the area of biodiversity, existing production systems will be evaluated and further developed. In addition, the question as to whether and to what extent a “Biodiversity evaluation, criteria and consultancy system” would add value for the specific promotion of species and habitats will be examined. To eliminate the deficits in relation to nitrogenous atmospheric pollutants in agriculture, the Confederation and cantons will improve the implementation of emissions reduction measures (sheds, manure stores and manure spreading). In addition, the direct payment instruments for the promotion of biodiversity in grassland and arable areas contained in the Direct Payments Ordinance (biodiversity compensation areas, habitat connectivity and structural elements) will be examined in relation to their biological impact on the promotion of native species and habitats. The design of these instruments, their service requirements and compensation will be improved with a view to increasing effectiveness.

Forestry: The programme agreements between the Confederation and cantons in the area of forest biodiversity will be further developed and impact analyses will be carried out to ensure the consistent implementation of the objectives for natural forest development defined in the Forest Policy 2020.

The Forest Policy 2020 stipulates that the existing area accounted for by forest reserves (6.3% of forest area as of the end of 2016 shall be increased to 8% by 2020 and to 10% by 2030. The objective of creating a minimal number of 15 big forest reserves (>500 ha) by then has already been reached (17 big forest reserves in 2016). This shall enable the attainment of the Federal Council’s Vision 2030 regarding the sustainable use of the natural resource forest. Natural forest reserves facilitate a natural dynamic in which the world of organisms and their inanimate environment are left to develop naturally. In this way, natural forest reserves afford the protection of processes necessary for the long-term conservation of biodiversity and also provide important reference areas for the monitoring of natural processes and objects of study for nature education. Special forest reserves will also be created for the implementation of habitat promotion measures for national priority forest species and communities and for the promotion of ecologically valuable forest habitats.

Sustainability standards: Based on its label strategy, the Confederation will support the incorporation of concrete biodiversity criteria into sustainability standards and their increasing consideration in the financial decisions of different sectors.

Sustainability standards shall be based more specifically on criteria for the protection and promotion of biodiversity and be applied more frequently, for example in the context of construction projects, public sector procurement decisions, private companies, the financial market processes of private financial services providers and pension schemes, and in international negotiations and investments, and projects carried out in developing and newly industrialised countries. The Confederation will also establish the conditions necessary for assessing the impact of products on biodiversity based on life cycle assessments (LCA).

Soil strategy: The Swiss soil strategy shall present measures for sustainable and integrated soil management. It is aimed to establish a “National Competence Centre for Soil” for the management and provision of information about soil (in fulfilment of parliamentary motion 12.4230). In addition, policy implementation in relation to soil matters shall be intensified and efforts introduced for increasing the awareness of users and the general public of the importance of the resource soil. Concrete measures will be formulated in the context of the development of the Swiss soil strategy.

The measure is a central contribution to the national target 1 and contributes further to national targets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7.

EN
Conserve and promote genetic diversity, Strategic Goal 4
Develop ecological infrastructure, Strategic Goal 2
Evaluate financial incentives, Strategic Goal 5
Generate and disseminate knowledge, Strategic Goal 7
Improve the conservation status of national priority species, Strategic Goal 3
Use biodiversity sustainably, Strategic Goal 1
Unknown

The implementation of the measures in Switzerland is currently in the first phase that runs in between 2017 and 2023. It is thus too early to assess the effectiveness of the measure. The monitoring program “Agricultural Species and Habitats (ALL-EMA)” is recording data since 2015 and will be able from 2020 and onwards to assess the state of biodiversity in agriculture. It is designed so as to be able to assess whether the environmental objectives for agriculture are reached or not. The Swiss National Forest Inventory (NFI) will be used to assess the progress of the Forest Strategy. The MONET indicator system is regularly updated to assess if Switzerland is on the road to sustainable development.

EN

The urgent need for action in relation to biodiversity is undisputed. However, political reality and, particularly, financial and temporal conditions in Switzerland pose an obstacle to the implementation of measures in support of biodiversity. The tense budgetary situation and efforts to achieve savings at federal and cantonal levels considerably limit the capacity to provide additional financial and human resources for improving the state of the environment and guaranteeing the provision of these resources for extended periods. For this reason, the practical implementation of the measures contained in the Action Plan will take place in phases and across extensive areas using existing resources.

EN

Develop an ecological infrastructure

By 2040, Switzerland should have a functioning ecological infrastructure in both rural and urban areas, on the Plateau, in the Jura and in the Alps. The Swiss Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan describes the measures and timetable needed to this end, firstly to fill certain gaps in the system of protected areas and to enhance their value. Moreover, networking areas must be completed and made permanent throughout the territory. All sectors will have to contribute to the construction of the ecological infrastructure.

In cooperation with the cantons, the Confederation is developing a holistic system of targets for the ecological infrastructure incorporating substantive and spatial principles and objectives for the safeguarding of space for the long-term conservation of biodiversity (quantitatively, qualitatively and regionally distributed). Existing elements of ecological infrastructure in the regions shall be conserved or promoted through the establishment and development of the countrywide ecological infrastructure.

Working in close cooperation with the cantons and other interested circles – primarily actors involved in the protection and use of biodiversity – the Confederation is beginning by developing a conceptual basis for the further development of the ecological infrastructure. Data available for the portrayal of the ecological infrastructure will be verified and deficits identified. Further measures ensuring an efficient and comprehensive portrayal will be applied. The added value of a concept in accordance with Art. 13 of the Spatial Planning Act (RPG) and the integration of the principles of ecological infrastructure into an existing planning instrument (e.g. Swiss Landscape Concept, LKS) will be examined.

There is a backlog in relation to the maintenance and remediation of existing protected areas, both for the biotopes of national importance in accordance with the Protection of Nature and Heritage Protection Act (NCHA) and for the wildlife areas and wildlife reserves in accordance with the Federal Act on the Hunting and Protection of Wild Mammals and Birds (HuntA). The implementation of the remediation measures will be agreed between the Confederation and cantons, defined in management and maintenance plans, and phased and prioritised on the basis of the criteria: action requirement, significance, upgrading potential and feasibility. The Confederation will develop a system for the monitoring of the maintenance and remediation measures and will systematically monitor the quality of their implementation. The cantons will ensure that similar measures are formulated and implemented for biotopes of regional and local importance. With a view to enabling the greater integration of biotopes into spatial planning, an effort will also be made to ensure the binding guaranteeing of biotopes among landowner.

The measure is a central contribution to the national target 2 and contributes further to national targets 1, 3, 4 and 10.

EN
Conserve and promote genetic diversity, Strategic Goal 4
Improve the conservation status of national priority species, Strategic Goal 3
Monitor changes in biodiversity, Strategic Goal 10
Use biodiversity sustainably, Strategic Goal 1
Unknown

The implementation of the measure in Switzerland is currently in the first phase that runs in between 2017 and 2023. It is thus too early to assess the effectiveness of the measure. The monitoring of the effectiveness of habitat conservation in Switzerland (WBS) will be used in the following year to assess the effectiveness of the measure.

EN

The urgent need for action in relation to biodiversity is undisputed. However, political reality and, particularly, financial and temporal conditions in Switzerland pose an obstacle to the implementation of measures in support of biodiversity. The tense budgetary situation and efforts to achieve savings at federal and cantonal levels considerably limit the capacity to provide additional financial and human resources for improving the state of the environment and guaranteeing the provision of these resources for extended periods. For this reason, the practical implementation of the measures contained in the Action Plan will take place in phases and across extensive areas using existing resources.

EN

Species conservation

Building on the “Swiss Species Promotion Plan”, the Confederation will develop action plans for the promotion of national priority species, based on which the cantons will plan and implement region-specific species promotion measures. National consultancy offices will be established and supplemented by regional ones. The training of species experts will also be funded.

The action plans in accordance with the “Swiss Species Promotion Plan” will be based, inter alia, on the habitat requirements of the national priority species and their species groups. In addition, areas will be identified in which measures for the promotion of the national priority species and/or species communities shall be carried out. Adapted use and species promotion are not mutually exclusive. The action plans and identified areas will provide the cantons with a basis for the planning and implementation of region-specific measures for the long-term conservation and promotion of national priority species. The protection objectives and the implementation of specific promotional measures for national priority species will be defined in the context of the programme agreements and thus funded by the Confederation. The cantons will ensure that analogue measures are defined and implemented for the regional priority species.

The measure is a central contribution to the national target 3 and contributes further to national targets 1, 2, 4 and 7.

EN
Conserve and promote genetic diversity, Strategic Goal 4
Develop ecological infrastructure, Strategic Goal 2
Generate and disseminate knowledge, Strategic Goal 7
Improve the conservation status of national priority species, Strategic Goal 3
Use biodiversity sustainably, Strategic Goal 1
Unknown

The implementation of the measure in Switzerland is currently in the first phase that runs in between 2017 and 2023. It is thus too early to assess the effectiveness of the measure. The update of red lists as well as the data collected by the biodiversity monitoring programs (BDM, WBS, ALL-EMA) will be used to assess the effectiveness of the measure in the future.

EN

The urgent need for action in relation to biodiversity is undisputed. However, political reality and, particularly, financial and temporal conditions in Switzerland pose an obstacle to the implementation of measures in support of biodiversity. The tense budgetary situation and efforts to achieve savings at federal and cantonal levels considerably limit the capacity to provide additional financial and human resources for improving the state of the environment and guaranteeing the provision of these resources for extended periods. For this reason, the practical implementation of the measures contained in the Action Plan will take place in phases and across extensive areas using existing resources.

EN

Evaluate financial incentives

The Confederation will present an overall evaluation of the impacts of federal subsidies and other incentives with consequences for biodiversity by 2023.

The impacts of existing federal subsidies and other incentives with impacts on biodiversity will be examined and options for optimisations will be demonstrated. Selected issues will be analysed in detail and processed for the overall evaluation. The latter will provide a comprehensive overview of the progress attained up to 2023. Resulting possibilities for improvement will be indicated and recommendations for optimising policy implementation will also be made.

The measure is a central contribution to the national target 5 and contributes further to national target 1.

EN
Evaluate financial incentives, Strategic Goal 5
Use biodiversity sustainably, Strategic Goal 1
Unknown

The implementation of the measure in Switzerland is currently in the first phase that runs in between 2017 and 2023. It is thus too early to assess the effectiveness of the measure. A specific monitoring is planned to assess the effectiveness of the measure.

EN

The urgent need for action in relation to biodiversity is undisputed. However, political reality and, particularly, financial and temporal conditions in Switzerland pose an obstacle to the implementation of measures in support of biodiversity. The tense budgetary situation and efforts to achieve savings at federal and cantonal levels considerably limit the capacity to provide additional financial and human resources for improving the state of the environment and guaranteeing the provision of these resources for extended periods. For this reason, the practical implementation of the measures contained in the Action Plan will take place in phases and across extensive areas using existing resources.

EN

Ecosystem services

The Confederation will initiate and support groundwork for the definition of indicators that demonstrate the economic and social significance of ecosystem services for the Swiss economy and society. The indicators will be examined every four years and adapted and updated if required.

Reliable information about many ecosystem services is lacking and this makes it difficult to take sufficient account of them in political, economic and social decision-making processes. For this reason, the Confederation would like to record, quantify and communicate information about these services in a coordinated fashion. The international project “The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity” (TEEB) provides a model for this process. First, a system of indicators for ecosystem services and the natural capital will be developed. Synergies with existing monitoring programmes, environmental surveys and research platforms operating at both national and international levels will be exploited. Based on this indicator system, instruments will be developed that facilitate the incorporation of the ecosystem services into technical, political and economic decision-making processes. The Confederation will also engage in knowledge transfer on the topic of ecosystem services. The focus here will be on the practical application and integration of ecosystem services, in particular in the context of spatially-relevant decisions by authorities and construction clients. The insights gained from this work will be used to raise awareness among decision makers and society in general.

The measure is a central contribution to the national target 6 and contributes further to national targets 1, 2, 7, 9 and 10.

EN
Develop ecological infrastructure, Strategic Goal 2
Generate and disseminate knowledge, Strategic Goal 7
Monitor changes in biodiversity, Strategic Goal 10
Record ecosystem services, strategic goal 6
Strengthen international commitment, Strategic Goal 9
Use biodiversity sustainably, Strategic Goal 1
Unknown

The implementation of the measure in Switzerland is currently in the first phase that runs in between 2017 and 2023. It is thus too early to assess the effectiveness of the measure.

EN

The urgent need for action in relation to biodiversity is undisputed. However, political reality and, particularly, financial and temporal conditions in Switzerland pose an obstacle to the implementation of measures in support of biodiversity. The tense budgetary situation and efforts to achieve savings at federal and cantonal levels considerably limit the capacity to provide additional financial and human resources for improving the state of the environment and guaranteeing the provision of these resources for extended periods. For this reason, the practical implementation of the measures contained in the Action Plan will take place in phases and across extensive areas using existing resources.

EN

Promote biodiversity in settlement areas

With a view to promoting biodiversity in built-up areas, the Confederation will develop model building regulations and make them available to the cantons and communes as guidelines. The implementation of the model building regulations may require the adaptation of the cantonal building legislation.

Model building regulations will provide the cantons and communes with guidelines for local planning and for the formulation, verification and implementation of legal building and planning regulations. The legal requirements for ecological compensation in built-up areas, that is the promotion of habitats and their connectivity, will be substantiated in the model building regulations. In addition, biodiversity-relevant factors will be taken into account in the context of invitations to tender for planning projects, the assessment of planning applications, and the assessment and authorisation of building projects.

The measure is a central contribution to the national target 8 and contributes further to national targets 1, 2, 3 and 4.

EN
Conserve and promote genetic diversity, Strategic Goal 4
Develop ecological infrastructure, Strategic Goal 2
Improve the conservation status of national priority species, Strategic Goal 3
Promote biodiversity in settlement areas, Strategic Goal 8
Use biodiversity sustainably, Strategic Goal 1
Unknown

The implementation of the measure in Switzerland is currently in the first phase that runs in between 2017 and 2023. It is thus too early to assess the effectiveness of the measure. A specific monitoring is planned to assess the effectiveness of the measure.

EN

The urgent need for action in relation to biodiversity is undisputed. However, political reality and, particularly, financial and temporal conditions in Switzerland pose an obstacle to the implementation of measures in support of biodiversity. The tense budgetary situation and efforts to achieve savings at federal and cantonal levels considerably limit the capacity to provide additional financial and human resources for improving the state of the environment and guaranteeing the provision of these resources for extended periods. For this reason, the practical implementation of the measures contained in the Action Plan will take place in phases and across extensive areas using existing resources.

EN

Strengthen international commitment

In accordance with the “Dispatch on Switzerland’s International Cooperation 2017-2020”, Switzerland will focus on the protection and sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems.

Switzerland will intensify its commitment to biodiversity in the context of international cooperation. The focus is set on the sustainable use of biodiversity, the sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems, the promotion of sustainable production methods, the promotion of sustainable trade, and the implementation of the principles of Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS).

Switzerland will also provide the maximum possible support for the secretariats of biodiversity-relevant multilateral agreements (e.g. Convention on Biological Diversity, Bonn Convention, Ramsar Convention, CITES Convention).

Switzerland will intensify its commitment to international organisations and collaborate on international reporting so that political decisions relating to the topic of biodiversity can be based on comprehensive scientific knowledge.

Switzerland will provide financial support for projects for the provision and global exchange of biodiversity-relevant information by institutions such as UNEP-Grid, IUCN, UNEP-WCMC and the GBIF and will support the CBD’s scientific expert groups. Switzerland will also contribute to GEO-BON, one of the most important global coordination bodies that records information about biodiversity (in particular on the monitoring of biodiversity and its change over time), and intensify its commitment to