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Sixth National Report

submitted on: 01 Jan 2019   last updated: 07 Aug 2019

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Antigua and Barbuda

Target 1: By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably

Antigua and Barbuda created our National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were designed to accordance with what was attainable taking into consideration our National Resources.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The process began in late 2012 and was completed in 2014.

The NBSAP revision process was led and implemented by the Department of Environment, formally known as the Environment Division. In late 2012 the Environment Division undertook a NBSAP Stocktaking Exercise. It reviewed the draft 2001 plan and gave an assessment of the activities completed thus far. It noted that the risks to biodiversity had not changed much since 2001, despite the quantity of work done. Varying degrees of success, which were obtained mainly through integrating biodiversity conservation policies and measures into the operational programmes of key institutions and agencies within the country. Successes were also achieved through the efforts of regional and international agencies promoting the critical importance of biodiversity.

The Stocktaking Exercise report outlined the status of planned activities within the 2001 NBSAP including analysis of the issues affecting their completion and offered possible mechanisms to allow them to move forward. At the time of preparing that report planning for the new NBSAP was on going as well.

The Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) facilitated by the Environment Division made up of public and non-government stakeholders was used to help develop the Revised NBSAP.  The members of this TAC were as follows:

  • Government Agencies: National Office of Disaster Services, Ministry of Legal Affairs, Fisheries Division, Ministry of Tourism, Development Control Authority, the Development Planning Unit of the Ministry of Finance, Central Board of Health, Lands Division, Community Development Division, Codrington Lagoon National Park Manager (Barbuda), Forestry Unit, Plant Protection Unit, Barbuda Council and the Department of Agriculture, Environment Division
  • NGO’s: the Environmental Awareness Group (EAG) and the Gilberts Agricultural and Rural Development Center (GARDC)
  • Statutory Corporations: National Parks Authority
  • Civil Society: GEF Small Grants Programme National Coordinator

In general the TAC consisted on 70% females vs 30% males. A number of consultative processes took place in an effort to ensure all facets of biodiversity conservation and management in the country were included in the process of revising the NBSAP for Antigua and Barbuda. The agency representatives on the TAC were asked to conduct internal reviews within their own agencies and report to the TAC on what past, present and future activities/plans they had undertaken. It was found that in most cases their activities were consistent with the Aichi targets. In instances where activities were either inconsistent or nonexistent explanations were provided about difficulties meeting the targets and suggestions were made on either the assistance available or how the targets could be modified to better reflect national circumstances. The view was that this would be the most expedient method to achieve agreement among all agencies with an interest in either conserving or exploiting the country's biodiversity resources. It would facilitate decision making about what their respective roles in fulfilling this task should be as it provided a forum whereby:

-       All stakeholders were able to voice their concerns and off their perspective on solutions;

-       The ability to share ideas about the benefits of conservation;

-       Take decisions through consensus quickly and in a transparent manner thus ensuring support publicly for final outcomes.

This arrangement would allow agencies the ability to carefully consider their internal capabilities so as to not overcommit themselves. Examples of how the participatory process worked was evidenced as follows:

  • The Community Development Division, through the process of drafting the current NBSAP, was able to include biodiversity conservation outreach in communities as one of their primary mandates in their budgeted, parliament approved work programme.
  • The Environmental Awareness Group, with its extensive work on invasive alien species (IAS) and critically endangered plants and animals on offshore islands and other International Bird Areas (IBAs) and Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), was able to furnish the group with key data on biodiversity which was being conserved, thus aiding in the elaboration of the targets.
  • For Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Targets, the Fisheries Division, the Environment Division and the National Parks Authority was instrumental in formulating National targets that aligned with the Aichi 20/20 Targets, particularly, health of coral reefs, mangrove ecosystems and sea grass beds. These were then incorporated into their budgeted, parliament approved work programmes.
  • For Local Community Involvement: the GEF Small Grants Programme National Coordinator, provided representation. While, Antigua and Barbuda does not have Indigenous Communities, there are many active Local Communities. The GEF SGP National Coordinator worked very closely with these communities to help them participate in the achievement of these targets. 

In raising awareness on the NBSAP, two distinctive strategies were used for communication and public awareness. For stakeholders who had particular interests in or responsibilities for biodiversity management on the island there were TAC meetings and wider stakeholder consultations. Three consultations were held and a final targets and indicators document was deliberated and agreed. Consultations were also held on the revised NBSAP both on an individual basis with experts and stakeholders as well as through a total of six other national consultations. All relevant ministries, governmental departments and agencies, non-governmental organizations, business and industry, professional societies, educational institutions, advisory councils and interested individuals were invited to participate in these consultations and to comment on the draft documents presented at each stage of the NBSAP development process. This final NBSAP was also circulated for consultation with inputs solicited from those who depend on the country’s biodiversity for their livelihood e.g. farmers, livestock owners, fisher-folk, charcoal burners, herbalists, craft persons, tour operators, and others who are involved in the conversion of land from its natural state, like developers, real estate agents, surveyors and any other whose decisions and plans will greatly influence how land is used and habitats are preserved or degraded/destroyed. It is believed that this will ensure the participatory process continues through the implementation stages of the NBSAP.

The Environment Division's staff also facilitated training workshops to ensure proper dissemination of information to stakeholders on the importance of the CBD and NBSAP. Participants for both the consultations and the training were recruited via invitation letters. The NBSAP Revision project was announced through written invitation letters to the Permanent Secretaries of the identified ministries. Post meeting and consultation reports were circulated via email in an effort to get feedback and comments before decisions were finalized. Based on these comments the final biodiversity targets were set.

A very different methodology was employed for raising awareness amongst the public. In the opinion of the Division, years of public relations efforts in the form of media interviews, newspaper articles, websites and public consultations had not yielded enough public enthusiasm for the sustainable management of the country's biodiversity resources. This is attributed to one or two factors- the issues being discussed are presented very technically and therefore fail to capture and hold the public's attention and due to increased urbanisation there has been a growing detachment from issues relating to biodiversity management.

In 2013 the staff of the Environment Division prepared a more broad-based “Communication Strategy for Effective Environmental Management.” The plan focused on promoting the importance of biodiversity, climate change and sustainable land management amongst the general population of Antigua and Barbuda from 2013-2018.

The Plan was designed to facilitate the flow of information to specific target audiences in a sustained way by providing the foundation for an ongoing educational program to be delivered via the Victoria Park Botanical Gardens (new location of the offices of the Environment Division) based on targeted audiences.  Educating all members of the public is critical when gathering support for implementing activities towards environmental conservation and sustainable development.  To this end, the Environment Division targeted the following groups:

·       Students of all ages - the Division has engaged the participation of both primary and high school students through its Environmental Cadet Program in a wide range of environmental activities and will continue to do so.

·       Teachers & Educators – Through the Cadet Program, teachers are guided to important principles of proper environmental management.

·       Persons with limited mobility– The Plan highlights the enhancement of the Gardens to accommodate their entry and participation in observing environmental management issues

·       Professional adults- the City of St. John’s, which houses a large portion of the financial industry and business entities, is a large target audience.  The goal is to bring awareness of best practices, new technologies to these professionals and provide information on the Conventions for good decision-making and strategic policy guidance; the Gardens will be available for workshops and meetings for a fee.

·       Visiting Tourists – Antigua and Barbuda prides itself as a tourist destination and the Communication Plan endeavours to complement and enhance the national tourism product and highlights the value of our biodiversity and ecosystems to this market.

·       Other members of the public – through the use of various mediums the three principles of environmental management will be disseminated. 

EN

Target 2: By 2020, biodiversity values have been integrated in national physical development plans and local area plans and the millennium development initiatives for Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
2. Integration of biodiversity values
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 3: By 2020, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations taking into account national socio economic conditions.

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
3. Incentives
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 4: By 2020 at the latest, all stakeholders, (public, private, and civil) have taken steps to implement plans for sustainable production and consumption of natural resources keeping impacts within safe ecological limits as far as possible.

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
4. Use of natural resources
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 5: By 2020 an effective monitoring protocol for critical habitats, mainly forests, mangroves and coral reefs has been implemented to assist in reducing degradation and fragmentation and measures developed and undertaken to reduce the rate of loss by 10%.

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 6: By 2020 Policies and sustainable use plans are put in place for the sustainable management of Fisheries resources

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
6. Sustainable fisheries
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 7: By 2020 The capacity of governmental natural resources management institutions as well as non-governmental organizations, to support the objectives and achieve the overall aim of the NBSAP is strengthened

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
7. Areas under sustainable management
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 8: By 2020, 20% of pollution, including from excess nutrients within specific demonstration areas, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
8. Pollution
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 9: By 2020 invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled, measures are in place to manage pathways to help prevent their (re)introduction and (re)establishment as far as possible.

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
9. Invasive Alien Species
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 10: By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems such as the NEMMA, Cades Bay and Codrington Marine Reserves impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 11: A national system, including protected areas, for the management and conservation of biodiversity is developed and established by 2020 This will include, terrestrial areas, wetlands, areas important to migratory species and marine environments.

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
11. Protected areas
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 12: By 2020 Implement protection measures for threatened species including the racer snake, marine turtles, Redonda Dwarf Gecko, Redonda Ground Lizard, threatened plants, and threatened birds.

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
12. Preventing extinctions
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 13: By 2020 maintain genetic diversity of local plants by storing germ stocks for re-population should current stocks become contaminated. Maintain stocks of deer in Barbuda to ensure no mixing of breeds

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
13. Agricultural biodiversity
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 14: By 2020 at least 2 major watershed and mangrove wetland areas are effectively protected

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
14. Essential ecosystem services
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 15: By 2020 Restoration of biodiversity hotspots in Antigua and Barbuda thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
15. Ecosystem resilience
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 16: By 2015, national legislation consistent with the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational.

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Relevant documents and information

Antigua and Barbuda’s Revised NBSAP went through a series of stakeholder consultations and revisions. The full explanation of this process may be found under Target 1. A similar process was taken for all targets.

EN

Target 17: By 2020, Antigua and Barbuda has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated NBSAP (this current document).

Antigua & Barbuda created National Targets based on the related Aichi Targets. However, they were amended to ensure some level of attainability based on our National Resources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal