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Sixth National Report

submitted on: 29 Dec 2018   last updated: 09 Jan 2019

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

China

China has adopted national biodiversity targets but chooses to report using the Aichi Biodiversity Targets for reference.

The strategic goals and concepts for ecological civilization and “building beautiful China” proposed by the Government of China, together with those identified in the NBSAP, have provided a relatively comprehensive suite of national goals and action programmes for biodiversity conservation in China. However, the China’s national targets do not cover all specific goals of each Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Therefore, the Government of China is choosing to report progress using the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and not its national targets.
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Section II. Implementation measures, their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets

Policy and legal system for biodiversity conservation is being improved.

Since 2015, China has adopted a series of policies related to biodiversity conservation, which provide top-level design and overall arrangements for ecological civilization development and biodiversity conservation. These policies include:
(a) Recommendations for Accelerating Ecological Civilization Development;
(b) Master Proposals for Institutional Reforms for Ecological Civilization;
(c) Proposals for Pilot Work in Formulating Natural Resources Assets Balance Sheet;
(d) Rules for Accountability of Party and Government Officials for Environmental Damages;
(e) Proposals for Pilot Work in Off-job Auditing of Natural Resources Assets of Party and Government Officials;
(f) Proposals for Reforms in Compensation Mechanisms for Environmental / Ecological Damages;
(g) Recommendations on Improving Ecological Compensation Mechanisms;
(h) Recommendations on Strengthen Red-line Control over Resources, Environment and Ecology
(i) Recommendations on Drawing and Strictly Following Ecological Red Lines;
(j) Recommendations on Setting up Standardized Experiment Zones for Ecological Civilization Development;
(k) Master Proposals for Establishing National Parks System;
(l) Proposals for Mechanisms for Wetland Conservation and Restoration;
(m) Recommendations on Appointing River Head.
(n) Recommendations on Strengthening Biological Conservation in the Yangtze River (by the Administrative Office of the State Council).

In addition, China has revised the following laws and regulations: (a) Environmental Protection Law; (b) Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law; (c) Wild Animals Protection Law; (d) Marine Environmental Protection Law; (e) Fishery Law; (f) Seed Law; (g) Grasslands Law; (h) Water Law; (i) Land Management Law; (j) Husbandry Law; (k) Regulation on Nature Reserves; (l) Implementation Rules for Forest Law; (m) Implementation Rules for Wild Terrestrial Animals Protection; (n) Implementation Rules for Wild Aquatic Animals Protection; and (o) Regulation on Protection of New Plant Varieties. China has also promulgated a number of new laws and regulations such as Regulation on Taihu Basin Management, Regulation on Prevention and Control of Pollution from Livestock Farming and Rules for Adjustment of National-level Protected Areas. Some local governments have also developed a series of regulations. For example, provinces or municipalities such as Beijing, Yunnan, Jiangxi, Henan, Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou, Hebei and Jiangsu have developed their provincial regulations for protected areas and wetland conservation. All this has resulted in the further improvement of legal and regulatory systems for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

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3. Incentives
Measure taken has been effective

Obstacles: Legal and regulatory system is yet to be further improved. 

Despite a series of laws and regulations China has developed or revised, some of these laws and regulations cannot meet current requirements for biodiversity conservation and supervision due to the new national and international circumstances. Meanwhile there are gaps in the development of specialized laws or regulations on access and benefit-sharing, wetland conservation and managing invasive alien species.

Scientific and technical needs: Strengthening the development of legal and regulatory system
To improve laws and regulations on biodiversity conservation and increase law enforcement supervision;
To revise the Nature Reserve Regulations and speed up the legislative process of the Regulations on the Management of Access to and Benefit-sharing of Genetic Resources;
To study and formulate laws and regulations such as the Biodiversity Conservation Law, the Protected Areas Law, the Wetland Protection Regulations and the Invasive Alien Species Management Regulations;
To improve the system of property rights and use of natural resources assets, and implement the most stringent source protection system, damage compensation system, and life-long accountability and liability system for ecological environmental damage;

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A series of programmes and plans related to biodiversity conservation have been launched and implemented.

The State Council has approved the implementation of a number of programmes which have enhanced biodiversity conservation, including the Action Plans for Water Pollution Prevention and Control, Action Plans for Soil Pollution Prevention and Control, Action Plans for Air Pollution Prevention and Control, National Planning for Major Marine Function Zones, National Environmental Protection Planning for the 13th Five-year Period and National Planning for Water and Soil Conservation (2015-2030).
Relevant sector departments have developed and implemented a series of programmes and plans that have effectively promoted biodiversity conservation. For example, the National Development and Reform Commission, together with relevant departments, have developed the National Planning for Ecological Conservation and Construction (2013-2020), Planning for Rehabilitating Agricultural Lands, Grasslands, Rivers and Lakes (2016-2030), the 13th Five-year Planning for Comprehensive Control Engineering of Rocky Desertification in Karst Areas, Comprehensive Planning for Water Resources and Environmental Protection for Qiandao Lake and Upper Stream of Xin’an River, Planning for Comprehensive Ecological Conservation in Key Areas of Western China (2012-2020), National Planning for Climate Change (2014-2020) and Environmental Protection Planning for Coordinated Development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region. The Ministry of Land Resources has developed and launched the 13th Five-year Planning for Land Resources. The Ministry of Environmental Protection has issued the Master Planning for Environmental Protection of Lakes with Relatively Good Water Quality and National Planning for Ecological Conservation for the 13th Five-year Period. MEP, together with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, has issued the National Ecological Zoning (revised), and together with the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Water Resources, the Plan for Conserving Aquatic Biodiversity in Key River Basins. The Ministry of Agriculture has formulated and issued the National Planning for Sustainable Agricultural Development (2015-2030), Medium and Long-term National Planning for Conservation and Use of Agricultural Crops Germplasm Resources (2015-2030), National Planning for Conservation and Use of Livestock Genetic Resources for the 13th Five-year Period, and National Planning for Grasslands Conservation for the 13th Five-year Period. The State Forestry Administration has developed and issued the National Planning for Forest Land Conservation and Use (2010-2020), National Planning for Forest Management (2016-2050), National Action Plan for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic Resources and Action Plan for Forestry Adaptation to Climate Change (2016-2020). SFA, together with NDRC and the Ministry of Finance, also issued the National Planning for Wetland Conservation for the 13th Five-year Period. The State General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine has incorporated biodiversity and biological resources protection into its 12th five-year plan, developed a plan for inspection and quarantine of imported and exported species and provided the Recommendations for Further Strengthening Inspection and Quarantine of the Import and Export of Biological Resources. The State Oceanic Administration has promulgated the National Planning for Marine Renewable Energy Development for the 13th Five-year Period, National Planning for Island Protection for the 13th Five-year Period, and National Plan for Marine Observation Networks (2014-2020). The State Council has promulgated the Strategy and Planning for Traditional Chinese Medicine Development (2016-2030). The Ministry of Industry and Information and the Administration on Chinese Medicine jointly issued the Planning for the Protection and Development of Chinese Medicinal Materials (2015-2020). A total of 18 provinces across the country have developed their provincial biodiversity strategies and action plans (PBSAPs). All these have enhanced to varying degrees biodiversity conservation at national, sectoral and regional levels.

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3. Incentives
Measure taken has been effective

Mechanisms and systems for biodiversity conservation are being gradually improved.

In 2011 a National Committee on Biodiversity Conservation was established, which is headed by a Vice Premier responsible for environmental affairs and composed of 25 ministries or departments. This Committee coordinates biodiversity conservation across the country. The ministries or departments responsible for the environment, forestry, agriculture, construction, seas and Chinese medicine have also established their own bodies for biodiversity management. For example, the State Forestry Administration set up a National Committee for Forest Biodiversity Conservation in June 2014. Some provincial governments have also strengthened their coordination mechanisms for biodiversity conservation. Since 2014, Yunnan Province has established a Biodiversity Conservation Committee. Guangxi Autonomous Region has set up a working group for developing PBSAP. Hebei Province has established an inter-departmental liaison group for protection of wild plants and animals. The strengthening of mechanisms and systems for biodiversity conservation has provided robust support for biodiversity conservation on the ground.

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3. Incentives
Measure taken has been partially effective

Surveying, observation and monitoring of biodiversity have been undertaken.

In recent years, China has undertaken more surveys and inventory of species in important regions, areas and ecosystems as well as those of special populations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has been supporting biodiversity conservation research as part of its science and technology advancement programmes. MOST also provides priority support to biodiversity conservation research in the National Science and Technology Support Plan, National Key Research and Development Plan and Specialized Programme for Surveying of Fundamental Resources for Science and Technology Development. MOST has been supporting a series of projects, such as the Research and Demonstration on Techniques for Conservation and Breeding of Endangered Species and Biodiversity Conservation, the Research on Change and Conservation of Biodiversity in China-Himalaya Region, the Collection of Specimens of Aquatic Plants in China, the Comprehensive Survey of Animal Resources and Assessment of Important Taxa in Southeastern Tibet, the Comprehensive Survey of Biodiversity in Wuling Mountain and the Surveys on Plant Community and Soil in National Forest Protected Areas and its Adjacent Areas in Northeast China.
The Ministry of Environmental Protection has launched major projects for biodiversity conservation, and issued a series of technical guidelines for biodiversity survey and monitoring. MEP has also undertaken a national assessment of changes in ecological conditions (2010-2015), organized biodiversity surveys and established a national biodiversity observation network. MEP, together with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, has issued the China’s Biodiversity Red Lists-Higher Plants Volume, Vertebrates Volume and Macrofungi Volume as well as 2018 Species List of China.
The Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) has undertaken the third national census on agricultural crops germplasm resources and key protected wild agricultural plants. MOA developed “Record of China’s Livestock Genetic Resources”, “Record of China’s Endemic Livestock” and “Record of Bees”. MOA has revised a list of national protected livestock genetic resources.
By the end of 2017, a census has been undertaken of the Chinese medicinal resources in 1,332 counties of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and province-level municipalities). By July 2018, over 22,000 persons have participated in the census. Over 9 million pieces of data and information, over 6 million photos and more than 260,000 leaf specimens of Chinese medicinal resources have been collected, following initial counting.
The State Forestry Administration (SFA) has initiated a second national survey of key protected wild plants and animals. SFA has completed the fourth survey of habitats for giant pandas, the eighth national forest inventory and the fifth monitoring of land degradation and desertification.
The State Oceanic Administration (SOA) has summarized results of comprehensive surveys and assessments of offshore marine areas, inventoried marine biodiversity and undertaken biodiversity monitoring and assessments of 18 ecological monitoring areas and 77 national-level marine protected areas.

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10. Vulnerable ecosystems
12. Preventing extinctions
13. Agricultural biodiversity
Measure taken has been partially effective

Obstacles: Fund management is yet to be further improved.
In the areas of biodiversity survey and observation, biodiversity conservation infrastructure construction, and biodiversity science research, there is a need to consolidate and coordinate the use of funds. Although pilot work on biodiversity baseline surveys has been carried out, large-scale baseline surveys have not yet been carried out. The construction and management of nature reserves in some parts of China has problems of insufficient capital investment and lack of operating funds, especially in the western China region. Although ecological compensation is gradually increased in the fields of river basins, forests, grasslands, wetlands and key ecological function areas, the source of ecological compensation funds is single, mainly relying on government investment, and the diversified and market-oriented ecological compensation mechanism needs to be further improved.

Scientific and technical needs: Survey and monitoring
•    Species identification technology using artificial intelligence;
•    DNA barcode technology for taxonomy;
•    DNA barcode database;
•    Survey techniques of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge;
•    Biodiversity survey and monitoring by modern information technology, biotechnology and remote sensing technology;
•    Biodiversity monitoring network design techniques and tools;
•    Building biodiversity monitoring networks and early warning centers;
•    Integration of multi-source and multi-scale biodiversity data;
•    Biodiversity databases and information systems;
•    Technologies for deep mining of biodiversity big data.

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Remarkable results have been achieved in in-situ conservation.

China has established a system of in-situ conservation composed of nature reserves (as main components), scenic spots, forest parks, wetland parks, protected areas for aquatic germplasm resources and special marine protected areas. By the end of 2017, China has established 2,750 nature reserves covering a total land area of 147.17 million hectares, accounting for 14.86% of the country’s total land area and having surpassed the world’s average. Among them, there are 463 national-level nature reserves, covering a total land area of 97.4516 million hectares, accounting for 16.84% of the total number of nature reserves and 66.22% of the total land area covered by nature reserves. China has been actively promoting pilot work in the establishment of national parks system. China has established ten national parks such as Three Major River Sources Park, Northeast China Tiger and Leopard Park and Giant Panda Park and intended to establish a network of protected areas with national parks as its core components. China has also identified 244 national-level scenic spots and 807 provincial scenic spots, covering about 2.23% of the country’s total land area. Among them, 42 national-level scenic spots and 10 provincial scenic spots have been included in the World Heritage List by UNESCO. China has established 3,505 forest parks. Among them, there are 881 national-level forest parks, aiming to cover 12.7862 million hectares. By 2018, China has designated 57 wetlands of international importance and established 898 national wetland parks (pilot), with the rate of wetland conservation having reached 49.03%. By 2016, China has announced in ten batches the establishment of a total of 523 national-level protected areas for aquatic germplasm resources, covering a total area of 15.6 million hectares. So far, the area covered by terrestrial protected areas of various types in China has exceeded 18% of the country’s total land area, having achieved in advance the target of 17% for 2020 identified in the CBD’s Strategic Plan. Within these protected areas, over 90% of terrestrial natural ecosystem types and 89% of national key protected wild animals and plant species have been protected. Wild populations for some endangered and rare species are being gradually restored. The wild populations of some endangered species such as giant panda, the Amur tiger, crested ibis, the Tibetan antelope and the Yangtze alligator, have been increasing while being stabilized.
To protect the reproduction and growth of fishes in the marine areas of China, since 1995, China has implemented fishing bans during June-September in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea areas under China’s jurisdiction. Since 1999, this ban has been extended to South China areas north of 12° N. Currently, the fishing ban period for the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea areas north of 35° N is from 1 May to 1 September. For the Yellow Sea and East China Sea areas between 35° N~26°30′ N, the ban period is from 1 May to 16 September. For the area between 26°30′ N and the marine border area in the East China Sea between Fujian and Guangdong Provinces, the ban period is from 1 May to 16 August. The same ban period applies to the area between 12°N and the marine border area in the South China Sea between Fujian and Guangdong Provinces including North Bay. During fishing ban period, all types of operations are banned except for fishing tackles. China has also implemented fishing bans in the Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River and Huai River. This ban was introduced to the Yangtze River and the Pearl River in 2003 and 2010 respectively. In 2015 the main stream of Huai River was also included in the ban. Currently, fishing ban is implemented in the main stream of the Yangtze River, important rivers flowing into the Yangtze River, Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake and the main stream of Huai River from mid-night 1 March to mid-night 30 June annually. Such ban is also implemented in the main stream of the Pearl River, important branches and lakes connecting with the river from midnight 1 April to midnight 1 June every year. In 2018, the Ministry of Agriculture has extended such a ban to the main stream of the Yellow River, Zhaling Lake, Eling Lake and Dongping Lake as well as the main stream of 13 main branch rivers, from midnight 1 April to midnight 30 June annually. All fishing operations will be prohibited during the ban period and in the banned areas. The Ministry of Agriculture issued a Notice on the List of Aquatic Species Protected Areas for Comprehensive Fishing Ban in the Yangtze River Basin, and from January 2018, a comprehensive fishing ban was implemented in 332 aquatic species protected areas in the Yangtze River Basin. The implementation of fishing breaks and bans has relieved huge pressures on fishery resources caused by fishing overcapacity and excessive fishing intensity and played an important role in protecting aquatic biodiversity.
To protect endangered species such as the Chinese sturgeon, the Yangtze River dolphin, the Chinese white dolphin, spotted seal and river sturgeon, to facilitate their reproduction and to protect aquatic biodiversity, the Ministry of Agriculture has developed an Action Plan for Rescuing the Chinese Sturgeon (2015-2030), an Action Plan for Rescuing the Yangtze River dolphin (2016-2025), an Action Plan for Protecting the Chinese White Dolphin (2017-2026) , an Action Plan for Protecting the Spotted Seal (2017-2026) and an Action Plan for Rescuing the River Sturgeon (2018-2035). In these plans specific protection actions/measures have been proposed, providing guidance for the protection of endangered species in China in the next decade and beyond.

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11. Protected areas
Measure taken has been effective

Obstacles: Inadequate conservation infrastructure construction
Though some national-level protected areas in China have followed standardized development, however overall conservation capacities and infrastructure construction for protected areas are still weak. At present, the resources of wild medicinal plants in China continue to decline. The wild populations of important medicinal plants such as Panax notoginseng and Panax ginseng are very rare. It is urgent to establish a medicinal plant resource conservation facility to rescue precious wild medicinal plant resources. The Chinese botanical garden system and the wild animal breeding system are yet to be improved, and the capacity of collecting and preserving important crop germplasm resources is also insufficient.

Scientific and technical needs:
•    Biodiversity in situ conservation systematic planning techniques and tools;
•    Standards and norms for classification and grading of nature reserves;
•    Effective management techniques for nature reserves;
•    Technologies for appropriate use of resources of protected areas;
•    Design and management techniques for biological corridors;
•    Construction technologies of In-situ conservation network.

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Ex-situ conservation has been further enhanced.

Relatively rapid progress is made in the ex-situ conservation of wild animals and plants and germplasm resources. China has established over 240 zoos or animal exhibit zones, feeding 775 animal species from China and abroad. China has set up 250 bases for rescuing and breeding wild animals. The population of nearly ten extremely endangered species (on the edge of extinction), such as giant panda, crested ibis, the Amur tiger, has been recovering. The artificial propagation of over 60 species of rare and endangered animals is successful. The population of wild giant pandas in China has reached 1,864 and the number of giant pandas raised in captivity has reached 375. The habitat area for wild giant panda is 2.58 million hectares and potential habitat area is 910,000 hectares. The number of crested ibis has increased from 7 (originally found in 1981) to over 2,600 now. The habitat area for wild crested ibis has expanded from less than 500 hectares (where they were found originally) to over 1.4 million hectares now. The population of Przewalski’s gazelle has risen from less than 200 in 2003 to 2,010 currently, an increase of over ten times in the past fourteen years. In addition, China has also established stable artificially-propagated population for over 300 rare and endangered wild animal species and successfully reintroduced to nature over 10 endangered wild animal species, such as giant panda, crested ibis, David’s deer, Przewalski's horse, wild camel and the Chinese barred-backed pheasant. Overall the population of endangered species has been increasing, while being stabilized.
China has established more than 200 botanical gardens (arboreta), preserving over 23,000 plant species. The number of native plant species in these botanical gardens accounts for 60% of China’s total plant species. About 1,200 plant species were introduced from other countries, enriching plant diversity in China. China has initiated the implementation of the National Engineering Planning for Protecting Wild Plants with Very Small Populations. As a result, nearly 200 sites of ex-situ conservation have been established. So far collection has been completed of germplasm resources of cycad and palm trees as well as orchid and magnolia plants that are originated from China. The Chinese Academy of Sciences took the lead in establishing China Botanical Gardens Alliance and initiated the Native Plants Full-coverage Plan. With this plan, assessments of 64,879 species/times of native plants in 14 regions have been completed, covering 501 critically endangered species, 773 endangered species and 1,299 vulnerable species. Photos of a large number of native plants, their habitats and locations have been taken which provides a good basis for taking conservation measures in the next phase. Research on artificial breeding techniques for rare and endangered wild plants as well as seed source construction have been strengthened. Wild plant cultivation bases have been reinforced or improved. Over 22 comprehensive storage banks for genetic resources of multiple tree species, 13 specialized banks for genetic resources of a single tree species, and 226 national bases for good forest species have been established, preserving over 2,000 tree species and covering most of the provinces and 60% of main tree species currently used for afforestation.
A system of germplasm resources conservation composed of national long-term storage banks, mid-term banks, germplasm gardens, original habitat protection sites and national gene banks has been established, basically covering various types of agricultural ecological areas. Within this system, a total of 480,000 possessions of specimens have been collected, inventoried and preserved in national banks and germplasm gardens. 39 endangered wild species that were originated from China such as wild rice, wild soybeans, wild relatives of wheat and wild fruit trees, have been well protected. China has established a national germplasm bank for medicinal plants, having collected nearly 30,000 isolated germplasms of medicinal plants. China has established 28 seed and seedling breeding bases for medicinal plants in 20 provinces (autonomous regions), as well as 180 branch bases, covering a total area of 4,667 hectares and breeding seeds and seedlings of 120 medicinal herbs (28 endangered species). Two germplasm banks for medicinal herbs have been established in Sichuan and Hainan Provinces, preserving 24,000 germplasms collected from the census of Chinese medicinal resources. Southwest China Wild Germplasm Resources Bank was established, which collected and preserved 79,123 possessions of wild plant seeds of 10,013 species belonging to 228 families and 2005 genera in China, accounting for 1/3 of the total number of flowering plant species in China, including 669 rare and endangered species, 4,035 species endemic to China (40.30% of total preserved species), 20,810 in-vitro culture materials of 1,850 plant species and 49,815 DNA molecular materials of 5,642 species. The system of conservation of livestock genetic resources continues to be improved, with 187 national-level seed farms, protected areas and gene banks established. National-level seed conservation bodies have been established for over 90% of livestock species included in the national protection list.

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12. Preventing extinctions
13. Agricultural biodiversity
Measure taken has been effective

Obstacles:Inadequate conservation infrastructure construction
Though some national-level protected areas in China have followed standardized development, however overall conservation capacities and infrastructure construction for protected areas are still weak. At present, the resources of wild medicinal plants in China continue to decline. The wild populations of important medicinal plants such as Panax notoginseng and Panax ginseng are very rare. It is urgent to establish a medicinal plant resource conservation facility to rescue precious wild medicinal plant resources. The Chinese botanical garden system and the wild animal breeding system are yet to be improved, and the capacity of collecting and preserving important crop germplasm resources is also insufficient.

Scientific and technical needs:
•    Artificial breeding and reintroduction techniques for important rare and endangered species;
•    Germplasm resources collection and preservation techniques;
•    Construction of ex situ conservation system for important wild animals and plants and germplasm resources.

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Major progress achieved in ecosystem conservation and restoration.

A group of major ecological conservation and restoration projects have been implemented, such as natural forests protection, reclaiming farmlands for forestry and grasslands, reclaiming grazing lands for grasslands, forest belt construction, restoration of river, lake and wetland ecosystems, water and soil conservation, control of rocky lands, wild animal and plant protection and establishment of protected areas. During 2013-2017, China has completed afforestation of 34 million hectares, forest tending of 41 million hectares and another round of reclaiming farmlands for forestry and grasslands of 3 million hectares. China has also identified 3 million hectares for national reserve forests. 124 million hectares of national-level public benefit forests have been included in the centrally-financed forest ecological compensation scheme. Commercial logging of natural forests has been completely banned and the range of natural forest protection has been expanded across the country. The forest area has reached 208 million hectares and the forest coverage rate come up to 21.66%, with the forest stock reaching 15.137 billion m3. Among them, the increase of natural forest stock accounts for 63%, with the natural forest area increased from 119.69 million hectares originally to 121.84 million hectares, making China the country with the fastest growth in forest resources in the world. During the 12th five-year period, China has implemented over 1,500 projects for wetland restoration and compensation, having restored more than 233,300 hectares of wetlands and reclaimed 51,000 hectares of farmlands for wetlands. As a result, the total area of wetlands in China has reached 53.6026 million hectares and the rate of wetland protection has come up to 49.03%. China has completed control of 10 million hectares of desertified land, with the overall trend of land desertification basically controlled. During the 12th five-year period, a total of 47.205 million hectares of degraded, desertified and salinized grasslands have been controlled. By 2017, comprehensive vegetation coverage of grasslands in the country has reached 55.3%, and the total fresh grass output from natural grasslands has risen to 1.07 billion tons, the seventh consecutive year with outputs exceeding 1 billion tons. The grassland vegetation coverage in key ecological project areas is 15% higher than that in non-project areas, and 85% higher in fresh grass outputs per unit area.

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5. Loss of habitats
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
Measure taken has been effective

Obstacles: Scientific and technical support capacities are yet to be further enhanced.
With the national science and technology support plan, some initial results have been achieved in the studies on ecosystem function maintenance mechanisms, mechanics causing species endangerment and small populations maintenance mechanisms. Phase progress has been also made in biodiversity inventorying, however there are gaps and weaknesses. For example, baseline data for biodiversity are inadequate. The level of development and application of genetic resources is still low and systematic assessments of a large number of germplasms collected are lacking. The technical level for genotypic identification at molecular level is low and techniques are still short for the prevention and control of invasive alien species and examining the imported and exported biological resources and species. Fundamental research and technology development for biodiversity conservation need to be further strengthened.
Scientific and technical needs: Restoration and reconstruction of degraded ecosystems.
•    Biodiversity enhancement techniques for monopoly plantation;
•    Restoration and reconstruction techniques for degraded wetland ecosystem;
•    Degraded, desertified and salinized grassland ecosystem management techniques;
•    Degraded marine ecosystem restoration techniques;
•    Restoration techniques for degraded ecosystems invaded by alien species.

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Effective campaigns launched in pollution prevention and control.

China has developed action plans for preventing and controlling water, air and soil pollution, and has been taking persistent actions in this regard. As a result, by 2017, the average concentration of PM10 in 338 cities has decreased by 22.7% compared with that in 2013. The average concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing-Hebei-Tianjin area, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta has dropped by 39.6%, 34.3% and 27.7% respectively, compared with that in 2013. The average concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing went down from 89.5μg /m3 in 2013 to 58 μg/m3. Key goals and tasks for air quality improvement identified in the Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control have been fully achieved. Coal-burning small boilers in cities have been almost phased out, with over 200,000 boilers with capacity below 10 tons vapor eliminated. Renovation of a total of 700 million kilowatts of ultra-low emission of coal-fired power plants has been completed. National Class V standards for vehicle emission and oil have been implemented across the country. Over 20 million old vehicles have been phased out and a total of 1.8 million new-energy-driven cars have been promoted. A programme for ship emission control areas is being implemented. As an Action Plan for Water Pollution Control is implemented, the surface water quality throughout the country has been constantly going up. The percentage of water bodies that meet Classes I-III quality standards has reached 67.9%, and that lower than Class V has dropped to 8.3%. The water quality of the main stream of major rivers is being steadily improved. 97.7% sites for protection of drinking water sources for cities at prefecture and above levels have been identified. 93% of integrated industrial areas at provincial and above levels have established integrated wastewater treatment facilities. Additional wastewater treatment capacities of nearly 10 million m3/day have been established for industrial distribution areas. Brackish, stinky water bodies in 36 key cities have basically disappeared. Environmental law enforcement has been undertaken for urban drinking water sources in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. As a result, 490 environmental problems identified through law enforcement have been all resolved. Reuse of livestock wastes has been promoted throughout 96 counties of major livestock farming. Pesticide use has been going down for three consecutive years, and fertilizer use has achieved zero growth three years ahead of plan. Water conservation has been strengthened and double-control actions for both total water consumption and water use intensity are being implemented to a full scale. Prevention and control of pollution from ports and piers is being reinforced. A nation-wide survey of marine pollution from land-based sources has been undertaken and those illegal or improperly placed pollutant outlets have been closed. The Law on Soil Contamination Prevention and Control is promulgated. The Rule for Soil Environment Management of Agricultural Land Use has been issued. A national survey of soil contamination has been undertaken. A special examination has been undertaken of land reuse where key industrial factories or enterprises have been closed or relocated. Capacities of municipal waste treatment have reached 680,000 tons/day, with the non-hazard treatment rate coming up to 97.74%. The percentage of villages whose rural wastes have been treated has reached 74%.
In 2011, the central government allocated a specialized fund of 4 billion yuan for rural environment in support of efforts to improve the rural environment across the country. Over years thereafter the funding level has been increased year by year. In 2013, the central government allocated 6 billion yuan in support of rural environmental improvement in 46,000 villages, from which over 87 million villagers have directly benefited. In 2014, 6 billion yuan was invested into rural environmental improvements in 59,000 villages and the rural population that benefited from this has exceeded 110 million. In 2015, an investment of 6 billion was made to support the rural environmental improvement in 72,000 villages and more than 120 million villagers have directly benefited.

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8. Pollution
Measure taken has been partially effective

Obstacles: Conflicts between socio-economic development and conservation remain

Land use for urbanization, industry, mines and transportation is increasing, occupying tremendous natural and ecological space and leading to reductions in areas of natural habitats such as shrubs and grasslands and damaging biodiversity. Some local governments have adjusted or even revoked many times protected areas to pursue their own economic interests. Some places undertook development activities in protected areas, even within their core areas and buffer zones, thus weakening the ecological functions and values of protected areas.
Scientific and technical needs: Sustainable use
Technologies for ecological spatial planning and use control;
Ecosystem service function balancing and upgrading technology;
Organic agriculture technology;
Technologies for soil testing and formula fertilization, precise and efficient application of pesticides.

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Biosafety management capacities have been further enhanced.

As a result of multiple-year efforts, the prevention and control of invasive alien species have been further regulated. Various sector departments are making concerted efforts in this regard in accordance with relevant laws and regulations. The Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Chinese Academy of Sciences have issued a third list of IAS in China and a fourth list of IAS in China’s natural ecosystems. MEP has developed technical guidelines for risk assessment of IAS and issued a notice on managing and supervising IAS prevention and control in natural ecosystems, which provides guidance to local environment departments for their efforts to prevent and control IAS. The Ministry of Agriculture issued the first list of IAS under key national control and requested all provinces (autonomous regions and province-level municipalities) to investigate 52 invasive species on the list. MOA also set up an emergency response office to address the invasion of alien species and organized on-site elimination of invasive species and emergency responses. Satellite remote-sensing techniques are used to monitor the invasion of aquatic invasive species (such as water hyacinth and alligator weed) in key water areas of 11 provinces in south China. MOA also developed an inventory of technical guidelines for biological control of alligator weed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The State Customs Administration organized training workshops on the list of imported and exported genetic resources and knowledge related to protection of endangered species. The State General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine strengthened border prevention and control for biosafety. During the 12th five-year period, the annual increase rate of intercepting hazardous species at ports and border controls is 26.8%. A total of 8,945 IAS have been detected and intercepted over years. Solely in 2016, 6,305 invasive species and 1.22 million batches were intercepted at various ports across the country. In 2014, the State Council issued Recommendations on Further Strengthening the Prevention and Control of Forest Pests. The State Forestry Administration has been promoting the revision of some laws or regulations for forest pest control such as the Regulation on Prevention and Control of Forest Pests and the Regulation on Plant Quarantine. The Chinese Academy of Sciences initiated the Border Gate Biosafety Project through which a rapid identification system is established for IAS and common quarantine objects by using new technologies such as DNA barcoding and developing an IAS database, with a view to reducing the introduction of IAS and protecting China's biosecurity.
Importance has been attached to the supervision and management of the safety of GMOs. During the 12th five-year period, supported by the Special Key Program of New Varieties of GMOs, 183 major research projects and 130 research projects were initiated and implemented. Significant results have been achieved in many fields, such as promoting research and development on innovative products and their commercialization, key gene cloning technologies and core technological innovations. The Ministry of Environmental Protection together with other departments participated in the Meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and other relevant meetings. MEP has also submitted three national reports to the Protocol and played an active role in the effective implementation of the Protocol. The Ministry of Agriculture has established the fifth Biosafety Committee on Agricultural GMOs. MOA has issued a Notice on Strengthening the Supervision and Management of Genetically Modified Agricultural Crops and developed related law enforcement plans to regulate the research, testing, production, marketing, import and export of agricultural GMOs and their products. The State General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine established a technical system for detecting GMOs. The biosafety management system of GM trees is being gradually established and the research, testing and other activities related to GM trees are proceeding in accordance with relevant regulations, with biosafety monitoring system having been initiated. The State Oceanic Administration has undertaken risk assessments and environmental impact assessments of the marine environmental release of GMOs and developed relevant technical guidelines and standards.

EN
9. Invasive Alien Species
Measure taken has been partially effective