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Sixth National Report

  published: 29 Dec 2018

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

India

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 1 : By 2020, a significant proportion of the population especially the youth, is aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.

Public education and awareness about biodiversity is one of the thrust areas of the Government. Biodiversity touches every human being and contribution of every person is required for its conservation and sustainable use. For a meaningful contribution, people need to understand the concept, the significance of and the threats to biodiversity, as also the role they can and must play to adopt direct and indirect measures for its restoration, conservation and sustainable use. Students and youth need to be incepted in the process right from their formative years with special attention to the youth which constitute nearly 35 % of the total population in India today. The target has been adopted to meet this need, which is also recognized under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP), Biological Diversity Act, 2002 and relevant national policies. It is in alignment with Aichi Biodiversity Target (ABT) 1 and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 1 and 12. 


Conventions that relate to NBT 1: 

  1. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 1993 
  2. Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), 1983
  3.  Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 1975
  4.  Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), 1975 
  5. International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), 1952 
  6. International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), 2004 
  7. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), 1996 
  8. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1994 
  9. United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), 2000 
  10. World Heritage Convention (WHC), 1977
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
 
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Aichi-T2. Integration of biodiversity values
Aichi-T3. Incentives
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T5. Loss of habitats
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T9. Invasive Alien Species
Aichi-T10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Aichi-T11. Protected areas
Aichi-T12. Preventing extinctions
Aichi-T13. Agricultural biodiversity
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
Aichi-T15. Ecosystem resilience
Aichi-T16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
Aichi-T18. Traditional knowledge
Aichi-T19. Biodiversity knowledge
Aichi-T20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 2 : By 2020, values of biodiversity are integrated in national and state planning processes, development programmes and poverty alleviation.

As a megadiverse country harbouring nearly 7-8% of globally recorded species while supporting 18% of the global human population on mere 2.4% of world’s land area, India’s quest for inclusive economic development and need to maintain integrity of its natural capital demands a delicate balance. The National Environment Policy (NEP), 2006 prepared through extensive consultations with experts in different disciplines, central ministries, legislators, States/UTs, industry associations, academic and research institutions, civil society, NGOs and the public aims at mainstreaming environmental concerns in all development sectors. India has since long put in place poverty alleviation programmes and strategies. These have generally heavily relied on primary and allied sector activities and on creation of basic infrastructure directly impacting the quality of life of people especially those below poverty line. Through this target, the government seeks to ensure that these programmes and strategies and other development sectors integrate the values of biodiversity clearly and sharply. Experience over time has shown that unless the comprehensive value of the natural resources was computed and articulated explicitly, the case of biodiversity conservation may not get adequately addressed. The NBT also seeks to promote enumeration and valuation of ecosystem services rendered by biodiversity and ensure their conservation and wise use by integrating them appropriately in national and state planning processes, development programmes and poverty alleviation strategies. This NBT is linked with NBT 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 directly. This resonates with ABT 2 and is linked with SDG 1, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15 and 17.


Conventions that relate to NBT 2:

  1. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 1993
  2. Convention on Wetlands of International importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), 1975
  3. International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), 2004
  4. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1994
  5. United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), 2000


EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T2. Integration of biodiversity values
 
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Aichi-T2. Integration of biodiversity values
Aichi-T3. Incentives
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T5. Loss of habitats
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T9. Invasive Alien Species
Aichi-T10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Aichi-T11. Protected areas
Aichi-T12. Preventing extinctions
Aichi-T13. Agricultural biodiversity
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
Aichi-T15. Ecosystem resilience
Aichi-T16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
Aichi-T18. Traditional knowledge
Aichi-T19. Biodiversity knowledge
Aichi-T20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.


Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 3 : Strategies for reducing rate of degradation, fragmentation and loss of all natural habitats are finalized and actions put in place by 2020 for environmental amelioration and human well-being.

Degradation of natural habitats affects the entire population adversely; but the effect of the impairment of ecosystem services on the people with meagre means and dependent on land and natural resources for livelihoods is deleterious. A little more than two-thirds of India’s geographical area is arid, semi-arid or dry sub-humid on which depend a vast majority of rural and semi urban poor for their livelihoods. Studies have repeatedly emphasized that the rural poor and particularly women are severely impacted by the effect of environmental degradation on soil fertility, quantity and quality of water, air quality, forests, wildlife and fisheries. To halt such degradation and restore degraded natural habitats following landscape and seascape approach is a priority under NEP, 2006 which this target reflects. In conformity with the commitment to carry out the objectives of Convention on Biological Diversity, this target implements Aichi Target 5 and 15.

1.      Conventions that relate to NBT-3:

  1. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 1993
  2. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), 1975
  3. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNFCCD), 1996
  4. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 1994
  5. United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), 2000
  6. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1994

2, Others:

Covers SDG 6,7,11,13,14 & 15

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T5. Loss of habitats
Aichi-T15. Ecosystem resilience
 
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T9. Invasive Alien Species
Aichi-T10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Aichi-T11. Protected areas
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
Aichi-T15. Ecosystem resilience
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
Aichi-T19. Biodiversity knowledge
Aichi-T20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 4 : By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and strategies to manage them developed so that populations of prioritized invasive alien species are managed.

Invasive alien species (IAS) introduced deliberately or accidentally in Indian ecosystems is a serious problem. Anthropogenic influences further facilitate proliferation of these which in turn threaten native biodiversity, subvert natural plant succession, change structure and composition of communities, and impair ecosystem services severely. India’s National Assessment of Tigers, Co-predators, Prey and their Habitat, carried out every fourth year since 2006, includes invasive plants as an integral part of the assessment. Repeated sampling of forests in four consecutive cycles over 12 years to survey and monitor invasive plants suggests that >90% of sampled forests were invaded by some high concern invasive species. IAS now constitute one of the most significant threat to survival and integrity of biodiversity. NBT4 resonates with ABT 9 and is linked to SDG 15.

Conventions that relate to NBT 4:
1.    Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals(CMS), 1983
2.    Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), 1975
3.    Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), 1975
4.    International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), 1952
5.    United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 1994
6.    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC), 1994
7.    The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, 1995
8.    The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention), 2004

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
 
Aichi-T5. Loss of habitats
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T11. Protected areas
Aichi-T12. Preventing extinctions
Aichi-T15. Ecosystem resilience
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 5 : By 2020, Measures are adopted for Sustainable Management of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.

India aims to provide food and nutritional security to all its people in “human life cycle approach” ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices through sustainable agricultural growth without destroying the natural resource base ensuring inter-generational environmental equity. Social and economic equity and economic viability for nearly 54.6% of the population that depends on agriculture and allied sectors for their livelihoods must inform policies, institutions and programmes in the sector. Sustainable management of agriculture, fisheries and forests is a sine quanon to achieve these objectives which this NBT aims at and takes forward the theme of NBT 3. It is directly aligned with Aichi targets 6, 7, 8 and connects with the commitments of India in various Conventions and international agreements listed below

Conventions that relate to NBT 5:
1.    Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 1993
2.    International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), 1952
3.    International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGFRA), 2004
4.    United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), 1996
5.    United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 1994
6.    United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), 2000
7.    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1994

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
 
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Aichi-T3. Incentives
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T9. Invasive Alien Species
Aichi-T10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Aichi-T12. Preventing extinctions
Aichi-T13. Agricultural biodiversity
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
Aichi-T18. Traditional knowledge
Aichi-T19. Biodiversity knowledge
Relevant documents and information


Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 6 : Ecologically representative areas on land and in inland waters, as well as coastal and marine zones, especially those of particular importance for species, biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved effectively and equitably, on the basis of protected area designation and management and other area-based conservation measures and are integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes, covering over 20 % of the geographic area of the country, by 2020.

Living in harmony with nature has been a part of Indian ethos. However, meeting the development needs of the 18% of the world’s population with 2.4% of its land inevitably leads to severe strains on land and resources. Conscious of this imperative, India progressively instituted measures to create reserved/designated areas of nature conservation. This NBT aims at deepening and widening the conservation efforts adopting a wider seascape and landscape approach integrating development and human welfare with conservation. It corresponds to Aichi Target 11 and contributes to achievement of SDGs 6,11,14 & 15.

 Conventions that relate to NBT 6:
1.    Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 1993
2.    Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals(CMS), 1983
3.    Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 1975
4.    Convention on Wetlands on International importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), 1975
5.    International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGFRA), 2004
6.    The World Heritage Convention, 1977
7.    United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), 2000

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Aichi-T11. Protected areas
Aichi-T12. Preventing extinctions
 
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T5. Loss of habitats
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T9. Invasive Alien Species
Aichi-T15. Ecosystem resilience
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 7 : By 2020, genetic diversity of cultivated plants, farm livestock, and their wild relatives including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.

India is recognized as one of the world's 12 Vavilovian centres of origin and diversification of cultivated plants, known as the "Hindustan Centre of origin of crop plants". Farmers and local communities even today play an important role in conserving and cultivating traditional varieties, and breeding and developing new varieties. Livestock rearing, and production has been a part of agriculture enterprises and both are intrinsically linked, each being dependent on other and both being crucial for overall food security. Livestock sector is important socially and economically contributing to health and nutrition of households, offering employment and income, treated as dependable “bank on hooves” by rural population. Green revolution technologies have promoted uniform and limited number of crops demanding a different level and nature of inputs, creating the need for taking targeted action to identify, encourage and conserve genetic diversity for maintaining biodiversity and ensuring food security. The NBT7 addresses this need. It resonates with Aichi Biodiversity Target 13.

Conventions that relate to NBT 7:

1.    Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 1993
2.    International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), 1952
3.    International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPRGFA), 2004
4.    The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, 2014

Others:

Sustainable Development Goals 2 and 3

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T13. Agricultural biodiversity
 
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Aichi-T20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 8 : By 2020, ecosystem services especially those relating to water, human health, livelihoods and well-being, are enumerated and measures to safeguard them are identified taking into account the needs of women and local communities particularly the poor and vulnerable section.

India has diverse ecosystems spread over 10 biogeographic zones. All these ecosystems provide essential services for human well-being. NBTs 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 enumerate these services and recognises the need to address all issues confronting their integrity and conservation and ensure measures to conserve and sustainably use them. Economic development in India has consistently aimed at inclusive growth to raise the quality of life of its people. Women, socially and economically backward communities and other vulnerable groups have been and continue to form an essential part of the development priorities. These groups are dependent on natural resources for their sustenance, and degradation of environmental and natural resources impacts these vulnerable groups the most. National Environment Policy, 2006 has provided a template for a path of development in which conservation of natural resources and environment becomes a means to economic development. Considering the interdependence of safeguarding the ecosystem services and human development index NBT 8 seeks to address the issues that help create conditions for realisation of this approach through enhancement of human development index, which in turn augments capacity and environment for conservation. It meets the requirement of ABT 14 and SDGs 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14 and 15.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
 
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Aichi-T2. Integration of biodiversity values
Aichi-T3. Incentives
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T5. Loss of habitats
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T9. Invasive Alien Species
Aichi-T10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Aichi-T11. Protected areas
Aichi-T12. Preventing extinctions
Aichi-T13. Agricultural biodiversity
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
Aichi-T15. Ecosystem resilience
Aichi-T16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
Aichi-T18. Traditional knowledge
Aichi-T19. Biodiversity knowledge
Aichi-T20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 9 : By 2015, Access to Genetic Resources (GRs) and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization as per the Nagoya Protocol are operational, consistent with national legislation.

This NBT significantly advances the objective of the CBD and Nagoya Protocol relating to the fair and equitable sharing of benefits (ABS) arising from the utilization of Genetic Resources (GRs) by providing legal certainty and transparency for both providers and users of GRs and associated Traditional Knowledge (TK), including researchers and industry. India had already put in place domestic legal measures for implementation of ABS through Biological Diversity Act, 2002 and Biological Diversity Rules, 2004. Nagoya Protocol created the opportunity to strengthen the domestic measures and include transboundary compliance. This NBT echoes ABT 16.

Conventions that relate to NBT 9:

1.    Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 1993
2.    The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the CBD (NP), 2014

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
 
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Aichi-T2. Integration of biodiversity values
Aichi-T3. Incentives
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T13. Agricultural biodiversity
Aichi-T16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
Aichi-T18. Traditional knowledge
Aichi-T19. Biodiversity knowledge
Aichi-T20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 10 : By 2020, an effective participatory and updated national biodiversity plan is made operational at different levels of governance.

NBSAP prepared at national level through extensive consultations is the principal instrument for mainstreaming biodiversity in diverse development and regulatory sectors taking into cognizance their legislations, implementation mechanisms, strategies, plans and programmes. India has three levels of governance, the central government, state governments and institutions of local governance in the states. The elements of this NBT include integration of NBSAP in line ministries, integration of NBSAP in planning and implementation process at state level and participation of all levels of governance in preparation of NBSAP based action plans to ensure its effective operationalization. Many States/UTs have prepared their own SBAPs through consultative process.

SBAPs are important in that they reflect State specific ground realities and ensure decentralised approach to governance and management of biodiversity with required focus on women and local communities. MoEFCC and NBA as the national level drivers of planning and implementation provide support, and guidance for updating the plans as and when required. In addition, Biological Diversity Act creates a well-articulated administrative infrastructure to implement the objectives of CBD and NBSAP at different levels with the active involvement of local communities and women. This ensures ground level focussed action and implementation of NBSAP.

Conventions that relate to NBT 10:

1.    Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 1993
2.    Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), 1983
3.    Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 1975
4.    Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), 1975
5.    International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), 1952
6.    International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), 2004
7.    Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), 2004
8.    United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), 1996
9.    United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), 2000
10.    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1994
11.    World Heritage Convention (WHC), 1977

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T3. Incentives
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
 
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Aichi-T2. Integration of biodiversity values
Aichi-T3. Incentives
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T5. Loss of habitats
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T9. Invasive Alien Species
Aichi-T10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Aichi-T11. Protected areas
Aichi-T12. Preventing extinctions
Aichi-T13. Agricultural biodiversity
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
Aichi-T15. Ecosystem resilience
Aichi-T16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
Aichi-T18. Traditional knowledge
Aichi-T19. Biodiversity knowledge
Aichi-T20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 11 : By 2020, national initiatives using communities' traditional knowledge relating to biodiversity are strengthened, with the view to protecting this knowledge in accordance with national legislations and international obligations.

India has a vast heritage of coded and oral TK relating to elements, conservation and various uses of biodiversity for human, animal and planet welfare. This fund of knowledge is valuable for conservation and human welfare. It helps advancement in modern science in various fields. Its wider use needs to be encouraged. But the use must not lead to obtaining unjustified Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) on something that has already been created by people nor should the inventions made on its basis go without acknowledging the contributions of the TK, and without sharing benefits with the creators of knowledge fairly and equitably.

The NBT aims at creating mechanisms and the environment for recognising and protecting TK for larger human welfare along with safeguarding interests and rights of the TK creators while meeting commitment under CBD and NP regarding TK. It directly aligns with Aichi Target 8.

Conventions that relate to NBT 11:

1.    Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (1993)
2.    International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (1952)
3.    World Heritage Convention (WHC) (1977)
4.    World Intellectual Property Rights Organisations (WIPO) Convention (1967)

Others

Related to SDG 6,9,11,12 &14

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T18. Traditional knowledge
 
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T5. Loss of habitats
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T12. Preventing extinctions
Aichi-T13. Agricultural biodiversity
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
Aichi-T16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
Aichi-T19. Biodiversity knowledge
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 12 : By 2020, opportunities to increase the availability of financial human and technical resources to facilitate effective implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the national targets are identified and the Strategy for Resource Mobilization is adopted.

Financial, technical and human resources are naturally needed to achieve the NBTs which are aligned with 20 Aichi Biodiversity targets. While policies and actions to progressively incorporate economic value, financial and ecosystem benefits from biodiversity in planning and development are being pursued, the challenge of identifying and channelizing existing allocations effectively towards conservation and finding resources for funding the gap areas continues. The technical and technological advances open opportunities and increasing human needs create additional challenges which generate a constant need of review, reassessment and realignment of existing resources and finding new avenues to fund the requirements of biodiversity conservation.

Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN) 2012 currently piloted in 31 countries aims at developing a methodology for quantifying the biodiversity finance gap at national level improving cost effectiveness of conservation through mainstreaming of biodiversity in national development and planning and suggesting ways to mobilise additional resources. India joined this initiative in 2015. The target reflects the seriousness of the government to create adequate funding for biodiversity conservation and implementation of National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBSAP) and related National Biodiversity Targets (NBTs) and Aichi Biodiversity Target (ABTs).

It resonates Aichi Biodiversity Target 20.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Aichi-T2. Integration of biodiversity values
Aichi-T3. Incentives
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T5. Loss of habitats
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T9. Invasive Alien Species
Aichi-T10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Aichi-T11. Protected areas
Aichi-T12. Preventing extinctions
Aichi-T13. Agricultural biodiversity
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
Aichi-T15. Ecosystem resilience
Aichi-T16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
Aichi-T18. Traditional knowledge
Aichi-T19. Biodiversity knowledge
Aichi-T20. Resource mobilization
 
Aichi-T1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Aichi-T2. Integration of biodiversity values
Aichi-T3. Incentives
Aichi-T4. Use of natural resources
Aichi-T5. Loss of habitats
Aichi-T6. Sustainable fisheries
Aichi-T7. Areas under sustainable management
Aichi-T8. Pollution
Aichi-T9. Invasive Alien Species
Aichi-T10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Aichi-T11. Protected areas
Aichi-T12. Preventing extinctions
Aichi-T13. Agricultural biodiversity
Aichi-T14. Essential ecosystem services
Aichi-T15. Ecosystem resilience
Aichi-T16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Aichi-T17. NBSAPs
Aichi-T18. Traditional knowledge
Aichi-T19. Biodiversity knowledge
Aichi-T20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) started the process of setting up NBTs by organising a high-level meeting with the Ministries and Departments concerned in November 2011. A round of subject matter specific inter-ministerial meetings and wider stakeholder consultations followed this first step, with a view to update India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2008 by developing NBTs in line with the Strategic Plan (SP) for Biodiversity (2011-2020) and its 20 Aichi Targets. Thereafter, a national level stakeholder’ consultation was held on 30 July 2013 which resulted in a draft document of NBTs. MoEFCC then set up a Technical Review Committee for review and refinement of the draft taking into account Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of more than 50 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India (GoI), information available in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and other relevant institutions, discussions and written submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders. The exercise of determining NBTs included identification of responsibilities in respect of the concerned Ministries/Departments, institutions and stakeholders and developing monitoring schedule along with indicators. The NBSAP 2008 was updated by integrating the 12 NBTs thus prepared into NBSAP Addendum, 2014. After approval by the competent authority, the NBTs were communicated to all concerned for outreach and communication with a view to create awareness and promote implementation.

Many States have their own State Biodiversity Action Plans (SBAPs), which are being implemented taking note of the NBTs.

EN

Section II. Implementation measures, their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets

NBT-1: Measures

Measures:

India’s NBSAP was prepared through a participatory process of Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) that involved stakeholders at all levels. Groups identified for CEPA include all students, children outside the formal education stream, youth, and local communities in urban and rural areas, industry and business, sectoral Ministries, State/UTs, non-government organisations (NGOs), civil society organisations (CSOs), technical and scientific institutions including universities in government and non-government sectors. The measures to achieve the target are taken by national and state governments in sync with ABT 1. Several other institutions undertake CEPA activities in partnerships with government or among themselves or as independent organisations. Information generated through studies to determine the values of biodiversity, a subject covered under NBT 2, are used appropriately in CEPA packages.

This section lists out the main measures for implementing the NBT. 

A.    Main Measures:

Major Policy, Legal and Programme Measures inter alia, include:

  1. Biological Diversity Act, 2002 provides that government incentivise research, training and public education to increase awareness with respect to biodiversity.
  2. National Environment Policy, 2006 emphasizes the importance of enhancing environmental awareness to harmonise patterns of individual behaviour with the requirement of environmental conservation.
  3. National Youth Policy, 2014 calls for engagement of youth in various initiatives including environment protection. 
  4. National Policy on Education, 1986 (modified in 1992) mandates that environmental consciousness should inform teaching in schools and colleges.
  5. Specific programmes of Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare (MoAFW), MoEFCC, Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MoYAS) and relevant programme of other Ministries.
  6. Policies and Programmes of sectoral Ministries having linkages with biodiversity related issues e.g., Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare (MoAFW), Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MoDWS), Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) etc.
  7. States/UTs implement their own CEPA programmes.
  8. Gender mainstreaming is provided for in the Constitution itself in Articles 243 D and 243 T which mandate that not less than one-third seats in Panchayats in rural areas and municipal bodies in urban areas respectively "shall be" reserved for women. Most States have raised this reservation to 50 %. This ensures large-scale participation of women in planning, decision making, implementation and governance. Gender Budgeting is part of the Annual Central Government budget. Specific provisions are in place for participation and representation of women in government programmes and schemes.
  9. Every year, the International Day for Biological Diversity (IDB) is celebrated on 22nd May to increase understanding and awareness about biodiversity issues.

B. Other Measures:

A holistic approach to CEPA has been adopted through specific programmes / initiatives. 

Figure 1.1 captures the main elements of CEPA. Their details are given thereafter.

Figure 1.1: CEPA Programmes and Initiatives


B1. Inclusion of Environmental Education (EE) at all school and college levels

B1.1 Biodiversity conservation and sustainable use are integral part of environment education (EE). EE has been made a compulsory component in curricula at all levels of education throughout the country.  National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and University Grants Commission (UGC) have professionally designed modules/courses for this in compliance with the order of the Supreme Court of India.

B1.2 Capacity building of teachers and faculty has been undertaken through various training programmes. Pedagogical tools for transaction of EE have been professionally created. See Box 1 for manner of infusion of EE and Box 2 for some pedagogical tools


B2. Co-curricular programmes for school children

B2.1 MoEFCC, Department of Biotechnology (DBT), States/UTs and other line Ministries and departments fund and organise special programmes for students to give them action-oriented opportunities in the field of environment and biodiversity. These help to develop their leadership, decision-making qualities and skills for present and future through initiatives such as:

B3. Awareness and Capacity Building Programmes for Youth and Others

B3.1 MoEFCC, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MoYAS) and other line ministries and departments sponsor programmes to channelise energies of youth, children and others into environment and biodiversity conservation. These include youth clubs for organising developmental activities including conservation of resources and greening the landscape, engagement of children, youth and members of communities in  undertaking campaigns to educate and train people in water management and water conservation under Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) and training the youth in environment, forest and wildlife sectors through curriculum designed by Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Zoological Society of India (ZSI) under Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP) to enhance their employability.

B3.2 People, youth and children out of school stream are reached through other means also such as:

  • Mobile exhibitions e.g., Science Express, an exhibition mounted on a train which travels across India and has completed nine phases on diverse themes. It ran as Biodiversity Special from 2012-2014 during India’s Presidency of Conference of Parties (CoP) to the CBD. 
  • Prakriti Bus, a mobile exhibition on biodiversity launched by the State of Uttar Pradesh and similar other initiatives by other states. 
  • Involvement of youth, children, members of public in counting, identification and protection of birds guided by national and state level bird-watching organisations such as Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON), Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) and Bird Count India.
  • Botanical/ Zoological Galleries/ Natural History Museums maintained for public viewing and education by BSI/Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI)/National Museum of National History (NMNH)/ ZSI and many other institutions in government and non-government sector.
  • Vast network of botanic gardens maintained by BSI, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) institutions, universities, States/UTs and local self-government bodies.
  • Film/Slide shows, lectures, tree plantation campaigns, exhibitions, sit and draw /quiz competitions are conducted.
  • Use of public media.

B3.3 Recognition of outstanding work, dissemination of best practices, through:

  • Biennial India Biodiversity Awards instituted by MoEFCC in association with UNDP during CoP 11 in 2012 and continued during India’s Presidency. These have now been institutionalised in the NBA.  Till 2018, 47 awards have been given under different categories. The best practices identified under the Award are captured in the publication ‘India Naturally!’. Four editions have already been published.
  • E. K. Janaki Ammal National Award instituted in 1999 for outstanding contribution in the field of Plant Taxonomy, Animal Taxonomy and Microbial Taxonomy. Twenty eight awards have been given till 2018.

B3.4 Awareness and Capacity Building

  • Nearly 300 national and regional level awareness programmes have been organised since 2014 by MoEFCC and NBA in collaboration with State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs), CSOs, industry representatives, state officials, students, teachers, local communities, traditional healers and other stakeholders.
  • Regular capacity building workshops and meetings with partners such as officials, Ayurvedic Drug Manufacturers' Association (ADMA), GIZ, Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CABI) South Asia, Centre for Environmental Communication (CEC) and SBB are conducted.
  • Periodic festivals and events with the inclusion of biodiversity as one of the important thematic area are organised.
  • Some specific collaborative initiatives taken by MoEFCC, NBA and other partners to achieve identified objectives are shown in Table 1.1.


Table 1.1: Initiatives taken for Awareness and Capacity Building

B4. Industry and Corporate Sector Initiative

B4.1 Setting up of an India Business and Biodiversity Initiative (IBBI) anchored in Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) was facilitated by MoEFCC in 2014 with support from GIZ to ensure mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the operations and supply chain of industry and business. IBBI promotes awareness and green action to minimize adverse impact on the environment. Member companies sign a 10-point IBBI Declaration accepting their commitment towards positive action on biodiversity.

B4.2 IBBI provides advisory services to companies on implementation of biodiversity regulations/policies, mainstreaming biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service management and monitoring.

B4.3 Industry also participates through funding support to NGOs and through their own corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities.

B5. Measures at Local Level through BMCs, Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), Communities and CSOs

B5.1 BMCs, the core institutional set-up for biodiversity governance at local level, JFMCs as people’s own management committees for forest, and Peoples Biodiversity Registers (PBRs) that provide for documenting biological resources and associated traditional knowledge (TK), all play a critical role in ensuring CEPA.

B5.2 Citizen Science Initiative is being implemented across the country through networks of NGOs. It enables participants to make direct contribution to increase their scientific understanding, learn about environmental issues and contribute to research.

B5.3 Vast number of NGOs, local groups and individuals are engaged in creative work of CEPA and capacity building across the length and breadth of the country.

B6. Other initiatives

B6.1 MoEFCC has created a comprehensive Environmental Information System (ENVIS) comprising a network of 69 ENVIS Hubs and Resource Partners (RPs) of which 29 deal with ‘State of the Environment and Related Issues’ and are hosted by respective States/UTs and 40 RPs are hosted by governmental institutions/NGOs/ institutes of professional excellence, with varied thematic mandates pertaining to environment, forests, climate change etc.

B6.2  Participation in annually held Indian Science Congress by teams from NBA and SBBs is ensured to extend information on biodiversity issues and nuances of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 and Rules, 2004 to scientific community, academicians, teachers, youth and school children from across India.


EN
National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 1 : By 2020, a significant proportion of the population especially the youth, is aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.
Measure taken has been effective

Indicators for measuring the implementation of NBTs were determined along with timeframe for monitoring in consultation with Ministries and Departments concerned at the time of finalization of NBTs. Progress is monitored through the respective indicators in respect of all the NBTs.  Indicators and assessment of progress against them with regard to NBT 1 follows.

  1. Trends in number of students benefitting from EE

1.1. All students enrolled in school/college systems receive EE. Figure 1.2 shows the number of students enrolled at various levels of schools from 2009 to 2015. Fertility rate in the country has gone down from 2.6 in 2004 to 2.3 in 2014, which accounts for slight decrease in the number of students enrolled.

Figure 1.2 Enrollment of school students at different levels during 2009-2015

* Figures are provisional


Source: Educational Statistics At a Glance 2016, Ministry of Human Resource Development


  • Infusion of EE in the syllabi at all levels ensures effective awareness and capacity building of teachers more than 40% of which are women (Figure 1.3).

Figure 1.3

Gender distribution of school teachers- 2011-12


Source: Educational Statistics At a Glance 2016, Ministry of Human Resource Development

  • A large number of students have been reached through measures noted in co-curricular programmes for school children. Figure 1.4 shows the details in respect of some such programmes.

Figure 1.4

Co-curricular Programmes for School Children



2. Trends in coverage of environment related programmes and projects with enhanced involvement of youth and others


All national and sub-national level government programmes having connect with biodiversity include a component of awareness and capacity building. Involvement of youth and local people with adequate representation of women has been on the increase in all environment related issues and programmes of sectoral ministries/departments. Capacity building programmes for youth and other stakeholders are regularly undertaken by several non-government organisations supported by government, non-government and own resources on diverse thematic areas related to biodiversity. Figure 1.5 shows the number of people covered by some such initiatives. 

Figure 1.5

People covered under some Environment Related Programmes



3. Trends in Promoting Awareness at Local Levels


BMCs have an outreach covering all people in their respective jurisdiction. Their work of promoting awareness at local level is of a continuing and permanent nature. BMCs prepare PBRs with the participation of entire local community.

3.1 Trends in BMCs constituted/operationalised

The number of BMCs has increased over the years reaching around 74,000 by March 2018. (Figure 1.6). The greater the awareness, the larger the number of BMCs as awareness encourages demand for constitution of BMCs for biodiversity governance.

Figure 1.6

 Number of BMCs


Source: National Biodiversity Authority


3.2 Trends in PBRs prepared

PBRs prepared at the local level are holistic documents of all available TK and related practices. These also cover people-scape, landscape, waterscape and culture scape. Figure 1.7 shows an increasing trend of PBRs from 1,325 in 2012 to 6,096 in 2017.

  • Figure 1.7: Progress in number of PBRs


Source: National Biodiversity Authority


4.    Trends in visits to protected areas, natural history museums, exhibitions and botanical/zoological gardens


Large number of people of all ages including students visit these areas and institutions. The available data of the visit to parks show increasing trend with 2,936,985 to 4,030,069 visitors from the years 2011-12 to 2016-17 in the state of Tamil Nadu and increase from 1,144,116 to 1,657,815 visitors from the years 2009-2010 to 2016-17 in the state of Madhya Pradesh. The number of visitors to CMFRI Museum from 2011-12 to 2016-17 also shows an increasing trend. Regular management of this data is being encouraged.

Figure 1.8
Visitors to CMFRI Museum



Source: Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute


EN

CEPA has proved to be an effective tool to create awareness and generate capacity for taking actions at grassroots level. Habitats, species of flora and fauna have been identified, protected and conserved by people at times through motivations from others and often also on their own. A few sample case studies are given hereafter.

  • The Women’s Hargilla (Greater Adjutant) Army

Fourteen self-help groups comprising five members each in villages of Dadara, Pacharia and Singimari villages of Assam, styled themselves as 70 women Hargilla army to defy and change the commonly held adversarial attitudes against Greater Adjutant Stork and save this IUCN red listed bird from disappearance from their villages, which used to be an important habitat of these birds.

It all started with the effective use of CEPA by a keen woman bird researcher determined to save the Greater Adjutant habitat in these villages. Once motivated these women widened the support base for the Greater Adjutant by including children and other members of their households and surrounding. The persistent action of women secured the support of the district authorities in departments of administration, police, forest, health and the State Zoo Authority, each contributing to “Save the Greater Adjutant” goal in a coordinated manner. 

Significant outcomes include saving of all the Kadamba (Neolamarckia cadamba) trees which serve as Greater Adjutant Stork habitats, increase in nests from 28 in 2008 to 143 in 2015, establishment of rescue and rehabilitation system for injured birds in collaboration with Assam State Zoo, programmes for alternative livelihood options for the community under which 28 handlooms have been distributed among the 14 self-help groups. A Fashion and Textile Designing diploma course with a specially-designed Greater Adjutant stork introduced for women. Over 10,000 people mobilised and sensitised for the conservation of the bird.


Fig. 1.9 Street Play Organised by Women to Raise Awareness about the Greater Adjutant


Fig 1.10 Greater Adjutant



II. Eco-club Members identify Genetic Diversity in Western Ghats – A Global Biodiversity Hotspot


Nearly 240 Eco-clubs comprising about 10,000 school children and teachers covering 250 villages in 13 districts of Western Ghats region of Maharashtra were involved in surveying and documenting varieties and characteristics of trees and fruits of the area by Centre for Environment Education (CEE) a Centre for Excellence for environment education under MoEFCC. Survey objectives included tree exploration, compilation of traditional knowledge including about local recipes, products, seasonality, historical incidences about these trees. It started in 2012 with a study of mangos, went on to document three more fruit trees namely Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Fanas or jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), Karvand (Carissa carandas) and the numbers continue to grow.

Over 205 varieties of Mango, 24 varieties of Jamun, 18 varieties of Jackfruit and 28 varieties of Karvand have been documented through these surveys. Figure 1.11 shows children’s pictorial depiction of the number of varieties they identified.


Figure 1.11

Varieties of Fruits Identified

421 x 539

Source: Centre for Environment Education, MoEFCC


III. Village Botanists to Conserve, Grow and Sustainably Use Medicinal Plants: a case study

The Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT), a Centre of Excellence under MoEFCC, State Forest Departments of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra established 54 ‘Forest Gene Banks’ in their respective areas. Local individuals residing in the proximity of these areas and possessing knowledge about the local medicinal flora were trained as village botanists to build capacity in basic taxonomy of medicinal plants of the area.

The concept was expanded to three other States namely Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Arunachal Pradesh under the UNDP-GEF projectMainstreaming Conservation and Sustainable use of Medicinal Plants in three Indian States”.

These trained village botanists cum para-taxonomists assist the Forest and other Departments of three states, SBBs, local NGOs, local institutions such as schools and colleges, and tourists in matters of (a) plant identification with local vernacular names and botanical names, (b) vegetation monitoring, and (c) providing cultural information to tourists about local plants. They also function as freelance consultants like other locally knowledgeable individuals such as folk-healers, traditional birth attendants.

More than 300 such trained village para- taxonomists now work in 12 states. 

IV. Rehabilitation of Agrobiodiversity - case study of Pithorabad BMC


Pithorabad BMC was set up in 2013 in compliance with Section 41 of  The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 . One of the first tasks that the BMC took up related to arresting the rapid loss of indigenous varieties of paddy and restoring and rehabilitating them. The BMC used all the components of CEPA with perseverance to achieve its objectives. Compilation of an exhaustive PBR with the participation of local people, making them recollect the value of the lost heritage of biodiversity, showing its linkage with the issues of local climatic conditions and climate change made people rue the loss of biodiversity they had already incurred. This led to a resolve to take action and not allow any more such losses.

Today all 110 threatened indigenous varieties of paddy of that area have been saved through in situ conservation. A seed bank with capacity of keeping seeds viable for 4 years has been set up and 86 traditional varieties are under the process of registration under Protection of Plant Varieties and Famer’s Rights (PPVFR) Act, 2001 through the help of BMC and SBB. The awareness and capacity generated through the whole process has also led to conservation of 150 medicinal plants, herbs and tuber spices.

V.  Mowgli Utsav in the State of Madhya Pradesh (MP)

Named after Mowgli, a fictional character of Rudyard Kipling’s novel ‘Jungle Book’, this Utsav (festival) is organised annually organised by the  State of MP to sensitize school children to biodiversity related issues. The SBB organised the 2017 festival in the State in four National Parks- Kanha National Park, Madhav National Park, Bandhavgarh National Park and Satpura National Park and engaged children in activities such as nature trail, park safari, habitat search, quiz activity, painting competitions, message writing on banners, plays and other adventures. Nearly 300 students and over 100 teachers participated in the Utsav in 2017.  Certificates and prizes are awarded to the winners of events in the Utsav every year. It proves as an effective means of reaching out to young minds to make them aware of the values of biodiversity and turn them into stakeholders in conservation.

Figure 1.12

Students Celebrating Mowgli Utsav

Source: State Biodiversity Board, Madhya Pradesh


VI. From Students’ trips to saving the Lake – A Case Study of Singanallur lake

Singanallur Lake in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu was created in 7th Century AD to conserve the Noyyal river water for agriculture. Over centuries it became an important habitat for birds and a transit destination of migratory birds. With the expansion of urbanisation it had become a ground for waste dumping of all manners in the recent past.

 

Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON) organised regular educational and bird watching trips of students and youth to the Singanallur Lake in recent years. The local students and youth that had participated in these tours in those years have now restored the lake and identified more than 700 species of wild biodiversity which include 160 species of birds. The lake has been declared Urban Biodiversity Conservation Zone in 2017 by the Coimbatore City Corporation. Following this, conservation of urban lakes has been included as the central agenda of the Smart City Programme in the city of Coimbatore.

EN

India has 22 recognised state languages and many more dialects at the sub-regional level. Creating communication material which can easily reach the target groups is a challenge. This also comes in the way of mapping and disseminating best practices and good case studies. The area of invasive alien species requires more studies and communication material. Capacity also needs to be created in BMCs to progressively map best practices in their own jurisdiction and access these from wider areas and wherever needed include them as addendum to PBRs. Greater financial, technical and scientific resources are needed for creating communication packages in vernacular languages.   


EN

NBT-2: Measures

Measures:

Culturally and historically people in India have valued biodiversity. Urbanisation and modern imperatives of development create their own challenges for biodiversity conservation. Increasing integration of biodiversity concerns and values in development planning and poverty alleviation strategies has been promoted to meet these challenges. Programmes like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) scheme, co-management of forests, implementation of Forest Rights Act, 2006, soil mapping and soil health cards have helped improve landscapes and seascapes promoting sustainable use of biodiversity, land and water resources. Substantive work has been done on enumerating and establishing economic value of ecosystem services also. The first attempt to put economic value to biodiversity started in 1980s. Several studies have been conducted since then including the studies commissioned by MoEFCC under TEEB. These have enumerated ecosystem services and their values, with the involvement of local people, including women. These have created awareness on the value of ecosystem services and provided usable database for integration of the values in decision making and also for use in cases seeking judicial remedies.

This section lists out the main measures for implementing the NBT.

A. Main Policy and Legislative Measures include:

  • National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) provides for making valuation of biodiversity an integral part of pre-appraisal of projects and programmes to minimise adverse impact on biodiversity.
  • National Environment Policy (NEP), 2006 inter alia calls for appraisal of developmental project through cost benefit analysis by assigning values to biodiversity resources and emphasises consideration of hotspots and biodiversity heritage sites as entities with incomparable values.

  • The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 recognises the value of biodiversity and is aimed towards ensuring its conservation and sustainable use.

  • National Forest Policy, 1988 stipulates that projects involving diversion of forest land for non-forest purpose should provide in their investment funds for regeneration/compensatory afforestation.

  • National Forest Policy 1988, Forest Conservation Act 1980,  Rules and Guidelines issued under the Forest Conservation Act, 1980 mandate realisation of net present value, funds for compensatory afforestation on land equal to the forest area diverted for any purpose.

B. Other Measures:

·     The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) India Initiative (TII) project implemented by MoEFCC in coordination with universities, national and state level institutions and experts on valuation of ecosystems.

·       National Food Security Mission (NFSM), Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojna (PMKSY), Har Khet Ko Paani, Market Development of Tribal Products/Produce (TRIFED), Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), poverty alleviation programmes such as MGNREGA and other relevant programmes include consideration of biodiversity values in planning and designing of their strategies.

  • National Tariff Policy 2016, mandates purchase of 8% solar energy by State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) and procurement of 100% power produced from all Waste-to-Energy plants. Incentives for shift from non-renewable to renewable sources of energy include Generation-Based Incentives (GBIs), capital and interest subsidies, viability gap funding, concessional finance, fiscal incentives etc. The ultimate policy objective is to make solar energy compete with fossil-based energy options, through measures such as: 
    • Setting up of exclusive solar parks and giving infrastructure status to solar projects.
    • Development of power transmission network through Green Energy Corridor project.
    • National Offshore Wind Energy Policy.
    • Waiving Inter State Transmission System charges and losses for interstate solar and wind power sale from projects commissioned by March 2019.
    • Identification of large government complexes/ buildings for rooftop projects.
    • Amending building bye-laws for making solar roof tops mandatory in new construction or for higher Floor Area Ratio.
    • Mandatory share of 10 % renewable energy under smart cities project.
    •  Measures for Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS) to encourage distribution companies and to make net-metering compulsory.
    • Raising funds including through Green Climate Fund to achieve the target.



EN
National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 2 : By 2020, values of biodiversity are integrated in national and state planning processes, development programmes and poverty alleviation.
Measure taken has been effective

Indicators for measuring the implementation of NBTs were determined along with timeframe for monitoring in consultation with Ministries and Departments concerned at the time of finalization of NBTs. Progress is monitored through the respective indicators of all the NBTs.  Indicators and assessment of progress against them with regard to NBT 2 follows:

I.  Trends in biodiversity and ecosystem services in valuation studies

  • Nearly 150 valuation studies have been undertaken starting from 1980s to 2017. Of these studies, 34 cover wetlands, 68 cover forests, 19 coastal, marine and mangrove ecosystems and 25 other ecosystems.
  • Included in the 150 studies are the studies conducted under the project on “The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity – India Initiative (TEEB-TII)” implemented by MoEFCC with support from GIZ, with the aim of making values of biodiversity and ecosystem services explicit for integrating them into developmental planning. Fourteen studies under this covered forests, inland wetlands and coastal and marine ecosystems. Universities, research institutions, and NGOs carried out these studies with the participation of local people in enumeration of ecosystem services. These studies are now available at http://indo-germanbiodiversity.com/
  • Field-based primary case studies in each of the three ecosystems in TII studies have been used to present policy relevant evidence for ecosystem values and their relation to human well-being.  Availability of robust geospatial and bio-physical data underpins these studies. These studies on forests also cover issues such as hidden ecosystem services of forests, conflicts between humans and wildlife, and the economic consequences of species decline. The studies on wetlands inter alia draw lessons on water resource management, community stewardship and equity, and the economics of hydrological regime changes. In the coastal and marine ecosystems, the studies also explore the opportunities and economic efficiency of interventions such as eco-labelling, seasonal fishing bans, mangrove regeneration and the challenge of bycatch in marine fisheries.
  • Scope of these studies varies. A large number of studies have valued all the four categories of goods and services that ecosystems offer namely, provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services, while some have restricted themselves to chosen category of services such as cultural and spiritual services or regulating services.
  • Number of ecosystem services identified and assigned value by these studies range from 29 services in case of Maguri – Motapung Beel wetlands of Assam (Bhatta et al 2016) to 25 services in case of six tiger reserves from six different landscapes (Verma et al 2015) to 11 services from forest in the state of Himachal Pradesh (Verma et al 2000).
  • These studies inter alia suggest: strong linkages between ecosystem services and poverty; Support of tiger reserves to a wide range of economic sectors including responses to climate change crises, support to local economies and sustainable development; and value of wetlands in providing a wide range of ecosystem services spanning provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services.
  • Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) through an expert group brought out a report on “Green National Accounts in India- A Framework” in 2013. The proposal of creating a regular system of Green National Accounts is under process.

II.  Trends in integration of biodiversity ecosystem service values into sectoral and development policies and programmes

  • Implementation of NEP 2006, other sectoral policies, Forest Conservation Act,1980 notifications issued under Environment (Protection) Act,1986 from time to time help to ensure integration of ecosystem values in sectoral development programmes. Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs), Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) and Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) at the local level take the integration to grassroots level.
  • Sectoral Ministries, industry, mining, and businesses are helped by the valuation studies in incorporating values including monetary values in decision making appropriately.
  • Valuation studies created consciousness about the value and costs of their conservation. The 14th Finance Commission awarded a study “High Conservation Value Forests (HCVF)” which was conducted by Indian Institute of Forest Management to account for the value of conservation of natural resources in the devolution formula of the divisible pool of taxes between Centre and States. The Commission assigned a weightage of 7.5% to forest cover in the devolution formula. This established a strong direct policy connect between enumeration and valuation of ecosystem services and government policy and programmes.
III.  Trends in policies considering Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment


Potential impact on ecosystems through EIA by technical experts including the experts from BSI and ZSI is mandatory for industries and businesses notified under the EP Act.

At the initial stage in EIA the project proponent has to submit information in environmental appraisal questionnaire along with other documents. The format of the questionnaire provides a definite scope for seeking information on several parameters that address biodiversity issues related to developments in different sectors. Based on the nature of the information elicited through the questionnaires, the importance and value of biodiversity components is evaluated by MoEFCC to flag any relevant issues. EIA reports are then examined for their comprehensiveness in terms of coverage of the issues flagged by MoEFCC. These reports also help in evaluating the conservation status of species in the project area in terms of rarity, threat, endangerment, restricted distribution or endemism and in flagging biodiversity values for consideration at the time of initial scrutiny.

Valuation studies have helped in ascertaining the different types of values affected by these and advising recovery of those values through compensatory measures. 

IV.     Trends in identification, assessment, establishment and strengthening of incentives that reward positive contributions to biodiversity and ecosystem services

Sectoral Ministries and Departments have institutionalised initiatives that encourage and reward positive contribution to actions helping conservation and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Some examples include incentives for saving conventional energy and promoting green energy. Initiatives of the Ministry of Power and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) are given below-

  • Perform, Achieve and Trade Scheme under National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) under the Ministry of Power -1.3 million (13 lakh) Energy Saving Certificate (ESC) have been traded at an overall cost of around USD 15.3 million (Rs 100 crores).
  • Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency (MTEE) under Ministry of Power - to bring accelerated market transformation for superefficient appliances by providing financial stimulus innovatively at critical point/s of intervention, e.g., promotion of energy efficient fans through to replace conventional 75 Watt fans with 50 Watt 5-star rated energy efficient fans on an upfront payment or in equated monthly instalments adjusted against electricity bills of consumers.
  • MNRE Capital Subsidy Scheme for promoting solar photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation and other purposes with the objective to replace diesel pump sets with solar pump sets and to reduce dependence on grid power.
  • MNRE Lighting Scheme 2016 for Capital Subsidy Scheme for installation of solar photovoltaic lighting systems.
  • Plant Genome Saviour Community Award & Plant Genome Saviour Farmer Reward– Communities and farmers promote ecosystem services by promoting conservation of landraces. Refer to NBT 5
  • India Biodiversity Award– In 2012, Government of India, MoEFCC in association with UNDP India initiated the awards to recognise, incentivise and sensitise the masses by honouring outstanding models of biodiversity conservation, sustainable use and governance at the grassroots level.
  • Deregulation of fossil fuel prices has been done which encourage their rational and economical use.
V. Trends in number and effectiveness of measures developed in the MGNREGA and Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) for protection and enhancement of ecosystem services and biodiversity

  • Guidelines of MGNREGA have always emphasized planning and implementation of works that enhance ecosystem services and biodiversity. MGNREGA Guidelines 2018 identify 260 combinations of permissible works of which 181 relate to natural resource management. Of these, 84 are related to water. A convergence framework for scientific planning and execution of water management works with use of latest technology is mandated in consultation with Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR,RD&GR) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare (MoAFW) for 2,264 blocks with an integrated natural resource management perspective.
  • Central Ground Water Board prepared a baseline map of ground water availability in collaboration with States in 2012. It assesses ground water levels four times a year.  Its information base and services are to be used in works related to ground water resources. These works in conjunction with 8,214 projects under watershed development project (refer NBT 3) contribute to alleviating landscapes/ seascapes and add value to ecosystem services.
  • Climate change mitigation and adaptation measures suitably incorporate biodiversity conservation and concerns. For details refer to NBT 5.


EN

Decentralised valuation studies at local level need to be encouraged to secure comprehensive stakeholder engagement. Though studies for evaluation of ecosystems services have been undertaken under The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity –The India Initiative (TEEB-TII) with the involvement of local communities, training capacities and packages need to be created to include simple tools for valuation at the local level for creating awareness and enabling balanced decisions and actions.  

EN

NBT-3: Measures

Forests, aquatic including coastal, and terrestrial habitats comprising agricultural and non-agricultural land are covered under the target. Pre-existing legislative and policy mechanisms provide the basic framework to build upon for effective implementation of the target. NEP, 2006 is the all-embracing policy instrument to provide requisite guideline to all the sectoral Ministries, States/UTs to mainstream environmental concerns in development activities. The dominant theme of the policy is that while conservation of environmental resources is necessary to secure livelihoods and well-being of all, “the most secure basis for conservation is to ensure that people dependent on particular resources obtain better livelihoods from the fact of conservation, than from degradation of the resource.” Together with other legislative, policy and programmes, a strong ecosystem of designing and implementing strategies to achieve this target(s) has been created.


Main Measures

Legislative and policy measures in place for forest, aquatic and other terrestrial habitats are shown in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1: Legislative and policy measures in place for forest, aquatic and other terrestrial habitats




Other Measures including Institutional Arrangements:

Mandates and programmes of the  National Missions constituted under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) namely (i) Green India Mission, (ii) National Solar Mission, (iii) National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency, (iv) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture, (v) National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, (vi) National Mission for Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem, (vii) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change and (viii) National Water Mission recognise the value of biodiversity and contribute to arresting degradation and rehabilitating degraded habitats.

India has released National REDD+ Strategy 2018 which inter alia addresses “degradation, land tenure issues, forest governance issues, gender considerations and the safeguard identified, ensuring the full and effective participation of effective stakeholders, inter alia indigenous peoples and local communities.”

Measures for gender mainstreaming include-Article 243 D and 243 T of the Constitution which mandate that not less than one-third seats in Panchayats in rural areas and municipal bodies in urban areas respectively "shall be" reserved for women. Most states have raised this reservation to 50 %. This ensures large-scale participation of women in planning decision making, implementation and governance.

Gender Budgeting as part of the Annual Central Government budget-Specific provisions for participation and representation of women in government programmes and schemes.

 Habitats related specific measures:

Forest Habitats

  • India State of Forest Report, prepared by Forest Survey of India (FSI) every two years to inter alia survey and map state and district wise forest areas and changes therein, estimate growing stocks within and outside forest areas, assess carbon stocks and trees, bamboo and mangrove cover.
  • National Afforestation Plan (NAP) for ecological restoration of degraded forest areas with peoples’ participation, through JFMCs at the village level, and Forest Development Agency (FDA) at the forest division level, State Forest Development Agency (SFDA) at State level.
  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) and State CAMPA Guidelines promote afforestation and regeneration activities to compensate for forest land diverted to non-forest purposes.

  • National Wildlife Action Plan 2017-2030 includes inclusionary approach, linkage with wider landscapes and seascapes as its important focal areas.​
  •  Eco-Task Forces (ETF), based on twin objectives of ecological restoration in difficult areas and promotion of meaningful employment to ex-servicemen. Some of the ETF battalions have undertaken successful eco-restoration of highly degraded difficult sites, such as the limestone mining areas in the Mussoorie hills.
  • Floral and Faunal Surveys for taxonomic identification and enumeration by BSI and ZSI.
  • Assisted Natural Regeneration is the dominant strategy of NAP as well as the externally aided forestry projects under implementation in 11 states.
  • Green India Mission (GIM) is mandated to protect, restore and enhance forest cover and respond to climate change. It envisages a holistic view of greening and focuses on multiple ecosystem services, especially, biodiversity, water, biomass, preserving mangroves, wetlands, critical habitats etc, along with carbon sequestration as a co-benefit. 
  •  Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) for alternative cooking energy through LPG connections to BPL households to safeguard the health of women and children and divert pressure of cooking fuel from forests.
  •  Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (MGNREGA) to enhance livelihood security in rural areas. Most of employment generation activities relate to restoration, rehabilitation and conservation of natural resources. It is one of the biggest social security schemes of the world.

Aquatic Habitats

·       Namami Gange (NG), A Ganga Conservation Mission, is a flagship programme of the Government for effective abatement of pollution, conservation and rejuvenation of river Ganga. The Ganga basin of India houses about 40% of India’s population. Municipal sewage from urban centers, effluents from industries and polluting waste from several other non-point sources get discharged into the river through its 2,525 kms journey from the hills to the sea. With an outlay of Rs. 20,370 million and involving several Ministries, NG aims at Ganga rejuvenation by consolidating the previous Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-I launched in 1987, GAP Phase- II started in 1993 and National Mission on Ganges implemented in 2011.

·       National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWQMP), through Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) at National level and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) at State /UTs created under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1974.

·       National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystem (NPCA) for conserving wetlands through Integrated Management Plans.

·       National River Conservation Plan, in operation since 1995, aims to reduce pollution load of rivers, improve water quality through pollution abatement works.

·       Aquifer Management Programme, under The Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR,RD&GR) to map and manage aquifer systems in the country.

·       Jal Kranti Abhiyaan, aims at increasing water security applying modern techniques and traditional wisdom, conjunctive use of surface and ground water; rain-water harvesting and to promote accountability of users.

  • Central Ground Water Board is responsible for developing / disseminating technologies, monitor and implement national policies for ground water resources. It has prepared a baseline map of ground water availability in collaboration with States in 2012. It assesses ground water levels four times a year.  Its information base and services are to be used in works related to ground water resources. These works in conjunction with 8,214 projects under watershed development project contribute to alleviating landscapes/ seascapes and add value to ecosystem services.

·        Integrated Wasteland Development Project (IDWP): is meant to increase bio-mass of fuelwood, fodder, fruits, fiber and small timber by revitalizing village level institutions and enlisting people's participation,

·       Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) programme under Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), promotes and facilitates sustainable management of the coastal zone and rational utilization of resources by incorporating environmental and social concerns in all sectoral developmental activities.

·       Integrated Coastal Zone Management Programme (ICZMP), a World Bank assisted project in coastal states of West Bengal, Orissa and Gujarat through Society of Integrated Coastal Management (SICOM). A National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management (NCSCM) with Regional centers in each coastal State/Union territory has been set up to promote R &D in coastal management and issues related to coastal communities.

·       Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY), launched in 2015, with the objective of ‘Har Khet ko pani’ (water to each farm) to improve water use efficiency with the motto ‘Per drop more crop' finding end to end solutions on source creation, distribution, management, field application and extension activities relating to water.

 Combating Desertification

·     PMKSY includes watershed development programme by consolidating erstwhile Drought Prone Area Development Programme and Desert Development Programme and Integrated Wasteland Development Programme.

·     Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas of India 2016 compares status of 2003-05 and 2011-2013 and provides baseline data for prioritizing action based on vulnerability and risk assessment.

 Other Terrestrial Habitats

·      Soil Resource Mapping by Soil and Land Use Survey of India to generate district wise information on nature, extent and potential of soil resources by interpretative grouping of soils for land capability and soil and land irrigability assessment.

·       Fodder and Feed Development Scheme, for grasslands development including creating grass reserves, improvement of degraded grasslands and vegetation cover of problematic soils like saline, acidic and heavy soil.

·       National Carbon Project (NCP) for digital mapping of organic and inorganic carbon density of the soil using intensive field and remote sensing data under ISRO Geosphere Biosphere Programme.

·       EIA: EIA notifications under Environment (Protection) Act 1986 mandate clearance after environment impact assessment and EMP in case of notified industries and enterprises therein.

Actors involved: National Government, Sub-national Governments, Panchayti Raj Institutions, JFMCs, Forest Right Act Committees (Gram Sabhas), Women, School Children, Research Institutes.

The target is being monitored through indicators. The time period for monitoring of each indicators is fixed. 

EN
National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 3 : Strategies for reducing rate of degradation, fragmentation and loss of all natural habitats are finalized and actions put in place by 2020 for environmental amelioration and human well-being.
Measure taken has been effective

Indicators for measuring the implementation of NBTs were determined along with timeframe for monitoring in consultation with Ministries and Departments concerned at the time of finalization of NBTs. Progress is monitored through the respective indicators of all the NBTs. Indicators and assessment of progress against them with regard to NBT 3 follows.

1. Trends in Forest Cover- Change in Density, Afforestation, Restoration, Carbon stocks and Grasslands

1.1.  Density of Canopy Cover of Forests

·        Very Dense Forests (VDF) have increased over the last four biennial FSI surveys. See Table 3.1

Table 3.1 : Trends in Forest Cover –Change in Density

Classes of Forests

Change in Area (in km2)

Change in percentage of geographical area

Year

2011

2013

2015

2017

2011

2013

2015

2017

Very Dense Forest (VDF)

83,471

83,502

85,904

98,158

2.54

2.54

2.61

2.99

Moderately Dense Forest (MDF)

320,736

318,745

315,374

308,318

9.76

9.70

9.59

9.38

Open Forest (OF)

287,820

295,651

300,395

301,797

8.76

8.99

9.14

9.18

Scrub

42176

41383

41362

45979

1.28

1.26

1.26

1.40

Non-forest cover

2553060

2547982

2544228

2533217

77.67

77.51

77.40

77.06

Source: India State of Forest Report (ISFR), Forest Survey of India, 2018

1.2 Afforestation and Restoration of Forests

  • Increase in canopy cover from 7,82,871 km2 to 8,02,088 km2 over past six years has been recorded in India State of Forest Report (ISFR), 2018.
  • About 1.69 million ha has been covered through Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR) over the decade 2000-10 through 42,535 JFMCs under 800 forest development agencies (FDAs).
  • A web-based portal E-Green Watch depicts compensatory afforestation, diverted land, plantation and other asset categories on Google Earth imagery. For live statistics and other details refer to egreenwatch.nic.in.
  • The portal also provides details on work done by Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) which promotes afforestation and regeneration activities as a way of compensating for forest land diverted to non-forest uses.
  • About 1,664 ha of difficult area restored through plantation by Eco-Task Force (ETF) in 2017-18. ETFs are created for greening difficult areas such as mined out and severely degraded areas. Stone dams, soil and moisture conservation works are part of the restoration measure to ensure sustainability.

1.3. Carbon Stocks:

  • FSI survey shows a positive trend in Carbon Stocks at 7,083 Million tonnes in 2017 against 7,044 of 2015 i.e., an increase of 39 Million tonnes. Table 3.2 shows the details.

Table 3.2 : Change in Carbon Stock between 2015 and 2017

Change in Carbon Stock between 2015 and 2017 (Million tonnes)

Component

Carbon Stock in forest as per ISFR 2015

Carbon Stock in forest as per ISFR 2017

Net Change in Carbon Stock

Annual increase in Carbon Stock

Above Ground Biomass

2220

2238

18

9.00

Below Ground Biomass

695

699

4

2.00

Dead Wood

29

30

1

0.50

Litter

131

136

5

2.50

Soil Organic Carbon

3969

3979

10

5.00

TOTAL

7044

7083

39

19.00

 Source: India State of Forest Report, Forest Survey of India

Conservation measures and management interventions such as afforestation activities, participation of the local people in protection measures of plantation areas as well as in traditional forest areas, expansion of trees outside forests are some of the factors that have contributed to a positive change in forest cover.

  • FSI has measured the growing stock by stratifying the country into 14 Physiographic zones,  based on the similarities in physiography, vegetation, climate and soil type.  The growing stock has also shown an increase of 53.990 million cum over the figures reported in ISFR 2015. The increase in growing stock inside the forest is 23.333 million cum and outside the forest is 30.657 million cum The Figure 3.2 shows the map of 14 physiographic zones.



Figure 3.2 shows the map of 14 physiographic zones.






  • Effective implementation of Forest Conservation Act, 1980 and better rehabilitation and protection of newly afforested, rehabilitated degraded forest areas through co-management have also contributed substantially to changing the forest scene for the better. Inclusion of forests as part of criteria to determine shares of State/UTs in the national divisible pool of financial resources of the country act as an incentive to States/UTs to conserve forests.
  • All the states have prepared comprehensive action plans to meet India’s commitment of REDD+ strategy http://www.moef.nic.in/ccd-sapcc
  • GIM has met India’s commitment under Bonn Challenge initiative by covering 9,810,944.2 ha under afforestation:
  • o   9,264,976 ha by government sector,

    o   352,677.9 ha by NGOs and 

  • o   193,290 ha by private companies

  • Special initiatives have been undertaken to reduce pressure of collections from forests. These include:
  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana:  4,84,83,502 below poverty line families covered through LPG connections divert pressure of cooking fuel from forests.
  • Nearly 110 Medicinal Plant Cultivation Areas (MPCAs) covering 23969.6 ha spread across the country created to secure in situ conservation of medicinal plants in forests simultaneous with ex situ cultivation of medicinal plants outside forest areas through Medicinal Plant Conservation and Development Area (MPCDA) to create alternative source of meeting the demand from outside forests. Also, large scale cultivation of 50 widely used medicinal plant species by farmers has been achieved. These measures have raised the share of medicinal plant raw materials from cultivation sources from previously recorded 20% in 2004-05 to 40% in 2014-15.
  • Synergic impact of employment generation, land, soil and water conservation measures under MNREGA, implementation of natural resources conservation elements in sectoral policies and programmes and CEPA activities reduce pressures on forests.

1.4 Grasslands:

  • The share of feed and forage from non-forest lands increased to 2641.95 ha by December 2017 reducing the share of forest land to 540 ha.
  • Rehabilitation of non-forest, wasteland/rangeland/grassland/non-arable through Feed and Fodder scheme.

1.5. Rehabilitation of Mined Out Areas:

  • 115.70 million saplings planted over 57,996 ha of mined out areas. Their survival rate is assessed at 68.38 %. (Annual Report 2017-18, Ministry of Mines)
  •  Rehabilitation of 110 abandoned mines covering 1,363 ha has been achieved during 2017-18. (Annual Report 2017-18, Ministry of Mines)

2. Species restoration after Forest and Water Body Restoratio

  • Sustainable population of tiger and elephants have been restored with increase in the number of tigers from 1,827 in 1972 to 2,226 in 2014, and number of elephants from 12,000 in 1970s to 27,000 in 2015. 
  • Edible Nest Swiftlet and Lion population is showing an increasing trend.
  • Manipur Brow Antlered Deer (Sangai) population in Loktak Lake shows an increasing trend. See Figure 3.3

Figure 3.3
Trend in Manipur Brow Antlered Deer (Sangai) Population in Loktak Lake


Source: Wetland International

  • In situ and ex situ programmes to conserve the Edible Nest Swiftlets in Andaman and Nicobar Islands have resulted in significant growth in the population of the Swiftlet.
  • Population of lion in Gujarat has shown an increase from 177 in 1978 to 523 in 2015.
  • The number of one horned Rhinoceros has increased nearly to over 2,900 in 2015.
  • Restoration of 156 threatened plant species through scientific niche modelling and developing propagation protocols under DBT pan-India initiative, ‘Preventing Extinction and Improving The Conservation Status of Threatened Plants through application of Biotechnological Tools’.
  • Greater Adjutant Stork and its habitat conserved with help of local community in Dadara, Pacharia and Singimari villages in Assam (Refer to NBT 1 Section II – other relevant information; The women Hargilla Army).
  • 1,050 m2 of area of degraded coral reef belonging to family Acroporidae has been restored in Gulf of Kuchh, Gujarat.
  • Survey of PAs, forests and core areas of biosphere reserves (BRs) is likely to reveal more floral and faunal species whose populations would have been restored/increased.
  • Black Necked Crane: WWF India in collaboration with the Department of Wildlife Protection, Government of Jammu and Kashmir, has been working towards conservation of high-altitude wetlands, with black necked crane Grus nigricollis as a priority species in Ladakh region. Population reported in 2010 was 62 adults and 11 juveniles, which increased to 106 adult and 15 juveniles in 2017.

3.   Trends in Aquatic Ecosystems

India’s wetlands comprise 4.6 % of its land area. Faunal species diversity of these wetlands is quite high. Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) assessment places the number at 9,456 species in fresh water ecosystems which is approximately 9.4% of India’s total faunal biodiversity. Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules 2017 which replaced the Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules 2010 reflect the renewed commitment of the Government by providing for creation of State/UT authorities for integrated management of the wetlands notified by them. The implementation has already commenced in States. For example the State of Uttar Pradesh has notified all wetlands exceeding an area of 2.24 ha falling outside the protected forest area under the Rules, 2017 and uploaded them on website www.sacup.org to secure their protection.

  • A series of capacity development workshops were held by MoEFCC in collaboration with expert agencies to build capacity within States and Union Territories (UTs) for Integrated Management of Wetlands (IMW).
  • Of 115 wetlands and 65 lakes identified for IMW, funds released for 83 wetlands and 65 lakes under NPCA.  Management plans of seven Ramsar sites have been updated to integrated management plans covering an area of 0.30 MHA.
  • Action Plans for wetlands restoration have been made a part of implementation of Smart Cities project.
  • State Governments are increasingly integrating allocations for wetlands development in their budgets, e.g., Odisha has allocated approximately Rs 70 million per year in annual budget, Uttar Pradesh has done restoration in Sitapur and Lakhimpur Kheri districts through leveraging from Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) funds.
  • Uttar Pradesh has notified all wetlands exceeding an area of 2.24 ha falling outside the protected forest area under the Rules, 2017 and uploaded them on website www.sacup.org to secure their protection.
  • Efforts are made to encourage private sector participation in design and funding of wetland management plans. In a model initiative, IUCN, Tata Chemicals and Wetlands International South Asia developed a management plan for Chandrabhaga Wetlands, a coastal wetland in Jamnagar, Gujarat though CSR.
  • To enable development of restoration projects within the ambit of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), wetlands have been included in training curricula of Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs, an autonomous institute under Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) for research, education and advocacy on corporate regulation governance and running sustainable businesses.
  • Increase of 2,647 km2 in the water bodies within forests over the decade 2005-2015 has been achieved through leveraging of MGNREGA, Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP) and other government schemes. It creates positive landscape level benefits. See Figure 3.4

Figure 3.4


Source: India State of Forest Report- 2018, Forest Survey of India


 4. Trends in Mangrove cover and Coastal Area Management

Extension and education activities and implementation of management strategies taking local people into confidence have helped these highly sensitive ecosystems improve.

4.1. Mangroves

In absolute terms the area under mangrove has increased from 4627.63 km2 in 2013 to 4921km2in 2017.India’s contribution to global mangroves has increased to 3.33% from 2.69% noted in NR5. See Fig 3.5

Figure 3.5: Change in Mangrove Cover

*Geographic Area updated by Survey of India and published in Census of India, 2011 has been used in ISFR 2017


Source: India State of Forest Report, Forest Survey of India

  • Natural rejuvenation in old areas and plantations in new area have led to increase of 293.27 km2.
  • The spread of mangroves across India is shown in Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.6 Mangrove cover map of India


4.2. Trends in integrated coastal management

  • National Centre for Coastal Research (NCCR) renamed as such from Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate (ICMAMPD) provides scientific and technical support to coastal states for implementing ecosystem based integrated coastal and marine area management (ICMAM) for sustainable use of resources. Some key contributions of NCCR include:
  • Development and demonstration of the concept of ecosystem modelling to facilitate better management of coastal and marine ecosystems at Kochi back water and Chilika lake.
  • Development of designs and technologies for important elements of GIS based information system for coral reefs and mangrove and shore protection measures.
  • Development of a model to predict movement of oil spill.
  • Development of a plan for sewage treatment/disposal strategy to reduce bacterial load in sea.
  • Adoption of the Shoreline Management Plan for mitigating erosion of Ennore coast in the state of Tamil Nadu.
  • Completion of hazard line mapping of west coast.
  • Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management inter alia through aerial photography, sediment cell mapping, eco-sensitive areas and shore line mapping of the entire coast.
  • Detailed field study undertaken for conservation of 893 Ecologically Sensitive Areas identified during mapping.
  • Capacity building and creation of specialised manpower on mathematical models at leading institutions such as Centre for Earth Sciences Studies, Trivandrum, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Andhra University, Hyderabad.

5. Trends in River Water Quality

5.1 Implementation of National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWQMP)

  • Strategic comprehensive multi-pronged water quality management approach which includes strict implementation of pollution control laws, promotion of cleaner technologies, fiscal incentives and economic instruments of appropriate prices, taxes and property rights is being followed.
  • Entire water resources of the country were classified according to their designated best uses and a “Water Use Map” was prepared by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). The idea is to superimpose “Water Quality Map” on “Water Use Map” to identify the water bodies or their parts, which are in need of improvement (restoration).
  • Through a wide network of water quality monitoring, water quality data are acquired. A large number of water bodies are identified as polluted stretches for taking appropriate measures to restore their water quality.
  • 3,000 stations in 29 States/6 UTs established to cover water quality monitoring of 540 rivers, 339 lakes, ponds and tanks, 42 creeks, 26 canals, 45 drains and 893 wells.
  • Surface water monitored on monthly and groundwater on a half-yearly basis for 28 physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters. Selected samples are analysed for nine trace metals and 28 pesticides.
  • CPCB made a model plan for restoration of river Hindon and shared it with State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs)/Pollution Control Committees (PCCs) to create capacity for making similar plans for identified polluted river stretches. Training imparted to SPCBs/PCCs and other stakeholders for the purpose.

5.2 Namami Gange Conservation Mission:

  • Activities scientifically classified as Entry Level activities for immediate visible improvement, Medium Term and Long-Term activities to be implemented within five years and ten years’ time frame respectively for visible and effective implementation. Figure 3.7 shows the main achievements under Namami Ganage Conservation mission.

Figure 3.7: Main Achievements under Namami Gange



  • Clean Ganga Fund (CGF) established to encourage people’s participation and ownership. CSR activities brought within its ambit encourage corporates to contribute money to CGF or undertake activities by adopting ghats, piloting new technologies, collecting and disposing of floating debris/solid waste, conducting research, creating awareness and planting trees.
  • Local people involved through volunteers from amongst them as motivated cadres of ‘Ganga Praharis’ (watchmen of Ganga) along the river banks to protect it from polluting influences by monitoring the river stretches and mobilizing local support.

5.3. National River Conservation Plan (NRCP)

  • Polluted stretches of 31 rivers in 75 towns spread over 14 States at a sanctioned cost of Rs.4,5178.2 million is covered under actions.
  • Treatment capacity of 2,4554.3 million litres per day established by the end of March 2017 at a total cost of Rs. 3,0455.3 million.

6.    Combating Desertification

  • Land Degradation Atlas (2016): The Atlas showed a see-saw trend.  1.95 MHa was reclaimed and 0.44 MHa moved from higher severity to low severity during 2003-05 to 2011-13, but 3.63 MHa of productive land registered some level of degradation and 0.74 MHa moved from low to high severity during the same period. Water erosion, vegetation degradation and wind erosion were identified as the most significant processes abetting land degradation for which actions are in progress.

  • National Water Policy 2012, National Rainfed Area Authority (NRAA)- 2007, National Policy for Farmers 2007, National Environmental Policy 2006, National Agricultural Policy 2000, National Forest Policy 1988, Environment (Protection) Act 1986, Forest (Conservation) Act 1980, all reflect the object of control and reversal of land degradation and desertification, and the sectoral programmes include ameliorating measures.
  • Agriculture is the biggest land use. Resource Conservation Technologies, reclamation of problem soil, rainfed area development (RAD), organic village/cluster and Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) organic certification, soil health management and soil health cards, rainwater conservation and secondary storage structures under PMKSY, promotion of agroforestry, portable soil testing kit, soil resource data bank creation, conservation and management of agroforestry on bunds/wastelands are being implemented by the MoAFW.
  • Land form maps, soil survey and soil maps prepared by ICAR for 1.73 MHa create land resource inventory for sustainable land-use plans, suitable technologies and agricultural practices to arrest and reverse degradation.
  • Watershed development projects numbering 8214 covering 39.07 MHa in 28 states are being implemented under PMKSY to encourage ridge area treatment, drainage line treatment, afforestation, soil and moisture conservation, rain water harvesting, horticulture, and pasture development etc. Since 2014-15, 5,06,001 water harvesting structures were created/rejuvenated. Additional area of 10,27,837 ha has been brought under protective irrigation upto 2017-18.  The number of farmers benefitted is 19,41,017 during 2017-18. 
  • Tree cover expansion through GIM and NAP on degraded forests helps land rehabilitation and landscape amelioration.
  • 14.3 MHa of land improved through NRM interventions in MGNREGA in 2015-2018.

7.    Status and Trends of levels of water in wells/groundwater table

  • CGWB has prepared “Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Ground water in India” in 2013 which includes construction of 11.1 million rain water harvesting and artificial recharge structures to harness 85 BCM of water.
  • CGWB monitors Ground water levels through a network of 23,125 monitoring wells during the months of January, Pre-monsoon (March/April/ May), Post-monsoon (August and November).
  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) includes access to tap water with assured supply of water and sewerage connection to every household.
  • PMKSY’s Per Drop More Crop seeks to ensure wise and optimum use of water and reach scientifically assessed irrigation potential of the country at 140 MHa. This programme is an inter-sectoral programme implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources for accelerated Irrigation Benefit programme, Ministry of Agriculture for On-farm Water management and Department of Land Resources for Integrated Watershed Management Programme.
  • Rain water harvesting has been made mandatory by 30 States/UTs. People are encouraged to undertake roof-top rainwater harvesting, erecting sustainable structures for water conservation.
  • Mass awareness programmes through special events and media messages organized with repeated frequency to promote rain water harvesting and artificial recharge for ground water.
  • Aquifer Mapping and Management Programme for aquifer/area specific ground water management plans, with community participation are funded by The Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation ( MoWR, RD&GR).
  • Jal Kranti Abhiyan’ 2015-16 to 2017-18 has been taken up to consolidate water conservation and management through a holistic and integrated approach involving all stakeholders by making it a mass movement. More than 17 lakh children participated in a nation-wide painting competition in 2016 to promote conservation of water.

8.    Trends in Maintenance of Fertility in Agricultural Lands using Natural Methods

Refer to Section II- Assessment of the effectiveness of the implementation measure taken in achieving desired outcomes- Sustainable Agriculture NBT 5



EN

Sustainable Tourism promoted by Ministry of Tourism:

Initiatives taken by Ministry of Tourism (MoT) to promote responsible tourism and protect natural habitats from any damaging impacts of tourism are summarized hereafter.

  • Ministry encourages stakeholders to promote and practice eco-tourism through the annual National Tourism Awards such as for the  best eco-friendly hotel, best responsible tourism project, best ecofriendly practices by tour operators to various segments.

  • Comprehensive Sustainable Tourism Criteria (STCI) for major segments of the tourism industry, namely, accommodation, tour operators, beaches, backwaters, lakes and rive sectors applicable for the entire country. The criteria have been evolved after consultation with various stakeholders. Ministry has been encouraging the tourism stakeholders to adopt the criteria for responsible and eco-friendly tourism practices.

  • Code of Conduct for tourism requiring the tourism service provider to fully implement sustainable tourism practices such as discouraging litter of waste and plastic material in places visited etc.

  • MoU signed between MoT and Ecotourism Society of India (ESOI) during 2016 to create awareness on Responsible Tourism practices among the stakeholders. Two workshops were held in 2017 and six more are proposed during 2018-19.

According to MoT’s guidelines for approval of Hotel Projects at the implementation stage and also guidelines for classification of operational hotels under various categories, hotels at the project stage itself are required to incorporate various eco-friendly measures like sewage treatment plant (STP), rain water harvesting system, waste management system etc. Guidelines govern approval of Hotel Projects to ensure eco-friendly measures like Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), rain water harvesting system, waste management system etc.

  • Once the hotel is operational, it can apply for classification under a Star category to the Hotel & Restaurant Approval Classification Committee (HRACC) of the Ministry. During the physical inspection of the hotel by HRACC Committee, it is ensured that in addition to the aforementioned measures, other measures like pollution control, introduction of non - CFC equipment for refrigeration and air conditioning, measures for energy and water conservation are also undertaken by the hotel.
  • Under the guidelines for project level and classification / re-classification of operational hotels, it has been prescribed that the architecture of the hotel buildings in hilly and ecologically fragile areas should keep in mind sustainability and energy efficiency and as far as possible be in conformity with the local ethos and use local materials.
  • Ecological restoration of limestone mined out area of Puranapani, Odisha

This is a limestone mined out area spread over approximately 250 ha. Deep pits, absence of soil layer and complete barrenness were its features when Centre for Environment Management of Degraded Ecosystem (CEMDE), University of Delhi in collaboration with Department of Biotechnology, Government of India and Steel Authority of India Limited took it up for restoration. Scientists engaged local people particularly woman through self-help groups to collect native grasses and tree saplings from surrounding forests giving them remuneration. These were raised in the nurseries and then planted in the mined-out areas using cutting edge biotechnology. Today a three storeyed tropical moist deciduous forest with 150 native tree species has come up in the area. The top canopy has reached the height of 90 feet; the secondary storey has canopy reaching to 60 feet height, the third storey has height of 40 feet and fourth storey is 20 feet tall. This restored rain forest is 12-year-old only. The 200 acres mine void has been transformed into a biologically productive aquatic ecosystem. This restored forest system and the wetland ecosystem provides livelihoods to local communities in addition to providing other ecosystem services.

  • Restoration of mined out area in urban locale
A concept of biodiversity parks was developed by CEMDE, University of Delhi, a Centre of Excellence for MoEFCC, to rescue rehabilitate and restore degraded areas in and around cities to bring back the natural heritage of these areas. Delhi Development Authority (DDA), Delhi city’s planning development agency appreciated the concept and decided to promote this working in collaboration with CEMDE.

DDA notified six biodiversity parks in and around Delhi covering about 1000 ha of land. It also notified riverfront network of biodiversity parks covering over 9000 ha along a 52 kms stretch of river Yamuna. Two out of the six parks, namely, the Yamuna Biodiversity Park and Aravalli Biodiversity Park have become fully functional Nature Reserves of Delhi. The other six are under development.

Yamuna Biodiversity Park and Aravalli Biodiversity Park, Delhi

Biodiversity restored in and services rendered by these two parks are of immense value. Together they harbour some 3,000 species native to Yamuna river basin and Aravalli mountains, the two major landforms that support life in Delhi. The 3,000 species live in 45-50 communities and include 1,500 plant species, 250 bird species, 50 species of dragonflies,115 species of butterflies, 25 species of reptiles, 20 species of fish, 20 species of mammals including herbivores, primary and secondary carnivores and some 2000 invertebrate fauna. The Yamuna Biodiversity Park is now one of the finest wetlands in the country and attracts thousands of migratory birds.

These Biodiversity Parks serve as hubs for Environmental and Nature Conservation Education for students and public. They generate a wide range of goods and ecological services such as buffering of local environment, storing of flood water, recharging of ground water, serving as filters for non-point sources of air pollution, enriching human microbiome, imparting climate resilience, serving as habitat for vanishing flora and fauna of the region, and providing recreational, aesthetic, spiritual and education services to the citizens and visitors of Delhi.

These biodiversity parks in Delhi provide an urban natural heritage conservation model for replication elsewhere in India and the world.


Development of Yamuna Biodiversity Park figures in the publications by Julie Tasker Brown (India: Delhi Biodiversity Park Network. Supporting Local Action for Biodiversity, the role of National Government in UN Habitat. Case Study 44: Pp. 42, 2010) and also by Åshild Kolås Report on India’s Climate Mitigation and Adaptation: Key Strategies, INDWORLD Conference Report, 2017: https://www.prio.org/Publications/Publication/?x=10834).


Figure3.9  Yamuna Biodiversity Park




B.


Source: The Centre for Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems (CEMDE), University of Delhi

EN

·         With India’s 2.4% of the land supporting nearly 18% of the human population of the world, pursuit of sustainable development with social and economic equity is a challenge. Balancing the needs of providing sustainable livelihoods to vulnerable sections of the society including local and traditional communities and women through projects that achieve the twin objectives of conservation and providing livelihoods is implemented through programmes such as MGNREGA, IWDP, technology and extension support for rainfed agriculture. Nevertheless, it is a challenging situation.

·         Forest Fire: More than 5500 million is the annual estimated loss from forest fire. The loss of biodiversity, ozone layer depletion, loss of habitat for wildlife and soil erosion etc. through forest fires causes long term damage. Rs. 4,940 lakhs were allocated for year 2017-18 under MOEFCC scheme “Forest Fire Prevention and Management” to provide technical and financial support to states. Such initiatives need additional funding, resources and technical support. Control and eradication of Invasive Alien Species (IAS) that help spread of fires also needs resources.

·         Aquatic riverine and land ecosystems/habitats often suffer the brunt of pollution and other damaging influences because of the pressure of inappropriate use by people to satisfy their immediate, often unavoidable needs. Intensive and sustained training and capacity building of institutions of local governance such as Municipal and Panchayat bodies and Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) to create/tap into other locally available alternative sources of satisfying such needs would support and accelerate the work under various programmes.

·         Invasive alien species are a major threat to integrity of habitats. This has been dealt in detail under NBT 4.

EN

NBT-4: Measures

Measures

·      National Working Plan Code, 2014 for Sustainable Management of Forest and Biodiversity in India includes management of invasive species for maintenance and enhancement of forest health and vitality.

·      National Assessment of Tigers: Invasive plants monitoring, made an integral part of the co-predators, prey and their habitat, is done every fourth year, since 2006. Forest staff and trained biologists sample all the forest patches in the tiger ranges of the country and record presence of all invasive plants.

·       Plant Quarantine (Regulation of Import into India) Order, 2003 and Sub-Mission on Plant Protection and Plant Quarantine inter alia prevents introduction of exotic pests, diseases and weeds likely to get introduced through import of agricultural commodities or plants materials into India and fulfil obligation under IPCC.

·      Plants, Fruits & Seeds (Regulation of Import in India) Order 1989 (PFS Order 1989):
Regulates the import of plants, fruits or seeds in India.

·      Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 provides for the conservation of forests and for matters connected therewith.

·      Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 provides a legal framework for protection and conservation of various species of animals, plants and birds.

·       Destructive Insects and Pests Act,1914 and Amendments: To prevent introduction into and transport from one state to another in India of any insects, fungus or other pest which is or may be destructive to crops.

  Policies and Measures that support main measures:

·       National Forest Policy 1988 as amended in 2018: To improve the state and quality of existing forests and protect them against various threats and drivers of degradation

·      Biological Diversity Act, 2002 mandates the Central and State governments take steps for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

·      Livestock Importation Act, 1898 enables Central government to make provisions for the regulation of the importation of livestock.

·      Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 provides for provide for the protection and improvement of environment and the prevention of hazards to plants, human beings, other living creatures and property.

·      The Indian Forest Act, 1927 as amended from time to time stipulates measures for protection of forests by the government.

Other Measures

•    Intensification of Forest Management Scheme (IFMS) started in 2009 includes control and eradication of forest invasive species as a component.


EN
National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 4 : By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and strategies to manage them developed so that populations of prioritized invasive alien species are managed.
Measure taken has been partially effective

Indicators and assessment of progress against them with regard to NBT 4 are as follows:

  • ZSI/BSI during their surveys take note of IAS. Clear identification of invasive aliens as distinct from naturalised non-invasive aliens and prioritising the identified species for control and eradication are the first two essential steps for action.
  • After detailed and intense consultations with experts, NBA has now prepared an agreed list of 171 invasive alien species for further work on prioritization. See Table 4.1.

Table 4.1. Invasive Alien Species of India

S.No.

 Ecosystems

Number

Terrestrial Ecosystem

1.      

Terrestrial plants

53

Total

53

Aquatic Ecosystem

1.      

Microorganism reported in freshwater and brackish water

15

2.      

Aquatic plants (inland)

7

3.      

Fishes

14

4.      

Marine invasive species

19

Total

55

Agriculture Ecosystem

1.      

Fungus

16

2.      

Bacteria

5

3.      

Virus

3

4.      

Nematode

1

5.      

Invasive Insects

22

Total

47

Major Island Ecosystem

1.      

Insects

2

2.      

Cnidaria

1

3.      

Mollusca

1

4.      

Fishes

2

5.      

Amphibian

1

6.      

Reptile

1

7.      

Birds

2

8.      

Mammals

4

Total

14

Terrestrial plants

53

Aquatic Ecosystem

55

Agriculture Ecosystem

47

Island Ecosystem

14

Total  IAS 

169


1. Trends in number and coverage of management plans and change in area affected by Invasive Alien Species

·       Site specific measures to control IAS such as Lantana camara, Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and some other species are taken from time to time by agencies concerned.

·       Strategies tested and advocated by these studies include (i) ecological restoration by allowing selected indigenous plant species with potential to outcompete invasive species to flourish, (ii) mechanical control in combination with crop-competition method, and (iii) cut-root-stock method combined with introduction of native legumes and grasses. Identification and treatment of IAS are an essential part of wetland management plans.

  • The work for prioritization of IAS is in progress. NBA is leading the process of preparing an agreed list of names and priorities for management of IAS species in consultation with experts and stakeholders.
  • Studies are being carried out by Tropical Forest Research Institute (TFRI), Jabalpur, and others to establish workable models for control/eradication of IAS. Management of Lantana camara adopting one or the other of the models mentioned is being practised.
  • Extent and causes of species invasion are included as part of wetland management plans.
  • Phytosanitary and quarantine measures are implemented to prevent entry of destructive pests and plants in the country.

EN
EN

Pervasiveness of IAS across areas and their tendency to resurge after patchy treatments necessitates implementation of strategies that create lasting effect. Sharing of best practices from across the globe, scientific and technical cooperation, contiguous transboundary cooperation and additional earmarked funding are required to achieve this target.   Within the country also a nationally coordinated system of invasive species management needs to be established which brings together domain experts such as botanists, foresters, wildlife biologists, researchers, engineers, ecologists, hydrologists, and communication experts to make areas and species-specific strategies taking a long-range management perspective of IAS.

EN

NBT-5: Measures

This NBT integrates ABT 6 to ensure that fish, invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed sustainably and legally based on ecosystems approach, ABT 7 through promotion and adoption of conservation friendly sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and forestry practices and NBT 8 by addressing issues of pollution that work to the detriment of conservation and ecosystem health. This section deals with measures taken for sustainable management of agriculture, forests and fisheries.

Sustainable Agriculture Management


 Sustainable management of agriculture  rests on these strong pillars: (i) Soil Health Management; (ii) Irrigation Expansion and Management with ‘Per Drop More Crop’ motto; (iii) R & D in Bio-fortification, health foods and climate resilience; (iv) Integrated Nutrient Management; (v) Integrated Pest Management; (vi) Encouragement to organic farming; (vii) Protection of farmer’s rights  with respect to their contribution made at any time in conserving, improving and making available plant genetic resources; (viii) Conservation of germplasm; and (ix) Economic viability.

Pre-existing policies, laws and administrative mechanisms have provided a base for consolidating, augmenting and adding new measures for achieving these objectives.

Main Policy and Legislative Measures for Sustainable Agriculture Management inter alia include:

  • National Farmers Policy, 2007 inter alia aims at increasing productivity, profitability and stability of agriculture through creating economic stake in conservation of water, biodiversity and genetic resources.
  • Plant Quarantine (Regulation of Import into India) Order, 2003 prohibits and regulates the import of agricultural articles specified in the Order.
  • National Agroforestry Policy, 2002 aims at supplementing farmers’ income, securing convergence and synergy among elements of agroforestry.
  • Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001establishes a system for protection of plant varieties, farmers’ and plant breeders’ rights including rights in respect of their contributions made at any time in conserving, improving and making available plant genetic resources for the development of new plant varieties.
  • Fertilizer Control Order, 1985 regulates trade, price, quality and distribution of fertilizers and matters connected therewith.
  • Seeds Act, 1966 regulates the quality of seeds for sale and for matters connected thereto.
  • Seed (Control) Order, 1983 obligates all dealers to obtain license to carry on the business of selling, exporting or importing seeds at any place.
  • Insecticides Act, 1968 with Insecticides Rules, 1971, (as amended from time to time) regulates the import, manufacture, sale, transportation, distribution and use of insecticides.
  • Destructive Insects and Pests Act, 1914 (as amended) prevents introduction of any insect, fungus or pest, destructive to crops.

 Other measures include:

  • Four National Missions supported by R&D through the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)implement various aspects of agriculture for sustained and sustainable development of a doggedly pursued mission mode in this vastly diverse sector. See Figure 5.1 for details of National Missions and their mandate.
  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna (RKVY) for holistic development of agriculture and allied sectors includes IPM, water and soil conservation, minor/micro irrigation, setting up of labs among its components.
  • Measures for gender mainstreaming include- Article 243 D and 243 T of the Constitution which mandate that not less than one-third seats in Panchayats in rural areas and municipal bodies in urban areas respectively "shall be" reserved for women. Most states have raised this reservation to 50 %. This ensures large-scale participation of women in planning decision making, implementation and governance. Gender Budgeting as part of the Annual Central Government budget. Specific provisions for participation and representation of women in government programmes and schemes.

Figure 5.1 National Missions to Ensure Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) and their Mandate

R&D and finding solutions:

  • Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) with its 4 Deemed Universities, 64 Institutions, 15 National Research Centres, 6 national bureaus, 13 Directorates and Project Directorates located in various parts of the country works for finding solutions for known and emerging issues in sustainable agriculture through R&D which helps the work of the missions. (https://icar.org.in/node/119)

R&D and development of strategies for climate resilient agriculture:

  • National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA), a strategic research project of ICAR, has been started to enhance resilience of agriculture to climate change and climate vulnerability with the involvement of its leading institutes. Technology demonstration are carried out in 100 selected districts of India involving over one lakh farm families. The research covers crops, livestock, fisheries and natural resource management. Technology demonstration is implemented in participatory mode and interventions are finalised through the Village Climate Risk Management Committee.

 Timely sharing of information:

  • National e-Governance Plan in Agriculture (NeGP-A) provides farmers easy and timely access to information through various delivery channels including Common Service Centres, Web Portals, SMSs through Mkisan, Kisan Call Centers, Farmers’ portal and Mobile apps etc. Around 60 online services have been developed and launched for this purpose.

 Support and Incentives for Organic Agriculture through:

  • Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKMY) 2015, seeks to promote certified organic cultivation in 2 lakh ha covering 10,000 clusters.
  • Participatory Guarantee System (PGS)India evolved after consultations between FAO and Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare (MoAFW) to encourage organic farming certification with the involvement of farmers through a decentralised system. Consequently, the PGS Organic India Council was setup in 2006 and at National Centre of Organic Farming (NCOF) under MoAFW began to operate the PGS India as a voluntary organic guarantee programme. It involves farmers living in similar geographical area in the same or close-by villages to inspect and verify each other’s process and standards to ensure adherence to established standards laid down for organic products.
  • Third Party Certification of organic farming for exports by accredited certification bodies, under the National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP) under the Ministry of Commerce.
  • Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region (MOVCDNER), 2014-15 to develop certified organic production in value chain mode by linking growers with consumers through 100 Farmers Producer Companies (FPCs) composed of 2,500 Farmers Interest Groups (FIGs), covering 50,000 ha area and 50,000 farmers during 2015-18.

 Scientific management of water utilisation and energy efficiency:

  • Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY), 2015- with the motto Per Drop More Crop” seeks to achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level, expand cultivable area under assured irrigation, promote sustainable use and water conservation practices, ensure water use efficiency at farm level through precision /micro irrigation.
  • Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) Capital Subsidy Scheme for promoting Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping (Refer to Section II, NBT 2)
  • Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM) for solar power pumps (Refer to Section II, NBT 2)

Women in Agriculture:

National Gender Resource Centre in Agriculture (NGRCA), New Delhi acts as the focal point for addressing gender dimension to agriculture policies and programmes, renders advisory services to States and UT’s to mainstream gender in agriculture development.

Direct support to decentralised action for extension and other services:

  • Funding support to specialised institutes to impart training to extension functionaries, funding support to unemployed youth, including women to set up E-agri clinic and business centres, use of mass media, incentivising States/UTs in developing plans and actions, and
  • Promoting farmer driven, farmer accountable Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) at district level including creating a platform of Farmer Friend (FF) for experienced and progressive farmers to provide advisory services to farmers at village level.

 Strong accent on Plant protection, Quarantine and Ecological Equilibrium:

  • The Sub-Mission on Plant Protection and Plant Quarantine (SMPP) with its 4 components promotes Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and health of agricultural ecosystem. See Figure 5.2 for details.



Figure 5.2
Sub-mission on Plant Protection and Plant Quarantine (SMPP)


 Welfare Programmes for Farmers:

  • Seed Village Programme, 2006 to upgrade the quality of farmer saved seeds which constitute about 60-65% of the total seeds used for crop production.
  • National Crop Insurance Programme (NCIP) - Restructured as Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) in 2016, to protect farmers against crop failure due to natural calamities, pests & diseases, weather conditions.
  • Mera Gaon Mera Gaurav (My Village My Pride) under Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer’s Welfare is a scheme under which the Scientists/Officers adopt villages and provide information to farmers on technical and other related aspects in regulated time-frame through personal visits.

 Sustainable Forestry

  • “Arresting and reversing degradation and deforestation while increasing direct benefits from forests for people and the environment in a way that forest ecosystems are conserved and maintained for the benefit of present and future generations” is the basic philosophy of NEP, 2006. A strong legal and policy framework and a vibrant management has evolved for sustainable forestry through experience over the years. 
  • To encourage plantation of trees outside forest areas and recognise the legitimate livelihoods requirements of the local communities Indian Forest Amendment Ordinance 2017 has exempted bamboo grown in non-forest areas from definition of tree under India Forest Act, 1927. This would encourage farmers and local communities to take up plantation of bamboo on degraded land, encourage agro-forestry and contribute to ecological and soil quality gains and help achieve landscape approach in conservation.  
  • The Decision Support System (DSS) has been created as an online tool to help in efficient implementation of the Forest Conservation Act 1980.  This web based GIS system, operational since 2014, is developed and maintained by Forest Survey of India and uses 15 spatial layers.  DSS helps in informed and unbiased decisions on diversion of forest land based on qualitative and administrative characteristics of forests.  The system is widely used by MoEF&CC, its regional offices and also by senior officers from State Forest Departments and others concerned.

  • For main legal and policy framework refer to NBT 3, Section II, Forest habitat. 

  • National level technical institutions/ organisations deal with various aspects and issues of sustainable management of forestry, advise MoEFCC, States/UT on matters included in their mandate, Figure 5.3 shows the national level institutions details.
  • Forestry management in States/UTs is done by the State/UT forest department supported by their own training and R&D activities. Government also engages in promoting Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) which is a globally recognized certification system that ensures traceability of responsibly harvested forest products from the forests to the point of sale.

Figure 5.3 National Level Institutions/ Organisations in Forestry Sector and their Mandates


  • ICFRE has subject specific units namely Forest Research Institute, Dehradun; Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Shimla; Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Centre for Social Forestry & Eco-Rehabilitation, Allahabad, Centre for Forestry Research & Human Resource Development, Chindwara, Institute of Rain & Moist Deciduous and Research, Jorhat, Institute of Forest Productivity, Ranchi, Institute of Wood Science & Technology, Bangalore, Tropical Research Institute, Jodhpur, Institute of Forest Genetics & Tree Breeding, Coimbatore.
  • States/UTs have Forest Departments, Training Institutes for officials and cutting-edge functionaries, linkages with subject specific institutions.
  • All the R&D and other work of national level institutes feeds into national policies/programmes, actions and States/UTs through organisations whenever and wherever needed.
  • National Agroforestry and Bamboo Mission is being implemented under sub-scheme of Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture. (Refer to Pg. 66, NR5). Steps are being taken to provide assistance to farmers/bamboo growers, inter alia, for plantations in non-forest area. Bamboo grown in non-forest areas has been exempted from the definition of tree under India Forest Act, 1927.

 Sustainable Fisheries

  • The Indian coastal ecosystems comprising mudflats, estuaries, creeks, mangroves, coral reefs, marshes, lagoons, sea grass beds, sandy and rocky beaches, have an estimated area of 42, 808 sq.km and provide habitat for a variety of aquatic flora and fauna. The country has an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 2.02 million km[1] and a long coastline of 8118 kms. These coastal and marine ecosystems provide a range of ecosystem services contributing to economic stability of the country. The marine fisheries wealth in the Indian EEZ is estimated at 4.412 MMT (Maximum Sustainable Yield).
  • In the inland side, there has been a shift from capture fisheries to aquaculture in the last two and a half decades. India is the second largest producer of inland fishes and the second largest aquaculture nation in the world. The total fish production in India has increased from 5.66 MMT in 2000-01 to 11.41 MMT (7.77 MMT from inland and 3.64 MMT from marine) in 2016-17. The transformation of inland fisheries from traditional capture fisheries to commercial scale aquaculture has led to an increase in fish production from 7.77 MMT in 1950-51 to 11.41 MMT in 2016-17.

  • Approximately 14.5 million people depend on fisheries activities for livelihood and India contributes 6.3% to the global fish production. Confirming to the objective of ABT 6, a comprehensive approach to the sector is adopted through ‘Blue Revolution’ to achieve sustainable utilization of fisheries wealth from marine and inland aquatic resources. Elements of ‘Blue Growth Initiative’ and targets of SDGs are encompassed in the ‘Blue Revolution’.
  • National Wildlife Action Plan 2017-2030 has an inclusionary approach which has linkage with wider landscapes and seascapes as important focal areas.
  • Wildlife Crime Control Bureau, a statutory multi-disciplinary body established by the Government of India under the MoEFCC, to combat organized wildlife crime in the country. It also assists and advises the customs authorities in inspection of the consignments of flora and fauna as per the provisions of Wild Life Protection Act, CITES and Export-Import (EXIM) Policy governing such an item.

Main Measures:


  • A strong institutional infrastructure for scientific sustainable management of fisheries of all types of aquatic ecosystems namely inland, coastal and marine exists. See Figure 5.4 for details.


Figure 5.4
India’s Institutional Infrastructure for Sustainable Management of Fisheries

  • Coastal and marine fisheries policies and projects also get inputs from national level institutions concerned with various issues of coastal and marine ecosystem. Figure 5.5 lists these institutions.


Figure 5.5
National Level Institutions for Coastal and Marine ecosystems


Other measures for the sector inter alia include:

  • Marine Fisheries Management Code (NMFC): On the lines of FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (FAOCCRF).
  • Network for Fish Quality Management and Sustainable Fishing (NETFISH) 2007: A registered society under the MPEDA to empower fishermen community through extension and knowledge inter alia through multiple need-based training programmes in and around selected harbours and landing centres in all maritime states of India.
  • Mobile App Advisory: m@krishi, for information on potential fishing zone through mobile phones has reduced scouting time for fishing by around 50%, reduced fuel consumption and increased profit to the tune of 25-35%.
  • Minimum legal size (MLS): Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), helps States in designing guidelines for MLS to ensure sustainable produce of commercially important fish stocks. Government of Kerala has issued these recently.
  • Policy guidance on light fishing: Prohibits use or installation or operation of surface or submerged artificial lights/LED lights, fish lights attractors or any other light equipment with or without generator on mechanized fishing vessel or motorised fishing crafts in Indian EEZ beyond territorial waters.
  • Guidelines for Sustainable Development and Management of Brackish Water Aquaculture (1995): Make all aquaculture units above 40 ha subject to EIA. Shrimp culture units of 40 ha or more to also incorporate EMP for local watercourses, groundwater, drinking water sources, agricultural activity, soil and salinization, waste water treatment and green belt development.
  • Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) Certificate: MSC, an independent non-profit council, sets certification standards for sustainable fishing and issues certificates. MSC standards are assessed by a team of experts who are independent of both the fishery and the MSC.
  • Logo Scheme for Export: Logo granted by MPEDA as mark of quality to be affixed on seafood products exported from India by the registered seafood processors who meet the criteria prescribed.
  • Managing marine debris and micro plastics
  • Standards specified by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCB) for releasing effluents into the water bodies.
  • Namami Gange and NRCP help sustainable fisheries by cleaning the water ways and lakes.
  • Conservation of indigenous fish genetic resources.
  • Co-Management practices.
  • Preparation of Coastal PBRs e.g., in Kerala, Goa.

 Additional measures:

  • Draft National Inland Fishery Policy, 2018 is being formulated.
  • Draft National Forest Policy, 2018 is being formulated.


EN
National Biodiversity Target (NBT) - 5 : By 2020, Measures are adopted for Sustainable Management of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Measure taken has been effective

Indicators for measuring the implementation of NBTs were determined along with timeframe for monitoring in consultation with Ministries and Departments concerned at the time of finalization of NBTs. Progress is monitored through the respective indicators of all the NBTs.  Indicators and assessment of progress against them with regard to NBT 5 follows.

I. Sustainable Agriculture

Remunerative, sustainable, climate resilient, ecosystem friendly agriculture with efficient and optimum use of environment friendly inputs is being achieved through implementation of various schemes of NICRA with the involvement of farmers. These have created a number of positive impacts and contributions to making agriculture sustainable in the face of climate related challenges.

 Particularly to recount the key achievements:

  • Several climate resilient crop varieties and animal breeds and efficient natural resource management technologies have been successfully introduced in 151 villages spread across the country for climate smart agriculture under NICRA.
  • For the first time, all germplasm of wheat with NBPGR has been multiplied for field for phenotyping and is currently under evaluation.
  • Country wide studies have been initiated to understand the impact of temperature on flowering behaviour in mango.
  • A nation-wide pest surveillance and monitoring system has been put in place for all target crops for major pests and diseases wherein real time incidence is being monitored along with weather parameters to build pest warning models.
  • Technologies such as on-farm water harvesting in ponds, supplemental irrigation, introduction of early maturing drought tolerant varieties, paddy varieties tolerant to submergence in flood prone districts, improved drainage in water logger areas, recharging techniques for tube wells, site specific nutrient management and management of sodic soils, mulching, use of zero till drills have been enthusiastically implemented by farmers in NICRA villages across the country. One district level agro-advisory service has been implemented successfully on pilot basis.
  • More than 100 training programmes have been organized across the country covering 50,000 farmers to create awareness on climate change and variability.
  • State of the art infrastructure is being built to take up long term strategic research such as impact of climate change on crops and livestock and modelling future climate impacts on agriculture.
  • Specific additional projects addressing critical areas like arid zone, hill and mountain ecosystem, climate impact on pollinators, hail-storm management and socio-economic impacts of climate change including adaptation finance have been sanctioned.
  • The approach includes coping strategies through water saving technologies, expanding technology demonstration and dissemination to 130 vulnerable districts of the country.

i. Trends in area under Organic Farming

  • Area under organic farming increased from 1.2 to 1.49 MHa in the years 2014 to 2015. Remained more or less constant in 2016. Figure 5.6 shows movement in total area including forest area and agricultural area over years 2014 to 2017.

Figure 5.6 Area in million hectares (MHa)


Source: APEDA Annual Report 2014-15 to 2016-17 

  • Land under organic farming in India has shown third highest increase in the world between 2014 and 2015.1
  • The PKMY is expected to yield results over next years in terms of increase in areas.
  • Sikkim, Himalayan state, in the north east adopted a state policy for organic agriculture and has now become a fully organic-agriculture state.

ii. Trends in Organic Agriculture Certification

  • Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) India program can be joined by any farmer either by becoming a member of an existing PGS-India local group or by making a new group of at least 5 members. Validity of a PGS certificate is one year.7983 PGS local groups comprising 276,865 farmer members covering an area of 212553.73 ha participated in PGS certification by June 2018.
  • PGS-National Advisory Committee has been set up as apex national body which makes policies, monitors standards and creates capacity for operation of the system through Regional Councils. 317 such Regional Councils coordinate, monitor and approve certification decisions of Local Groups.
  • 83,866 certificates were generated since 2015 covering an area of 212553.73 ha; Figure 5.7 shows rise in certificates since 2015.

Figure 5. 7 Number of PGS certificates



Source: Participatory Guarantee System for India, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare

  • Third party certification is done by Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) through accredited bodies. List of 28 accredited bodies can be seen at apeda.gov.in/apedawebsite/organic/NPOP_certification_bodies.pdf

iii. Trends in the Production/Usage of Agrochemical Fertilizers


  • Soil Health Management (SHM) system makes real time advice available to farmers for inputs and other matters based on the soil health of individual farms based on the soil health cards. Different grades of fertilizers have been notified under Fertilizer Control Order (FCO), 1985 to suit the soil specific needs. Effective implementation of the FCO ensures need based supply of fertilizers to farmers.
  • 150,939,538 Soil Health Cards distributed between 2015-18. These serve the purpose of providing farm-based information to farmers on soil nutrient status and recommend appropriate dosage of nutrient for improving soil health and its fertility.
  • The gross irrigated area has shown increase from 92.25 MHa in 2012-13 to 96.46 MHa in 2014-15 and consumption of fertilizer has remained nearly constant after 2013-14. This may be because of wiser use of fertilizers. See Figure 5.8 for consumption of fertilizers from 2002-03 to 2015-16.

Figure 5. 8 Consumption of fertilizers


Source: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2016; All India Report on Agriculture Census (2010-2011)

iv.  Trends in use of Bio Fertilizers/Biofuels, Organic Manure and Vermicompost


  • FCO, 1985 has been amended to incorporate biofertlizers namely Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azspirillum, Phospohate Solubilizing Bacteria, Potash mobilising bacteria (KMB), Zinc Solubilizing Bacteria, Mycorrhizae, Acetobactor and Consortia of bio-fertilizers to encourage use of quality biofertilizers.
  • Generalised specification of organic manures and other organic fertilizers, namely, city compost. Vermicompost, phosphate rich organic manure (PROM) and phosphate solubilising bacteria enriched organic manure have been notified under FCO schedule IV to ensure use of quality bio-fertilizers.

  • Specification of non-edible de-oiled cake/castor oil cake fertilizers have been notified under FCO schedules to ensure availability of standard quality to farmers.

  • 662 Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) spread across the country provide timely advisories to farmers about organic farming and improved technologies. In 2016-17 alone, 820.31 lakh quality planting material and bio-fertilizers (5,509q), vermicompost, mineral mixture etc., 3.39 lakh quality seeds, were produced at KVK and supplied to farmers.
  • 2,406 farmer interested groups, 82 farmers producer companies covering 45,863 ha and 44,604 famers have been former under MOVDNER.
  • Use of non-chemical fertilizers has received substantial boost as a result of activities under NMSA, PKMY, RKVY, NMOOP, NFSM and R&D by ICAR. The combined figure of Carrier and Liquid based biofertilizer production at 46836.82 Million tonnes in 2012-13 reached 88029.3 Million tonnes as carrier based and 6240.93 KL as liquid based bio-fertilizer in 2015-16, an increase of nearly 100%. See Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9 Total Bio-fertilizer Production


Source: EnviStats India 2018, MoS


v. Trends in production of Organic Manure

Total manure at 2294.15 Million tonnes in 2013-14 reached 2547.87 Million tonnes in 2015-16 indicating rise in use of organic manure.

vi. Trends in Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    • Thirty five (35) Central Integrated Pest Management Centres (CIPMCs) carry out pest/disease monitoring, conservation, production and release of bio-control agents, and reach out to farmers through Farmers Field Schools (FFSs) to help them tailor IPM practices to suit their individual needs. Significant role of women in plant protection has been recognised. They form important part of FFS.

    Table 5.1 shows cumulative achievements under IPM and Table 5.2 gives assessment of impact of IPM.

    Table 5.1 Achievements under IPM measures implemented from 1994 to March 2017 and Target for 2017-18

     

    Measures/Activities

    Achievements

    Area under pest monitoring

    273.69 lakh ha

    Field releases of bio control agents

    53,452.68 million agents

    Area under augmentations and conservations of bio-control agents

    152.36 lakh ha

    FSS organised and number of farmer participants in these

    Number of FFS organised: 17,234

    Number of farmers trained: 5,17,260

    Extension officers trained

    About 58,780 agriculture/horticulture extension officers

    Number of NGOs, personnel, pesticide dealers, lead farmers etc. trained

    46,680 persons

    Number of crops for which IPM packages developed, revised as per needs and uploaded.

    87 crops

    Funds allocated for establishment of Biocontrol labs

    1882.9625 lakh

    Knowledge products for farmer’s education

    • Manual in Hindi and English on Rice and Cotton for Subject Matter Specialists (SMS)
    • Farmers field guide in Hindi and English on Rice and Cotton.
    • Handbooks on diagnosis and Integrated Pest Management of cotton pests in English, Hindi, Punjabi, Telugu languages.
    • Folders on IPM in Cotton in Hindi, English, Punjabi and Telugu
    • Posters in Hindi & English in Cotton and Rice for recognition of pests and natural enemies.
    • Safe use of Pesticides-Banner prepared.
    • IPM Packages for 87 crops. Can be seen at accessed at http://ppqs.gov.in/ipm-packages)
    • For list of registered Bio-pesticides & their formulations for use in the country refer to  http://ppqs.gov.in/divisions/integrated-pest-management/ipm-glance

    Annual target for 2017-18

    • Pest monitoring of 9 lakh ha
    • Field releases of 2,200 million biocontrol agents
    •  Augmentation and conservation of biocontrol agents over 8.50 lakh ha

     

    Source: IPM at Glance, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage

    Table 5.2 Impacts of IPM activities

    Parameters

    Impact of IPM

    Changes in crop yield of rice and cotton

    Increased from 6.72 - 40.14% in rice and 22.7 - 26.63% in cotton in IPM fields compared to non-IPM fields.

    Use of chemical pesticide sprays

    Reduced to the extent of 50-100% in rice and 29.96 to 50.5% in cotton.

    Use of bio-pesticides/neem-based pesticides

    Increased from 123 Million tonnes during 1994-95 to 63540Million tonnes during 2016-17

    Consumption of chemical pesticide in the country

    Reduced from 75033 Million tonnes (Tech. grade) during 1990-91 to 54121 Million tonnes (Tech. Grade) during 2015-16

    Source: IPM at Glance, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage

    vii. Trends in Soil Quality and Land Use

    • Measures have been taken under SHM to provide real time advise to farmers for promoting location and crop specific sustainable soil health management through residue management, organic farming practices by creating and linking soil fertility maps with macro-micro nutrient management and land use based on land type.
    • RAD focuses at making rainfed agriculture more productive, sustainable, and remunerative and climate resilient by promoting Integrated Farming System (IFS). It includes horticulture, livestock, fishery, agroforestry, value addition along with crops/cropping system.
    • Table 5.3 shows progress in respect of SHM.

    Table 5.3 Facilities for and progress under Soil Health Management

    Facilities/Activities

    Achievements

    Soil samples tested until 2018-19

    36,463,843