PDF

Sixth National Report

submitted on: 28 Dec 2018   last updated: 16 May 2019

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Czech Republic

General Information about the NBSAP and the national targets

The National Biodiversity Strategy of the Czech Republic (hereinafter the “Strategy”) represents a fundamental conceptual document defining the priorities in the field of conservation, and the sustainable use of biodiversity within the territory of the Czech Republic. It follows up the comprehensive evaluation of the previous document from 2005, on the basis of which, priority areas and objectives were identified. It also takes into account the current international commitments, in particular, the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 and the Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to 2020. At the same time, the Strategy follows up on the measures defined by the State Environmental Policy, and it is also linked to other conceptual documents which span across all sectors.

The main role of the updated Strategy is to create a basic conceptual framework based on the existing legislation and the existing instruments, which will contribute to the improvement of the overall situation and sustainable use of biodiversity within the territory of the Czech Republic. Favourable conservation status of biodiversity is a prerequisite for the ecosystem’s ability to provide essential goods and services to human society. Therefore, it is necessary to understand that the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity is one of the key pillars of sustainable development in the Czech Republic. In this respect, the Strategy represents a conceptual document, so that the objectives defined in the area of the protection and conservation of nature and natural resources in the updated Strategic Framework for Sustainable Development in the Czech Republic to 2030, are met. The Strategy reflects the current international objectives, which are closely linked with the objectives of sustainable development, which contributes significantly towards the interoperability of the Strategy Objectives with other conceptual documents at the national level; through the Strategic Framework for Sustainable Development in the Czech Republic.

The main objective of the Strategy is to prevent the continued overall biodiversity loss within the territory of the Czech Republic and at the same time to implement the measures and activities that will lead to the improvement of the status of biodiversity and its sustainable use. In accordance with the main objective of the Strategy, there is a significant effort to increase awareness of the importance of biodiversity and its adequate conservation, and to ensure sustainable future development of the Czech Republic. The overall decline in biodiversity has long been pursued at a European level, confirmed by the mid-term review of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. All EU Member States, on the basis of those unsatisfactory findings, agreed that it is necessary to make a significantly greater effort by developing a more effective use of existing instruments for the conservation of biodiversity within all key sectors which significantly affect the status of biological diversity. Particularly in Western European countries, the conservation of biological diversity is  taken into account to a much larger extent across all sectors and at all levels of decision-making, which  in turn contributes to greater knowledge about the long-term economic impact of biodiversity loss. The European Commission has at its disposal a comprehensive analysis of the available economic risks associated with the European biodiversity loss, and it is estimated that the failure to fulfil the main objective of the abovementioned EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 causes an annual loss of € 50 billion to the EU economy.

A similar analysis has not yet been made in the Czech Republic; but it is obvious that the findings presented abroad are relevant for the territory of the Czech Republic. Here however, public and political interest in the conservation of biodiversity is lacking;   there is little awareness of the risks and economic consequences of biodiversity loss. The presented Strategy should in this respect provide relevant and sufficient information for adequate integration of the issue of the conservation of biological diversity across all the sectors concerned.

To achieve the abovementioned objective, it will be necessary to ensure that the conservation of biodiversity is recognised as a prerequisite for the sustainable development of the Czech Republic; and in this respect it must be regarded as a matter of public interest.

Structure of the Strategy

The structure of the updated Strategy was the subject of discussions made by the Working Group, which was established by the Ministry of the Environment in order to prepare an update on the National Biodiversity Strategy for the period 2016-2025. The decision about the overall structure of the Strategy is based on the basic analytical data from two studies developed for the Ministry of the Environment in 2014 - “The Analysis of the Implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy in the Czech Republic 2005-2015 (Global Change Research Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences (GCRI), 2014)" and "The Analysis of Sources of Proposal of Structures: National Biodiversity Strategy of the CR for the period 2015-2025 (Hošek et al., 2014)”. The first analysis is a comprehensive assessment of the previous Strategy (2005-2015), more specifically of its two thematic parts; when the absence of indicators monitoring the component objectives is replaced by a total activities research and the overall development of the state in each of the areas. The second analysis was focused on the relevance of the existing objectives with regard to the current needs and trends in the field of biodiversity conservation at the national level, and also with regard to the current objectives set at the international level. At the same time, the second analysis provided a basic framework for determining the priority areas and objectives.

 These documents were discussed and evaluated, as well as the up-to-date information contained in the Fifth National Report of the Czech Republic to the Convention on Biological Diversity (2014), documentation for the Assessment Report on the Status of Species and Natural Habitats in the Czech Republic (NCA CR, 2016), Report on the State of Nature in the EU (2015) and the mid-term review of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, within the Working Group for the preparation of the Strategy update.  Based on all of the relevant information, the Working Group decided, in the view of the complexity and scope of all of the documents that have been evaluated, that the updated Strategy will not contain a specific analytical part which would collectively present the abovementioned information. Instead, it was decided that an analysis of the status quo, which is also based on the abovementioned information, will be incorporated into individual component objectives of the Strategy.

Based on the abovementioned analytical foundation, the 4 following priority areas were defined for the updated Strategy:

1. Society Recognising the Value of Natural Resources

This area is mainly focused on the integration of the conservation of biodiversity in the public and private sectors, the increase in awareness of its importance in a global context, the issues of conservation of biodiversity in the context of tourism, and also the provision of adequate financial support.

2. Biodiversity Flourishing in the Long Term and Protection of Natural Processes

This part is aimed at sufficiently ensuring the protection of selected biodiversity components at all levels (even in the form of its sustainable use), and also at supporting natural processes in open landscape and settlements.

3. Environmentally Friendly Use of Natural Resources

Here the Strategy focuses in particular on the improvement of practices in the area of economic management and the use of biodiversity components and natural resources in selected ecosystems.

4. Providing Up-to-date and Relevant Information

In the last area, the Strategy is focused on securing the relevant information in the field of knowledge, monitoring and research of biodiversity, the establishment of the procedure for national assessment of ecosystem services and the definition of priorities in the involvement of the Czech Republic in international biodiversity conservation.

In those 4 priority areas, there is a total of 20 objectives which describe the general context and relevance of the minor issues of biodiversity protection. It is followed by a description of the current state which always ends with a table of the most important pressures on biodiversity in the region and current threats which may have a significant impact in the area in the future. The text part of each objective is followed by a table of component sub-objectives and each of them defines measures and activities that should be implemented in the following period. For the purpose of monitoring the implementation of component objectives, an indicator, deadline, verification source and responsible authority for each measure was determined. This should facilitate significantly the continuous overall Strategy assessment, which will make it possible to determine, for each component objective, whether or not and to what extent it is implemented and then set the performance of the whole Strategy accordingly.

The Strategy therefore provides a set of priority objectives and measures, which create a conceptual framework for specific activities in the field of biodiversity conservation in the territory of the Czech Republic during the period 2016-2025.

The specific objectives are followed by a summary of identified sources of funding for each of the objectives and comparison of the Strategy with other selected conceptual and strategic documents across sectors which deal predominantly with the issue of biodiversity conservation. The list of abbreviations used in the text is followed by a dictionary of key terms, in which the key terms from the field of biodiversity conservation are defined and explained. The annex to the Strategy then provides a list of so-called Aichi Targets of the Strategic Plan to 2020 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which are referred to in the text of the Strategy refers.

The Strategy does not contain a partial Action Plan which would elaborate on the proposed measures in detail, and set more specific tasks. This role, in particular in the context of the Priority Areas 2 and 3 of the Strategy, will be fulfilled by the State Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection Programme of the Czech Republic (SNCLPP), which will be updated by the end of 2017.

Following the adoption of the Strategy by the Government, the Ministry of the Environment will notify other departments concerned with a request to determine a focal point, through which the Ministry will further communicate with regard to the implementation of the Strategy sub-objectives and their subsequent assessment.

Strategy Financing

The Ministry of the Environment is responsible for the majority of the proposed measures and will identify the possibilities to increase the financial resources allocated for their implementation after the Strategy adoption. It is possible to use the resources from the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF), where the conservation of biodiversity is consistent across most programmes (Operational Programme Environment for 2014-2020, the Rural Development Programme for the period 2014-2020, Operational Programme Fisheries for the period 2014-2020, Operational Programme Enterprise and Innovation for Competitiveness, Integrated Regional Operational Programme, the Operational Programme Transport, etc.), until 2020. Together with the use of funds from the ESIF, it will be necessary, considering the need for continuity in the financing of nature conservation after the end of the programming period, to "prioritise" the conservation of biological diversity even at the level of specific departments, including the question of financial resources. In order to include the issue of the conservation of biodiversity to a larger extent within other sectors, specific departments were assigned as responsible for the component objectives, which in cooperation with the Ministry of the Environment should ensure that under the current options of the state budget of the Czech Republic, the necessary financial resources are available for their implementation. The proposed measures may be partially implemented within the already existing measures and instruments or within their extension (especially in the Priority Areas 2 and 3). The main responsibility for the implementation of the Strategy and its component objectives lies with the Ministry of the Environment. However, it is essential that both the adequate consideration and inclusion of proposed measures within the framework of other sectors, and the identification of financial resources for their implementation, involve also the support of the Government and all relevant departments.

Strategy Evaluation

The Strategy contains a total of 20 framework objectives within 4 priority areas, which in addition to the assessment part of the current state and description of pressures and threats, also define the component objectives and specific measures for their implementation. The Strategy contains a total of 68 component objectives and 123 follow-up measures. Each measure was assigned its own indicator which will make it possible to assess the implementation of the measure. Verification sources of individual measures are assigned to all indicators, including the deadline and responsible authority.

The assessment of the Strategy will take place in two stages:

1. The mid-term review of the implementation of the component objectives of the Strategy in the middle of the period (the end of the year 2020).

2. Overall evaluation of the Strategy in 2025.

Both assessments will be carried out by the Ministry of the Environment, as the main responsible Strategy authority, in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture. The evaluation system will be based on the collection of relevant data (defined verification sources), which will represent the basis for quantitative determination, in relation to the set indicator, on whether or not the specific measure has been implemented, has been partially implemented, or has not been implemented at all. On the basis of the evaluation of the implementation of the individual measures, it will be then possible to, once again, express the degree of implementation of individual objectives, framework objectives, and the overall Strategy.

In the mid-term evaluation, the attention will be focused primarily on those measures with a deadline of the year 2020; general evaluation of activities that have been implemented in that area will take place in case of other measures. A review of component objectives is not expected on the basis of the mid-term evaluation. The emphasis is put, in particular, on the identification of problem areas, where the expected changes were not achieved within the set deadline. In this respect, it may be possible to make a minor modification or add specific measures.

The proposed set of indicators (123 in total) was chosen for the evaluation of the implementation of individual measures and objectives. Where possible, the indicators from the Set of National Indicators (SNI), which is in effect from August 1, 2014 (total individual numbers linked to the 49 indicators, which are listed in the SNI) were assigned to these indicators. These indicators are listed under individual measures as additional, mainly due to the fact that they are associated only with the financial resources provided from the ESIF, while the implementation of the proposed measures should be in most cases from multiple sources (see Sources of Financing of the Strategy Objectives referred to on page 83). Other indicators contained in the Strategy have been created on an ad hoc basis for each action without a single required format. These specific indicators will make it possible to evaluate at a basic level the implementation of each objective and measure.

Monitoring of the overall state of biodiversity in the Czech Republic is greatly underdeveloped. Only in the case of species protection, there are several indicators with longer data series that can be used in the Strategy. These few available indicators have been used for a long time to inform the public about the status of biological diversity; for example in the Report on the Environment of the Czech Republic which is released annually by the Ministry of the Environment. Because it is not possible to consider the current set of indicators to monitor the status and trends of biodiversity in the Czech Republic as sufficiently representative, it is one of the objectives of the Strategy "to create a comprehensive set of indicators of status, changes and trends of biological diversity in the territory of the Czech Republic" (Objective 4.1.1). Those indicators will be used for the Strategy evaluation and for better communication with the public about the issue of biodiversity conservation.

As mentioned above, the adoption of the Strategy should be followed by an update of the State Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection Programme of the Czech Republic (SNCLPP, 2009, which will further elaborate on measures which the Strategy imposes, in particular on the Priority Areas 2 and 3 (Objective 4.1.3). Component objectives and SNCLPP measures will be established in these specific areas so as to make it possible to carry out mutual evaluation of the Strategy implementation and the State Programme.

The Strategy has been prepared by a team of authors, under the guidance of the Ministry of the Environment, comprised of staff from the ME, the MA, the NCA CR, and other outside experts and consultants. The Strategy was also discussed and amended by members of the Committee for Landscape, Water and Biodiversity of the Government Council for Sustainable Development.



EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
17. NBSAPs
 
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
2. Integration of biodiversity values
3. Incentives
4. Use of natural resources
5. Loss of habitats
6. Sustainable fisheries
7. Areas under sustainable management
9. Invasive Alien Species
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
11. Protected areas
12. Preventing extinctions
13. Agricultural biodiversity
14. Essential ecosystem services
15. Ecosystem resilience
16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
17. NBSAPs
19. Biodiversity knowledge
20. Resource mobilization

Objective 1.1 Society Recognising the Value of Natural Resources

Development of the society (which harmonises the consistency of economic and social progress, the management of society, with full conservation of the environment, including the conservation of biological diversity) is referred to as sustainable development. Among its main objectives is the transmission of natural and cultural heritage to following generations in the best possible condition. Human activities must, therefore, respect the limits of the capacity of ecosystems and in an appropriate way manage the natural capital. For the successful adoption of the principles of sustainability (and the effective identification with them), it is absolutely essential to educate society accordingly. Lifelong learning is essential for the success of the Environmental Education, Training and Public Awareness (EEPA) programme. The aim of environmental education in the Czech Republic is to develop competences (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) required for environmentally responsible behaviour, it is behaviour which is paramount for the current and future prosperity of the state of the environment. The aim of the EEPA is to gain support from target groups to conserve biodiversity. Voluntary involvement on the behalf of the general public is crucial. This is based on the awareness of the importance of the environment for humans; supported by the long-term education of children, teenagers and adults (both within the family home and within educational institutions), providing information, and targeted media campaigns. Similarly important is environmental consulting that provides professional advice and recommendations to the public, presents the results of science and research for the benefit of the environment, brings environmental friendly standards closer to the requirements of the public and educates the public in terms of sustainable development. The Strategic Framework for Sustainable Development of the Czech Republic from 2010 (updated until the end of 2016 under the name “Czech Republic 2030”) is the supreme conceptual document of the Czech Republic, which summarises the key issues in this area. In addition to the economic and social dimensions, it puts the environment on an equal footing across the full range of areas. Education for sustainable development is then, at the Government level, enshrined in the document of the Strategy for Sustainable Development Education in the Czech Republic (2008-2015). For the EEPA and environmental consulting, it is a key document of the State Program of Environmental Education and Public Awareness in the Czech Republic in effect since 2000 and updated in 2016. Important documents are also the State Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection Programme (managed by the ME), and the regional conceptions of nature conservation, which are regularly processed and updated by the regional authorities. The Czech Republic has committed itself, within the international community, to strengthen the social environment for sustainable development. By adoption of the Strategic Framework for Sustainable Development, the Czech Republic supports the conclusions of the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 and the Rio+20 Conference in 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It’s most important result is the formal approval of the plan to adopt the global objectives of sustainable development, which are linked to the Millennium Development Goals of the UN Millennium Declaration of 2000, and which have been approved by the United Nations in September 2015. The aim of society recognising the value of natural resources is associated, in particular, with the Aichi Strategic Goals 1, 2 and 17. The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 touches upon the topic in Objective 1 (Action 3). CURRENT CONDITIONS The Ministry of the Environment, in accordance with section 13 of the Act No. 123/1998 Coll. as amended by later regulations, handles the State Program of Environmental Education and Public Awareness in the Czech Republic; it guarantees, coordinates and updates the State Program through the Action Plans for relevant years and supports the development of education, leading to the preventive conservation of the environment. The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is responsible for the inclusion of environmental education (in the sense of sustainable development) into the basic pedagogical documents, and supports the advanced training of teaching staff in the area of environmental protection and sustainable development. ME (in cooperation with MEYS and other central administrative authorities, regions and autonomous municipalities), is required to promote environmental education and awareness based on the principles of sustainable development provided by both state and non-governmental organisations. Regional authorities, who create their own EEPA concepts, play an important role at the regional level. The EEPA’s success is dependable on the joint efforts of State institutions, long-time professional workplaces, organisations, and non-governmental non-profit organisations (NGOs). Support for environmental education and counselling is provided mainly in the form of legislative standards, differentiated financial resources, the development of methodologies and topics, informing and educating the public and target groups of the population and communicating with them via functional networks of educational institutions. MEYS is significantly involved in this aspect at both a conceptual and practical level. The specialisation of the EEPA is to inform visitors and the local population directly in areas of conservation with the use of visitor infrastructure through its administrators (mainly NCA CR), the administrations of NP, and the Cave Administration of the Czech Republic. For this purpose, nature houses have been gradually formed in the protected areas, which apply proven methods of education when in contact with the public, such as the interpretation of the natural heritage. There is currently a developed system of education about the environment in the Czech Republic which is based on all relevant components existing in other countries: Legislative basis and documents from laws to the subordinate legislation and documents of departments and regional authorities, including anchoring in the school system for EEPA. Institutional and personnel capacity, including specialised workplaces and visitor infrastructure. Established funding from public sources. Well-developed range of objectives, topics, methods, forms, and educational programmes.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
 
2. Integration of biodiversity values
17. NBSAPs
Relevant documents and information

Objective 1.2 Public Administration

Public administration is an activity related to the provision of public services, which serve to fulfil public (State and municipal) interest. In other words, State and local governments achieve their objectives, and at the same time they provide services through the public administration. This also applies to the conservation of biodiversity. In the Czech Republic the public administration contains two subsystems - State and local governments. Concerning local governments, not only territorial, but also interested parties need to be included (e.g. professional associations). The central administrative body for the protection of nature and landscape is the Ministry of the Environment. Performance of the State administration in the area of nature and landscape protection is provided by the Government and by the municipal authorities at all levels and also by regional authorities. Currently, the regional authorities and municipalities with extended competency (municipalities of 3rd category) have a significant impact on the conservation of biodiversity across most of the territory of the Czech Republic. An important position in terms of the conservation of biodiversity is the so-called "Special State Administration" (especially the NCA CR and NP Administrations) which is there to ensure the conservation and care of sites of national importance. In the military domain, the State administration is provided by the Ministry of Defence and the respective military domain authorities. The State and use of biodiversity also fundamentally affects the performance of other central authorities in the State administration (especially MRD, MA, MH, MC, MIT, MD, MT), and national authorities in their respective areas of competence. The specialised national supervisory authority of State administration in the field of the environment, including the conservation of biodiversity, is the CEI. Public administration is primarily governed by the legislation of the Czech Republic. Its entities are established through legal standards, and their competences and responsibilities are defined. Part of the law is also formed by ratified international treaties, conventions and protocols, which are from a hierarchical point of view superordinate to laws. Judicial control of the performance of public administration in the area of nature and landscape conservation is applied by the means of administrative justice. It is ensured by regional courts. There is only one possibility of making an appeal against decisions of regional courts in administrative proceedings, and that is to the Supreme Administrative Court. At the international level, this objective is associated, in particular, with the Aichi Targets 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 13. The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 touches upon the topic in Objective 1 (Action 3) and also in Objective 3.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
3. Incentives
4. Use of natural resources
5. Loss of habitats
6. Sustainable fisheries
7. Areas under sustainable management
8. Pollution
13. Agricultural biodiversity
Relevant documents and information

Objective 1.3 Private Sector

The private sphere represents all types of business without the majority representation of the State. It includes both multinational corporations, domestic bodies, including small tradesmen. Also private businesses in the Czech Republic in terms of volume significantly predominate over business activities of the State and local authorities and it has greater impact on the State of biodiversity. An important argument for the importance of the role of the private sector is that it substantially uses natural resources to create profit. In other words, it is dependent on the availability and the State of natural resources with regard to the business plan. Czech or international legislation, in principle, do not distinguish between the rights and obligations of the private and public sphere. Anyone, who intends to implement a specific project with potential impacts on the environment, is bound by the same obligations and conditions, and the institute of public interest can be used in legitimate cases, i.e. possibilities of the implementation for the purpose of social benefit, while accepting certain negative impacts on some of the components of the environment. In practice, the application of voluntary instruments in the field of biodiversity conservation in the practice of business entities is supported not only by the State Environmental Policy, but also through the means of individual national programmes approved in the Czech Republic at the governmental level and implemented by the Ministry of the Environment. Increasingly, it also develops the concept of the so-called corporate social responsibility. The objective is associated, in particular, with the Strategic Objectives 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 13 and 16. The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 touches upon the topic in Objective 1 (Action 3) and also in Objective 3, 4 and 6.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
3. Incentives
4. Use of natural resources
5. Loss of habitats
6. Sustainable fisheries
7. Areas under sustainable management
8. Pollution
13. Agricultural biodiversity
16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
Relevant documents and information

Objective 1.4 Tourism

The Czech Republic is located in the centre of Europe which is itself exposed to a significant impact of increasing tourism (it is one of the fastest growing economic sectors of today). The Czech Republic has, when taking into account the size of its territory and geographical position in the middle of the most altered continent, above-average natural, cultural and scenic potential for its development. At the same time, however, the most attractive natural sites of the Czech Republic are often very vulnerable also within the tourist activities. The sustainability of tourism deals with the State Concept of Tourism Policy, which puts the emphasis on the support of development of its innovative forms. The Czech Republic is also a signatory country of the Protocol on Sustainable Tourism to the Framework Convention on Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians, which was the basis for the Strategy of sustainable tourism in the Carpathians, which also emphasised the development of the abovementioned biodiversity sensitive and friendly forms of tourism. Tourism deals with a number of international organisations specialised in nature and landscape protection, for example IUCN, WWF, UNEP or EUROPARC Federation. These organisations consider appropriately regulated tourism beneficial for nature and landscape protection.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
Any of the Aichi Targets directly deal with sustainable tourims, so there is no linkage between this national target and Aichi Biod. Targets.
EN
Relevant documents and information

Objective 1.5 Economic Instruments and Financial Support

The purpose of economic instruments in the field of nature and landscape protection is the accumulation and subsequent allocation and redistribution of financial resources. The aim is to influence the behaviour of economic actors and to secure the resources to help protect and enhance the biodiversity status in the Czech Republic. The economic instruments fulfil the compensatory, fiscal, incentive, redistribution and comparative functions. The compensatory function represents e.g. the compensation of additional costs or losses caused by the limitations of the activity or required activity (including the compensation, when the owner or landlord is being compensated for the loss of profit for different measures, taking into account the requirements of the OP). The fiscal function represents the state budget revenues (or SEF), that are used on the subsidies and securing of the nature and landscape protection. The incentive function supports the behaviour of economic entities in favour of the interests of the nature and landscape protection. The redistribution function allows guiding of the flows according to the policy priorities in the field of nature and landscape protection. The comparative function contributes to the balancing of various economic conditions, economic entities, for example landlords in SPAs. The objective is associated, in particular, with the Aichi Targets 3 and 20. The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 touches the topic in Objective 1, 2, 3 and 5.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
3. Incentives
20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

Objective 2.1 Genetic Diversity

Genetic diversity remains the least known aspect of biological diversity. Despite the rapid development of its knowledge, relatively less attention has therefore been, and still is given to the protection of genetic diversity. New information clearly shows the vital importance of genetic diversity for the survival of viable populations of many organisms. In addition to its value for the natural stability, the genetic component of biodiversity is of great importance for humans and their economic activity, since it is a natural source of diverse genotypes for possible use in breeding and agricultural production, in biotechnology and in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. At the international level, the issue of genetic diversity protection is addressed primarily within the framework of the CBD. In order to protect the biodiversity and its sustainable use, the Czech Republic, as a Party to the Convention, has committed itself to determine the components of biodiversity that are in this context key or significant, and to monitor them with an emphasis on the current need for protection. This necessarily concerns also genetic diversity, the utilization of which is explicitly referred to in the third main objective of the Convention. The issue of protecting genetic diversity is also addressed to in the CBD Strategic Plan 2011-2020, specifically by the Aichi Target 13. Furthermore, great attention to genetic diversity is paid in the text of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, ratified by the Czech Republic in 2016. In the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, the protection of genetic diversity is addressed in relation to agriculture, specifically by Target 3, Action 10. Despite the above mentioned facts, the legislation of the Czech Republic almost does not deal with the issue of protecting genetic diversity of wild organisms yet. Regarding wild organisms, this issue is addressed only by the Act No. 114/1992 Coll. on nature and landscape protection. On the other hand, the agriculture deals with the conservation of genetic diversity of organisms for food and agriculture in the Act No. 148/2003 Coll., on plant and microorganism genetic resources, in Act No. 154/2000 Coll., on cultivation, breeding and registration of livestock (the Breeding Act), and in a number of related regulations. In relation to this legislation, the Ministry of Agriculture manages the National Program on Conservation and Utilization of Plant, Animal and Microbial Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (see Objective 3.6).
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
13. Agricultural biodiversity
Relevant documents and information

Objective 2.2 Species

Types of species (animals, plants, fungi, unicellular organisms and viruses) remain the basic unit for the definition of nature diversity. Species protection is in addition to territorial protection, and protection of essential natural processes industrial pillar of care for natural and landscape heritage. In addition, species protection has relatively higher potential to present appropriately the need for protection of biological diversity to the public. High or low abundance of populations of individual species and species richness of different ecosystems have a variety of causes. Some of them are few in number as a result of natural processes, so-called environmental factors (naturally rare species such as the specific substrate or climatic conditions) or their abundance influence factors as a result of which the presence and abundance of populations may often change dramatically. The main cause of significant changes in the number of species and the size of their populations in the last decades are, however, in particular processes related directly or indirectly to human activity. It is sometimes very complex to separate natural and anthropogenic factors from each other, in particular, with regard to the overall development of the cultural landscape in Europe. The Basic Law of the species protection is NCA, including the requirements of EU legislation, namely the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). The protection of species or species richness is one of the main objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Across the majority of the Aichi Targets of the CBD Strategic Plan can be found in topic of species diversity. In the national Strategy documents, the protection of species is dealt with mainly in SEP and also in SNCLPP (2009).
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
12. Preventing extinctions
Relevant documents and information

Objective 2.3 Invasive Alien Species (the IAS)

Invasive alien species pose a threat to the native species, communities and ecosystems around the world. They globally occupy a second place in the ranking of main factors (driving forces) endangering the existing biodiversity. There is also economic damage caused by these species, some invasive alien species (the IAS) may also affect negatively human health. The IAS are spreading easier and faster, both through intentional and unintentional spreading, as a result of increasing mobility. The Czech Republic is due to its location, dense settlement and dense network of rivers, roads and railways as the main roads of the spread of these species susceptible to biological invasions. The foundation of the legislation relating to the regulation of the IAS spreading is now EP and Council Regulation No. 1143/2014, on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, which unites the EU approach in the management of the IAS and lays down limits for the species with a significant impact on the EU. In connection with the adoption of this regulation the existing national legislation in the field of alien species will be particularised, i.e., ACNL, Act No. 326/2004 Coll., on plant health and amendments to certain related acts, and other regulations, that are related to the use of alien species or the terms of the regulation or the removal from the environment related to the IAS (Act on the protection of animals against cruelty, Act on Game Management, Fishery, etc.). The requirements of Council Regulation (EC) No. 708/2007 concerning use of alien and locally absent species in aquaculture, which has not been fulfilled in the Czech Republic yet, will be introduced in practice as well. Regarding the requirements of the regulation of the EP and of the Council No. 1143/2014, it will be necessary to create a system of monitoring and control, to secure regulation to remove the IAS from the environment and to adopt action plans to restrict the ways of unintentional IAS spread. Creation of the conditions for prevention and rapid response, creation of a list of invasive alien species (black list), restrictions on geographically alien species in selected public land as well as in agricultural practices will in more detailed manner define and further develop an updated SNCLPP. The IAS issue is dealt with in the SEP framework, specifically in the Objective 3.2.3, which sets to limit the negative impact of invasive species on biodiversity. The EU and Czech legislation, as well as both the abovementioned conceptual documents, based on the commitments accepted within the context of international multilateral conventions – in particular, Convention on biological diversity. In the framework of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (The Bern Convention), the European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species, which, inter alia, calls upon the Parties to create and implement the national strategies dealing with the IAS, was adopted in 2003. At the same time was within the framework of the Bern Convention adopted a number of recommendations relating to the procedure in the case of specific IAS. In the context of the CBD, the IAS issue is directly addressed in the framework of the Aichi Target 9 and within the framework of the EU Biodiversity Strategy under the Objective 5.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
9. Invasive Alien Species
Relevant documents and information

2.4 Natural habitats

Division of nature for the purpose of further examination and conservation is carried out at different levels. In Central Europe, including the Czech Republic, a detailed classification through the means of habitats is most commonly used. Natural habitats are typically created by several similar types of habitats. In addition to natural, or semi-nature of nearby habitats, can be very valuable habitats by man in different rates, thanks mainly to the settlement of endangered or rare species.

To obtain sufficient information, all natural and semi-natural habitats are regularly mapped in the Czech Republic. There are 157 types of habitats, which are included in the 60 types of natural habitats, in the Czech Republic. Most of them are dependent on human activities (i.e. targeted care, or any other type of use, e.g., mowing). Unnatural habitats (which according to the classification of habitats includes, for example, intensely cultivated meadows, forests cultures with coniferous or deciduous tree species, etc.) are predominant (they occupy 83% of the country), i.e. natural or semi-natural habitats occupy only 17% of the land area of the country.

The basic legislation for the protection of habitats is the NCA, which includes the requirements of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC). Unlike in the case of the species, there is not an individual list of specially protected habitats protected by law, i.e. habitats are protected only as objects of protection in the framework of SPAs, Sites of Community Importance or to a limited extent in the framework of the TSES or significant landscape elements.

In the international context the habitat protection is, similarly to the species protection, territorial protection and protection of ecosystem processes, one of the fundamental objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Aichi Target 5 of the CBD Strategic Plan is focused on the habitat protection. The EU Strategy for the field of biodiversity significantly touches upon the habitat protection in Objectives 1 (Action 1 and 4), and partially in Objectives 3 and 6. In the national Strategy documents, the protection of habitats is included mainly in SEP and SNCLPP (2009).

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
 
The loss of all habitats is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero
Degradation and fragmentation are significantly reduced
Relevant documents and information

The main tool to maintain and improve the state of the habitats and landscape is the Territorial System of Ecological Stability of the Landscape (TSES). The TSES is implemented to spatial plans at three levels: national, regional, and local. Although a significant part of the TSES has not been implemented in the field, even legal establishment of its components and their inclusion to spatial plans often establishes a sufficient basis for a basic protection of natural habitats in such plots. The TSES is a part of larger network so called “national ecological network” defined in 2012. The ecological network as defined in the referred article might be in general considered as a result of national implementation of the Green Infrastructure.The ecological network is composed of all areas spatially protected under the Act on the Nature Conservation:  TSES, protected areas incl. Natura 2000 sites, important landscape elements, nature parks, and internationally recognized areas (that are anyway almost 100% protected under national protected areas). It results in the network covering more than 56% of the country. Although it would look like a sufficient tool to maintain or improve the state of ecological stability of the landscape and natural habitats, it is not so. Still, the successful core of the ecological network is created by protected areas, esp. large-scale, because they are managed directly by their administration. General tools, such as the TSES, are not successful mainly because of lack of active conservation measures. In addition, natural habitat types are not protected by the law as, e.g., protected species. It is the most important aspect leading to insufficient results in achieving the Target 5. Protection of natural habitat types under the Natura 2000 is definitely not an adequate tool when it comes to its geographical scope.The only exception of habitats loss trends are forests, because their area is still increasing. Nonetheless, their state is not favourable thanks to inappropriate tree species composition resulting in current bark beetle infestation.

EN

Objective 2.5 Landscape

Landscape is a widely used term with many meanings. It generally indicates a part of an area – the area that man perceives, in which different processes and events take place and its current state is caused by past natural and human activities. Even though the landscape is defined as a selected part of the Earth surface with a combination of natural and cultural features and distinctive character, it should be seen rather as a holistic integrative concept at a higher hierarchical level with its own history, dynamics and special features. The relationship between man and landscape is an example of a direct feedback: the man is a part of it, and at the same time significantly reshapes it. The landscape must be, therefore, seen as an interconnected mosaic of mutually influencing areas, which is currently taking shape rather than natural processes of human activity. In addition to the globally most important agricultural and forest management, it concerns the use and management of water resources (surface and groundwater) and the development of infrastructure. There are currently also significant systemic nature protection activities, especially the care of specially protected areas, which cover about 16% of the territory of the country. In addition to the SPAs, the territorial system of ecological stability of the landscape (TSES) remains a significant instrument for the protection of the landscape, its purpose is to maintain or improve the ecological stability of the landscape as a whole. NCA ensures the conservation of biodiversity in the landscape area using the special nature conservation instruments (large and small SPAs, Natura 2000 sites, special species protection), general nature and landscape conservation (general species protection, TSES, significant landscape elements, landscape, protection of trees growing outside the forest, etc.). The most important legislative instrument from the perspective of the landscape, however, remains the Building Act (183/2006 Coll.), which regulates land use planning at all levels. The provisions in the field of agricultural, forestry and water management are also significant. Objectives related to the biodiversity protection in open landscape are defined in the currently valid SNCLPP (2009) in Chapter 3.1 Landscape. The conservation of biodiversity in the open landscape is also a Strategic Framework for Sustainable Development of the Czech Republic (2010) in Priority Axis 4 Landscape, Ecosystems and Biodiversity and the State Environmental Policy. The Czech Republic also ratified the European Convention on Landscape.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
7. Areas under sustainable management
14. Essential ecosystem services
Relevant documents and information

Objective 2.6 Settlements

Settlements represent a specific area in the context of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, where it is possible to include the natural elements into more intensively urbanised environment and create very suitable conditions for the involvement of the general public and target groups of the population in the issue of the conservation of biodiversity. Urban landscape allows under certain conditions the biodiversity protection at all three basic levels (genetic, species, and ecosystem). It is important that the inclusion of natural elements in an urbanised environment significantly increases the quality of life of people and the opportunity for targeted and illustrative education about the importance of biodiversity. The current rate of urbanisation reaches in Europe (the percentage of the population living in the city) approximately 70-80%, and in the last two decades it has rather seen an increase in surface area of cities and urban agglomerations than in the population growth in the cities. A similar trend can be observed in the Czech Republic, when mainly due to suburbanisation the expanding and associating of urban construction with adjacent communities, occupying the territory for construction and contributing to the fragmentation of the landscape occur. Conserving biodiversity in the settlements is partially addressed in the framework of local Agenda 21 and the National Network of "Healthy Cities" and also in SEF, specifically in Priority 3.3 "Improve the Quality of Environment in the Settlements". The priority contains three proposals for measures to improve the system of greenery in the settlements and its structure, to strengthen the regeneration of former industrial sites (brownfields) and ensuring frugal management of water in the premises. These objectives and measures at the national level can be supported by adequate programs and subsidies, specific implementation and solutions are fully within the competence of individual towns, cities and municipalities. The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 does not exclusively mention the issue of urban biodiversity, however, it can be included in Objective 2, Action 6b) – Preparation of a Strategy for Green Infrastructure in Urban and Rural Areas of the EU. The CBD Strategic Plan also does not mention this issue directly in one of the Aichi Targets, but an Action Plan for Biodiversity in and Towns and Cities was drafted in the framework of the CBD.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
The CBD Strategic Plan does not mention this issue directly in one of the Aichi Targets, but an Action Plan for Biodiversity in Cities was drafted in the framework of the CBD.
EN
Relevant documents and information

Objective 3.1 Agricultural Landscape

Continued deterioration of the state of biodiversity in agricultural landscape, whether it is the abundance of the species or the state of habitats, shows that it is necessary to make a significantly greater effort if the biodiversity is to be preserved and enhanced. The agricultural policy of the Czech Republic, which is mainly determined by the common agricultural and common fisheries policies of the EU, has a crucial role in this process. The main instrument of the EU and CR Common Agricultural Policy remains the Rural Development Programme with the main objectives including reclamation, conservation and improvement of ecosystems dependent on the agricultural sector, in particular through the agri-environment-climate measures and the support of landscape infrastructure. In the case of the EU Common Fisheries Policy then the Operational Programme Fisheries that shall among others promote forms of farming contributing to the maintaining or improving the state of the environment and biological diversity. The main legislative instruments in the area of agriculture, which are related to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity include Act No. 252/1997 Coll., on Agriculture; Act No. 242/2000 Coll., on Organic Farming; Act No. 337/1992 Coll., on the Protection of Agricultural Land Resources; Act No. 254/2001 Coll. on Waters (Water Act), and a number of other laws, which are listed in the other separately prepared objectives of this Strategy. In the international context, with regard to the CBD Strategic Plan to 2020, the issue of the protection of the so-called agro-biodiversity is directly addressed in the framework of the Aichi Target 7: "By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity" and also under Target 3 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020: “By 2020, maximise areas under agriculture across grasslands, arable land and permanent crops that are covered by biodiversity-related measures under the CAP so as to ensure the conservation of biodiversity and to bring about a measurable improvement in the conservation status of species and habitats.” The mid-term review of the EU Strategy, which was prepared by the EC in 2015, found out persistent decline in biodiversity in the agricultural landscape as well as at the European level. This trend can be reversed only if the environmental instruments, offered by the CAP, both in the framework of rural development measures and conditions for direct aid, are used more effectively and to a higher extent.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
7. Areas under sustainable management
Relevant documents and information

Objective 3.2 Forest Ecosystems

Forest ecosystems are significant landscape elements and also the carriers of biological diversity. Biodiversity is important not only to the forest environment characteristic for special forests stands, as well as individual trees (e.g. as species habitats) and rotting wood left to a gradual decay. Forest as a multilateral provider of ecosystem services is legislatively protected from degradation and destruction. Its effective conservation and appropriate restoration remain one of the basic prerequisites for biodiversity conservation. The most important documents of the fulfilment of the objective are the National Forestry Programme (NFP), which connects the concept of sustainable management of forests and the need for long-term improvement of the competitiveness of the forestry sector. The measures proposed in the NFP, which was agreed upon in the framework of the expert discussions across all sectors involved, are still relevant and valid. Another document is the SNCLPP (2009) which sets out the fundamental framework of use, care and protection of forest ecosystems in SPAs in open landscape. Another important document is the National Program on Conservation and Reproduction of Forest Tree Species Gene Pool. Some SEF parts are concerned with the support the conservation of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. In the long term it was vital to adopt the Resolution on the General Guidelines for the Sustainable Management of Forests in Europe at the Conference in Helsinki, Finland in 1993. Forest biodiversity indicators have been designed to monitor and evaluate forest biodiversity in European countries. Czech Republic is a party to the CBD, within which it was created quite a number of specific instruments and methodologies, in the current Strategic Plan there are on the issue of the conservation of biodiversity in forest ecosystems focused Aichi Targets 5 and 7. The Czech Republic is also a party to the FAO, which is involved in the Global Action Plan for the protection, sustainable use and development of resources of forest reproductive material. The care for the biodiversity of forest ecosystems has also become a part of the EU Strategy in the field of the conservation of biodiversity to 2020, specifically Target 3.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets