National Report

  published:25 Jan 2018

5 National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity: Brazil

  • Brazil
  • 5th National Report (2009-2014)
In 2010, Brazil had the honor of hosting the Rio+20 Conference, which recognized poverty eradication as the greatest challenge to be faced, and achieved consensus on the need to transition to sustainable patterns of production and consumption. The event contributed to creating awareness on the importance of conservation and sustainable use initiatives, as well as to increase knowledge on biodiversity (approximately 30,000 people gathered daily for the Peoples Summit), and was notable for the engagement of other sectors in the biodiversity theme, particularly the private sector. Seven thousand large multi‑national companies, including 226 Brazilian companies, committed to promote environmentally sustainable measures in their production processes. Rio+20’s outcome provided for the agreement by member States to launch the development of a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which should include goals, objectives and indicators specifically related to biodiversity. During the event, a proposal was also launched for a new indicator on Inclusive Richness Index to be applied at the country level, which takes the natural, human, and manufactured capital of 20 States into account. During the Conference, Brazil provided information regarding the updating of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, including the results of the broad multi‑sectoral consultation process carried out in 2011, known as the Dialogues on Biodiversity. Another significant achievement of Rio+20 was the presence of over 100 Heads of State who came together to discuss socio‑environmental issues, producing the final document “The Future We Want”, which re‑stated the intrinsic value of biological diversity, as well as the need to integrate the economic, social and environmental well‑being. Continuing its efforts to fulfill the national commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Brazil updated in 2013 its National Biodiversity Targets, following the multi‑sector consultation process ‘Dialogues on Biodiversity’. The necessary structures to promote and monitor the implementation of the National Targets are under construction, including a multi‑sector panel – PainelBio, an updated National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, and the definition of a relevant and manageable set of indicators to measure target achievement. Although the specific indicators are still being developed, a preliminary assessment of progress obtained to‑date toward the National Biodiversity Targets was carried out and presented in this Report. With approximately 6 years remaining to 2020, Brazil has in general achieved progress toward its National Biodiversity Targets. According to a preliminary analysis, it is possible to infer that national progress have been more expressive towards five National Targets (5, 7, 11, 15 and 19), particularly when evaluated separately for the Amazon biome. Public awareness of the natural environment and biodiversity, as well as their importance to human lives and activities has increased in Brazil along the last 20 years and, since 2010, the country has intensified its efforts to generate and disseminate knowledge on biodiversity and biodiversity value through multi‑sectoral partnerships. Such efforts include the creation and implementation of policies and programs that incorporate social and biodiversity values, in addition to the development and launching of various important initiatives and policies at different governmental levels and by the private sector geared toward sustainable production and consumption (Targets 1, 2 and 4). The systematic monitoring of natural habitats in all biomes has become current practice in recent years with the progressive improvement of monitoring systems, and national data on habitat loss is currently being revised with the application of the most recent technological advancements (Target 5). Monitoring results indicate that a reduction in the rate of loss of native habitats is occurring, particularly in the Amazon biome, although reaching zero loss, as required by the target, is still a challenge. Improved habitat monitoring systems will also allow to better assess progress towards the protection of important ecosystems and habitats (Target 11) and, following the remarkable results of Phases 1 and 2 of the Amazon Protected Areas Program (ARPA), Brazil launched in May 2014 the Program’s Phase 3, named ARPA for Lifegiven its focus on the long‑term financial sustainability of the Amazon protected area system. In parallel, ex situ conservation efforts are advancing to protect an array of socially, culturally and economically significant species from the vast national biodiversity (Target 13). Regarding the incorporation of sustainable management practices, notable progress has been observed in the silviculture sector. Brazil is also seeking the ways and means for the sustainability of agricultural production, particularly targeting the family and community‑based production of small scale agriculture, extractive activities, and organic/agroecological production through a number of policies and initiatives. In face of the sizeable agricultural sector in the country, current advances must still gain in scope and in the rate of adoption of sustainable practices (Target 7). Additionally, Brazil has revised one of its most important environmental policies, the former Forest Code, now replaced by Law n. 12.651/2012, named Law on Protection of Native Vegetation. This new Law sets the stage for effectively implementing the restoration of natural habitats and the necessary instruments are being developed to enable local and landscape‑scale vegetation restoration, which should significantly contribute to the protection of important ecosystem services (Target 14). The participatory updating of the National Biodiversity Strategy should be completed by 2016 (Target 17), and significant advances have been obtained toward the provision of support for the sustainable development of indigenous peoples and traditional communities, and their enhanced participation in decision making (Target 18). Finally, an extraordinary step forward was obtained regarding Zig Kochthe generation and systematization of scientific information on Brazilian biodiversity (Target 19), including through the comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of all known plants, vertebrate species and selected invertebrate species, the ongoing revision of threatened species lists, and the preparation of Conservation Action Plans for threatened species (Target 12). Another relevant step contributing to Target 12 was the institution, in February 2014, of the National Program for the Conservation of Threatened Species – the Pro‑Species Program, which officially adopts the IUCN different threat categories for threatened species, in addition to other structuring instruments to enhance species conservation work. Continuing and increasing current efforts will be necessary to achieve significant reduction of the risk of extinction for Brazilian threatened species. Moderate advances were obtained regarding other targets, such as toward reducing perverse incentives and developing positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity (Target 3), and reducing and monitoring pollution (Target 8). Although Brazil advanced in the identification of invasive species and the pathways they use, stronger efforts are necessary to complete the necessary legal and policy framework and effectively address impacts from invasive species (Target 9). Some progress was also achieved in the reduction of direct pressure on biodiversity and habitats, particularly in the Amazon, although additional efforts will be required to achieve effective protection of the integrity and function of coral reefs, mangroves and other coastal and marine ecosystems, as well as for enhancing the resilience of ecosystems and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks (Targets 10 and 15). Steps were taken to design a national strategy for the mobilization of resources and for meeting capacity needs for the implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy (Target 20) and, a request for the ratification of the Nagoya Protocol and an improved Bill on access and benefit‑sharing were submitted to National Congress for analysis and approval (Target 16). Significant challenges still remain in order to achieve the sustainable use of living water resources, including the generation of crucial information on existing stocks and the development of adequate monitoring systems (Target 6). To meet the challenge of CBD’s objectives, Brazil aims to continue to invest in the generation of knowledge and capacity, the continuous improvement of environmental monitoring and enforcing capabilities, and in mainstreaming biodiversity concerns into sectoral policies and programs, in addition to gaining scale in the other numerous initiatives that are already being implemented to allow Brazil to achieve its 2020 National Biodiversity Targets.
  • National / Federal
  • Officially approved
  • Regulations or guidelines
  • National committee (Official level) (please specify)
CONABIO - Comissão Nacional de Biodiversidade
Time period
Relevant documents and information