published: 25 Jan 2018
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan: Brazil
- National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs)
Brazil is a megadiverse country with such exuberant fauna and flora in its continental-size territory as to historically attract scientific curiosity and become a target for records made by artists and naturalists from various parts of the world. This richness and diversity reflect on the culture and identity of Brazilian people, and represent the undeniable potential for new discoveries on the use of biodiversity to everyone’s benefit. As the fifth largest country in the world according to the United Nations – UN, both in terms of territory and population size, Brazil currently represents one of the ten largest economies in the world, and faces numerous socio-environmental opportunities and challenges in the path to sustainable development. Deserving particular notice in this context is the evolution, in the national scenario, of economic mechanisms and incentives to recognize and promote ecosystem services, which contribute to the economic and environmental sustainability. Albeit young as a nation, Brazil is conscious of its relevant role in the environmental balance of the planet, and has strengthened its position in the international arena through the adherence to multilateral agreements, and seeking to fulfill commitments adopted under conventions ratified by the national government. In 2015, at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit, the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda was adopted by 193 UN member countries, Brazil among them. The 2030 Agenda is comprised of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and their 169 targets, which were built on the three dimensions of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental, and strongly support the eradication of poverty, gender equality, and social inclusion. Among the international conventions and agreements to which Brazil is Party, special emphasis is placed on the Convention on Biological Diversity – CBD, which targets the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of genetic resources and of associated traditional knowledge. The CBD established the Convention of the Parties – COP as its governance body for the implementation of the commitments and decisions under the Convention, which are agreed upon by the member countries at periodic meetings. After becoming a Party to the CBD in 1992, Brazil followed up on its conservation efforts by creating, in 1994, the National Biological Diversity Program (Programa Nacional da Diversidade Biológica – Pronabio). The program was adjusted in 2003 with the creation of the National Biodiversity Commission (Comissão Nacional da Biodiversidade – Conabio), with the mission of promoting the implementation of the commitments undertaken by Brazil under the CBD. These commitments include the 2011-2020 Strategic Plan, which established 20 Global Targets, known as the Aichi Targets, set during COP-10, which was held in 2010 in Nagoya, Japan. After the approval of the 2011-2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity under the CBD, Brazil initiated in 2011 the process of internalizing the Aichi Targets and defining the National Biodiversity Targets for 2020. This process generated significant milestones of representative participation, such as the Dialogues on Biodiversity, the Multi-sectoral Inputs to the Governmental Action Plan for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity, and the creation of the Brazilian Panel on Biodiversity (Painel Brasileiro de Biodiversidade – PainelBio), a fundamental partner in the process of mobilization, multi-sectoral engagement and strategic dialogue for strengthening social participation in the effort to achieve the National Biodiversity Targets. Throughout this process, important documents were generated and knowledge was aggregated, and opportunities for synergy were created among the various sectors and governmental levels. Thus substantiated by processes tailored to strengthen governance in countries such as Brazil, this document of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan – NBSAP presents the Brazilian contribution towards the achievement of the Aichi Target 17, which established that each Party should develop, adopt as a political instrument and begin implementing an effective, participatory and up-to-date national biodiversity strategy and action plan. This new version of the NBSAP reinforces the participatory and collaborative characteristic of the process to prepare and implement the strategy through the adherence of the various sectors of society (MMA and its agencies; other ministries and their agencies; state and local governments; representatives from academia, civil society and private sector). The institutions engaged in the NBSAP contributed to the construction of the text and preparation of the action plan, thus materializing the commitment to the implementation of actions that contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, considering the equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of biological resources, socio-cultural aspects, gender equality and valuation of traditional knowledge.
- National / Federal