Sixth National Report
Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level
TARGET 1: By 2020 at least 80% of the population are aware of the importance of biodiversity with an increased knowledge on the link and impact of human activities on the major ecosystems ()
There is a prevailing level of information and knowledge on biodiversity and its value for human wellbeing, is very low. Given this weak level of knowledge on the value, the causes and consequences of biodiversity loss, the behaviour of a wide range of actors is unfavourable to the protection of biodiversity. Furthermore, Private sector actors driven by short-term profit motives do not yet understand the linkage between investment in maintaining ecosystem health and sustainability of the ecosystem services and the natural resource base on which their profit is dependent.
There is a critical need to improve knowledge in educational establishments, media, literature, decentralised authorities, national and sector level decision makers, NGOs and indigenous and local communities. Targeted awareness programs on the long term benefits of corporate responsibility towards biodiversity conservation and sustainable use is necessary to secure private sector involvement.
TARGET 2: By 2020 significant increase in the contribution of scientifically-based information into biodiversity decision making processes and management interventions. ()
The prevailing weak knowledge base on biodiversity and the weak link between scientist and decision making processes on biodiversity, has resulted in major development and intervention options that are not informed on the threats these present to biodiversity and the extent to which biodiversity underpins and can contribute to key development sectors. Generating, Documenting and assessing biodiversity related information is given little attention. While access to existing scientific information is limited.
It is therefore of critical importance to strengthen the relationship between science and decision making in policy and management of biodiversity. More attention needs be given to generating information through applied research targeted at illuminating the values of biodiversity including their economic and ecosystem values, the extent to which biodiversity research on under-utilised species which can be valorised etc… These are of great significance in informing major development decision making processes. To strengthen the documentation system and infrastructure for the information generated calls for the establishment of a functional data base including a fully operational Biodiversity Clearing House. Although a descriptive list exists for plants the state of threatened species and discoveries of new species calls for a regular updating on a 5 yearly basis. The establishment of a National Red Data Book to include animal species will equally provide a useful base for decision making and monitoring of animal biodiversity.
The option of a science-policy platform as a mechanism to share knowledge needs to strengthen dialogue and communication and thus facilitate the coordination and packaging of research information on biodiversity and ecosystem services for biodiversity policy planners and managers.
TARGET 3: By 2020, all forms of pollution from water and land-based activities are brought to levels that are non-detrimental to ecosystem functions. ()
Preventing and mitigating the impacts of pollution and the serious threats these present for air, land and aquatic biodiversity, is a great concern of our anthropocene area. In view of the current development prospects with an increase in land and marine based activities by large scale agro-industries, forest, mining, port, infrastructure, fishing, livestock, tourism and other sector activities, there is a need for urgent action to prevent and mitigate the impact of the polluting substances, solid and liquid waste that will increasingly be generated across all ecosystems and within specific sectors A major preventive approach is to ensure the conduct of EIAs for all development projects and ensuring effective consideration of biodiversity indicators in EIAs. Also, periodic Strategic Environmenntal (Impact) Assessment (SEA) of policies and programmes would be useful for biodiversity conservation initiatives. Monitoring the implementation of environment management plans of corporate entities is necessary to ensure compliance. Controls and inspections need to be strengthened. Developing general waste management programmes and promoting the development of specific waste management programmes that prevent the contamination of both surface and underground freshwater resources is a priority in reducing the current levels of pollution. The quality (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and major ions) of freshwater bodies need to be monitored periodically.
TARGET 4: By 2020 an ecologically sustainable system of production and consumption is established based on sustainable practices with appropriate investments. ()
Our industrial production models and consumption habits represent the root causes of the global environmental changes that are resulting to the historical high level of GHG emissions and the increase the ecological an socio-economic vulnerability that is a threat for human welbeing. As a priority response to the current unsustainable mode of consumption and production exacerbated by a growing population, there is need to promote a sustainable use of the ecosystem and species of importance in a manner that will reduce the pressure on biodiversity and maintain the increase of activities within safe ecological limits. Focus will be given to promoting the sustainable use of plant and animal resources in the production system of key development sectors to increase yield and production; promoting the alternative consumption of new species and the diversity of crops and varieties to reduce pressures on species under threat; supporting small and medium size enterprises with less pressure on biodiversity; promoting the sustainable use of alternative energy and promoting the sustainable management of production landscapes in relation to water consumption, agrochemical use, habitat conversion and monoculture.
TARGET 5: By 2020 Biodiversity-related laws and regulations are strengthened and made coherent in order to avoid conflicting uses and combat illegal practices ()
The current normative framework is still evolving and thus not fully compliant with commitments to multilateral agreements relevant for biodiversity. As a consequence remains inadequate in providing a legal response to the challenges of protecting the biodiversity. Where there are existing relevant sectoral legal instruments, there is a prevailing incoherence with the Framework Law on Environmental Management (FLEM) and the NBSAP.
Strengthening the legal infrastructure calls for greater understanding of biodiversity related MEAs, expediting ratification processes for key instruments within the Convention of Biological Diversity and Developing relevant regulatory instruments and guidelines for relevant pieces of legislation including ABS is required. The evolving trend and challenges for biodiversity call for reforms in key sectors of relevance to institute forest and land tenure systems which are no longer adapted. This further calls for links with national Target 18 in the mainstreaming of biodiversity priorities within the on-going revision of the forest law and the land law. There is a need to revise sector policies and legal instruments to ensure coherence.
that are incoherent. A national land use plan in all ecosystems with a coordinated management is a key management approach to avoid the prevalent multiple use conflicts.
TARGET 6: By 2020 the rate of degradation and fragmentation of ecosystems and the loss in habitats is significantly reduced at least by half. ()
Critical habitats that are under serious threats of degradation due to degradation and fragmentation are not receiving the attention that is given to protection such as forests, mangroves, wetlands etc. In response to address these issues, there is a need to reduce the rate of degradation and habitat fragmentation calls for the development of management plans for all hotspots or critical habitats that are protected, based on credible date coming from biodiversity inventories and assessments to set baselines follow by the establishment of monitoring framework that would help to determine timely the state of biodiversity and highlight trends. Threats of degradation in non-protected areas equally need to be addressed. These include areas rich in biodiversity such as sacred forests, cattle ranches, etc.
TARGET 7 By 2020 endemic and threatened species of flora and fauna should be sustainably managed ()
Species diversity underpins the ability of any ecosystem to be resilient to changes and pressures. However, the over-exploitation and unsustainable of natural resources practices for diverse reasons are among the problems affect endemic and common species useful for biodiversity conservation and the human wealth. There is a need in preventing the issues through the development and implementation of sustainable management approaches calls for species-specific management plans for flora and wildlife. Management strategies for threatened species will be developed. A focus on biological invaders and living modified organisms that are alien or introduced including by ballast waters, calls for a comprehensive programme to be developed for their control and management. Decentralized strategies will also be developed to ensure that ecosystem specificities are taken into consideration during the development of council development plans.
TARGET 8: By 2020 re-establish and/or recover local extinct species in-situ and ex-situ and maintain a level of conservation that ensures long term sustainability ()
Efforts towards conservation biodiversity are still dominated through the implementation of protected approaches that use protected areas as 'isolated islands'. However, this focus over protected areas without solve the roots causes of forest degradation, habitat fragmentation and biodiversity loss may increase human pressures on this selected land use. In response to that, there is a need to re-establish and/or recover local extinct species in-situ and ex-situ and maintain a level of conservation that ensures long term sustainability by also responding to the needs of human wealth. Developing and implementing a species conservation and recovery programme will provide the framework for targeted response. Again the creation or expansion of green corridors will ensure connectivity of ecosystems which are relevant for species recovery and conservation.
TARGET 9: By 2020 degraded ecosystems/habitats should be rehabilitated to re-establish and/or recover lost species and maintained at a level of conservation that ensures long-term sustainability. ()
Over the years, ecosystems and the habitats they habour - including Protected Areas (PAs) have witnessed significant degradation, fragmentation and biodiversity loss, and as a results thre has been an increase competition on the remaining limited naural resources. There is a need to reverse the current state of degraded habitat is the development and implementation of habitat rehabilitation programmes. This will be carried out in synergy with Target 8. An inventory of degraded ecosystems and fragile habitats will enable the identification of priority areas for intervention and the development of ecosystem-specific rehabilitation programmes. This approach will facilitate the involvement of decentralised authorities and local communities in the management of these programmes
TARGET 10: By 2020, the negative impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variation on ecosystems and human well-being are significantly reduced through ecosystem-based climate change adaptation measures. ()
Climate change and climate variation are negatively impacting on ecosystems and consequently on the wellbeing of the populations that depend on ecosystem resources for their livelihoods. Therefore, in order to reverse these harmful impacts of climate changes, urgent actions will be undertaken and will also enable affected communities to adapt to climates changes through sustainable agricultural and livestock practices, integrated freshwater catchment management, and afforestation/reforestation programmes. The future REDD+ mechanism envisaged in Target 15 is also a major strategy to reduce GHG emissions as they address the direct and indirect causes of deforestation and degradation.
TARGET 11: By 2020, at least 30% of the national territory, taking into consideration “ecosystem representativeness” is under effectively and equitably managed protected areas. ()
Current Protected Areas - PAs (National Parks, Wildlife/Forest Reserves, Sanctuaries, Hunting zones, including Sacred Forests) cover around 20% of the land cover and are thus beyond the 30 % global targets. Moreover, the effective management of the PA’s is hampered by funding and human resource constraints and the non-involvement of indigenous and local communities. Furthermore, the National Protected Areas System is not representative of the country's ecosystem diversity. As a response, new protected areas will be created in fragile and biodiversity hotspots where these will ensure a national representation of the six ecosystems. Priorities will aim to improve and sustain the status of threatened species through in-situ (gene/seed banks, wildlife sanctuaries, etc.) in fragile ecosystems of the marine and semi-arid ecosystems. A programme for the sustainable management of PAs, restoration of degraded PAs and valorisation of PA biodiversity will be established and implemented. An emerging approach to support management costs of protected areas as well as generate wealth for riparian communities to PAs will be to develop and implement an Access and Benefit Sharing scheme for national PAs. This will ensure that bioprospection, tourism and other uses of PAs effectively contribute to conservation and livelihoods.
TARGET 12: By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants, domesticated animals, and their threatened wild relatives, including culturally valuable species, should be maintained and valorised ()
Few cultivated species dominated the bulk of global food consumption and compete with indigenous and local cultivated plants, domesticated animals, and their threatened wild relatives in which indigenous peoples and local communities based their food systems and their livelihoods strategy. A highest number of domesticated species and their wild relatives are threatened by conventional and industrial agricultural practices through the use of improved and genetically modified organisms. the food crisis of 2008 showed how the use of a limited number of cultivated species can threatened for human security. In order to reverse this trends, this target seeks to ensure increased attention on genetic biodiversity, its values and protection. Priority interventions call for inventories of genetic species will be carried to identify threatened species requiring protection and marketable species. With a focus on plant genetic diversity, management programmes for identified species will be developed and implemented. Hotspots for genetic agro-biodiversity will be identified to protect their erosion. Genetic species with potentials for commercialisation will be valorised and cultivated species promoted.
TARGET 13: By 2020 community-based biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management approaches should be promoted. ()
The erosion of cultural values favourable to the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources is a consequence of the weak involvement in conservation programmes of indigenous and local communities who are knowledge holders of the nation’s rich and diverse culture. Efforts in ensuring community involvement in natural resource management have been highly sector focused. Instituting Community-based biodiversity conservation and management approaches within specific ecosystems provides an opportunity to valorise the rich diversity of the nation's cultural systems and to ensure the effective integration of customary norms and traditional knowledge into biodiversity management approaches. This will further guarantee the implementation of the principles adopted by this strategy. This calls for the establishment of community-based conservation programmes in all ecosystems, the integration of biodiversity conservation activities in existing community forest management plans that have been developed with the participation of riparian communities and the promotion of the rehabilitation and classification of more sacred forests.
TARGET 14: By 2020 the development and implementation of a comprehensive programme for the valuation of biodiversity should have been realised and payments for ecosystem services and goods imputed into the national budget for use in promoting sustainable biological and genetic resources programmes. ()
Information on the value of biodiversity and its contribution in the national budget frameworks is yet to be a common practice in Cameroon. An emerging approach for the economic valuation and accounting is necessary to track its contributions and also requires the development of capacities of economic planners. The focus here is on all types of biological and genetic resources currently being utilized or with potentials for commercialization.
This therefore requires the development and implementation of a comprehensive program for the valuation of biodiversity so as to generate information on its economic potentials. In addition, more capacity building and development of tools for biodiversity accounting, promotion of the commercialization of biological and genetic resources with high economic potentials needs to be carried out.
Target 15: By 2020, the establishment and implementation of mechanisms for payments for ecosystem services including carbon stocks, should generate increased revenue. ()
Benefits from compensation mechanisms within the conservation framework are yet to be implemented at the national level. The recent adoption of a National REDD RPP provides the orientation for a national framework to ensure that benefits are generated from ecosystem services.
The effective implementation of this new plan therefore requires mechanisms for the payment of carbon stocks and REDD+ to be put in place with pilot initiatives in the ecosystems generating income for its wide beneficiaries, promotion and encouragement of additional voluntary payment mechanisms for utilization of biological and genetic resources by the business sector.
TARGET 16: By 2020, the sharing of benefits from payments for the sustainable utilisation of biodiversity, genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge should increase incomes of local communities. ()
Benefits sharing from access and the utilization of biological and genetic resources is highly inequitable and the valorization of the associated traditional knowledge is inexistent. As a consequence, access to biological and genetic resources have not significantly contributed to improving the livelihoods of local communities. Compensation schemes for the utilization of biological resources should be expanded beyond forests and the new strategy for ABS should be made operational with appropriate regulations and guidelines.
This therefore calls for the Development and implementation of mechanisms for payments and sharing of benefits generated from the commercialization of resources such as non-timber forests, animal resources, fisheries, genetic resources etc…. The development and implementation of ABS frameworks for payments for commercial and non-commercial research in protected areas needs to cross cut with the target on generating wealth, protection and valorization of traditional knowledge associated with biological and genetic resources, and the building of capacities of indigenous and local communities and networks for participation in biodiversity related compensation schemes.
TARGET 17: By 2020, biodiversity-related coordination mechanisms should be fully functional and strengthened ()
With the new orientation in carrying out the defined mission for biodiversity as defined within the NBSAP, multi sector involvement and the role of decentralised, central and international institutions/organisations, in this process will require an effective coordination of intervention actions at all levels by the multiple organisations. There is great inadequacy in the existing structures and mechansims for coordination are within the Office of the National Focal Point for the CBD, the National Biodiversity Inter-ministerial Committee, the Environment Coordination Committee and funding organs set up by the FLEM.
Ensuring an effective synergy and national collaboration in the application of biodiversity related Conventions calls for the setting up of a dialogue platform that will bring together National Focal Points for the CBD, Ramsar, CITES and CMS.
TARGET 18: By 2020, key production sectors and decentralised local authorities should have developed sector or region-specific biodiversity targets, linked to the national targets. ()
The present NBSAP has not taken into consideration the specific needs of mainstreaming the priorities of this document into key sector strategies and development programmes of decentralised local units. To ensure coherence between the national biodiversity targets and/or reviewed sector strategies to integrate biodiversity concerns with adequate yearly budgetary provisions for the implementation of related programmes/projects/activities, there is need to define sector specific strategies as an implementation of this document. Target sectors include the following: i) Forests and Wildlife; ii) Agriculture; iii) Livestock and fisheries; iv) Tourism and v) Mining and Extractive Industries.
TARGET 19: By 2020, the capacity of key actors should be built and gender mainstreaming carried out for the effective implementation of the biodiversity targets ()
The existing capacity to implement the NBSAP is weak and the gender considerations generally are weak. The successful implementation of this plan deepens on the extent to which the concerns for cross cutting issues of training, capacity building and gender are integrated in the biodiversity programs and projects as a guarantee for a more dynamic and effective role in the realisation of the defined Strategic Goals and Targets by the year 2020
For an integral dimension in biodiversity planning, implementation and monitoring, it is urgent to provide for the generation of information and development of tools for outreach and mainstreaming on gender. This calls for the collection and generation of information on how biodiversity planning, implementation and monitoring affect gender differentiated needs of men and women and impact livelihoods, the development and application of tools for outreach and mainstreaming of gender, the effective mainstreaming of gender into major national and sector policy instruments, laws and programs related to biodiversity and using opportunities of land and forest reforms, REDD+ strategy development and regulatory instruments including ABS.
TARGET 20: By 2018, partnership support and funding of biodiversity programmes should have increased ()
Priorities of development partners do not adequately integrate biodiversity protection. There is a wanton resource mobilisation plan for biodiversity to raise greater investment in biodiversity projects within this plan. Amidst competing demands to be addressed by the state and by partners, there is need for innovative approaches to mobilise support and investment from sector ministries as a critical part of the priority interventions. This calls for urgent intervention by 2015 at the evaluation of the first national budget program through actions in developing a biodiversity resource mobilisation plan, mobilising partner support for the implementation of the revised NBSAP, Mobilising innovative sector and local planning budget and investments in biodiversity programs and budgets, establishing a baseline on multilateral, bilateral and national budgets in support of biodiversity programs and monitoring investment flow in biodiversity as required by Decision X/3 of COP-CBD on resource mobilisation.