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Sixth National Report

submitted on: 28 Dec 2018   last updated: 02 Jan 2019

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Republic of Moldova

1. Awareness of biodiversity values

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
Relevant documents and information


The territory of the Republic of Moldova is composed of two main natural areas: forest steppe and steppe. The forest steppe area is located in the northern   and central parts of the country and is a hilly plain with alternating  plains  and plateaus. The steppe area is located in the south and south-east of the country. Agricultural and urban ecosystems comprise almost 85% of Moldova's territory, while natural and semi-natural ecosystems - about 15%. Major portions of natural and semi-natural ecosystems have a high degree of degradation. The main natural ecosystems of Moldova are: (i) the forest (11.2% of the country's territory), (ii) the steppe (1.9% of the country's area, located in 2 areas in the North and South) % of the country's surface), (iv) rocky or petrified habitats (0.68% of the country's territory). Country strategies show the authorities' commitment to increase the proportion of forest areas (to 15%) and protected natural areas.

Ecosystems in Moldova provide ecosystem services such as food, water and regulatory services, biomass production, soil fertility, pollination, pest control, breeding and reproduction of food species, climate mitigation, climate regulation and waste utilization, which directly and indirectly provides for the development of key sectors in the country's economy. 

The Republic of Moldova with an area of 3,384,300 ha is located in South Eastern Europe between Romania and Ukraine. The relief is largely hilly with a maximum altitude of 429.5 m. The territory of Moldova is located at the junction of three main ecoregions of Europe: the mixed Central European forests, the Pontic steppe and the Eastern European silvo-steppe. At the same time, two thirds of the area is occupied by agricultural land, and about 15% of the territory is covered by natural vegetation, most of it being degraded. Generally, this natural vegetation includes forest ecosystems. Natural steppe habitats are almost non- existent and are currently used as grassland. They are predominantly in the north and south of the country and occupy a total of about 65,000 hectares (about 1,9% of the territory). Meadow ecosystems, with great genetic diversity and species, continue to be used for grazing livestock and occupy about 10% of the country's territory. The vegetation communities associated with the aquatic ecosystems - especially flooded areas on the lower rivers of the Prut and Nistru rivers - cover about 94,000 ha (about 2,8% of the country's territory). There are about 3000 flowing waters and 60 lakes in Moldova, and over 95% of the watercourses flow into one of the two major rivers - Prut or Nistru.

Moldova is rich in species, and agri-forest biodiversity is dominant. There are 1,842 species of vascular plants and about 4600 species of inferior plants and fungi. These include 13 relict species, in the 3rd edition of Red Book (2015) there are 208 plant and fungal species and 4 species at the limit of natural spread. The diversity of plant species is particularly high in forests (over 850 species), meadows (about 650 species) and steppe remnants (over 600 species). In Moldova, there are about 16,540 animal species (461 vertebrates and over 16,000 invertebrates). These include 55 ponto-caspian relic species (of which 10% are endemic to the Black Sea Basin) and 219 species in the 3rd Red Book (2015). Many animal species have disappeared completely from Moldova in the last centuries. Although the greatest diversity of vertebrates is recorded in forests (172 species), 153 (89%) of these species are found in forests associated with meadows. Riverside corridors and wetlands are particularly important for migratory birds.

The Republic of Moldova has specify its National Biodiversity Targets as the actions are being addressed under the five Strategic Objectives of the revised National Biodiversity Strategy and its Action Plan for 2015-2020. 

The Aichi Biodiversity Target 1 on Awareness of Biodiversity values is included in the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for 2015-2020, approved by Government Resolution No. 274 of 18.05.2015 (Actions: 84, 87, 89- 96), and the National Strategy for Development of Education for 2014-2020, approved by Government Resolution No 944 of 14.11.2014. A draft Environmental Management Framework has been prepared in 2018. The Environmental Strategy for 2014-2023 and its Action Plan was approved by Government Resolution No. 301 of 24.04.2014, and stipulates in Specific Objective 3 the requirement to Increase the level of environmental knowledge among pupils, students and employees by at least 50% by 2023 and ensure access to environmental information.

A number of awareness and educational activities has been undertaken in the reporting period. The information on these is provided in section IV.

 

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2. Integration of biodiversity values

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
2. Integration of biodiversity values
Relevant documents and information

The NBSAP for 2015-2020. a number of actions are planned for the next period, and specifically: Integrating the provisions on conservation of the biological diversity in the most important sector policy documents by 2020; Promote biodiversity conservation actions in local environment protection plans in sectors: forestry, agriculture, tourism, healthcare, trade.

The Environmental Strategy for 2014-2023, 2014.

The Sustainable Development Strategy for the Forest Sector in the Republic of Moldova. 2001

The Development Strategy for Tourism "Tourism 2020" and the Action Plan for its Implementation for 2014-2016, 2014.

The National Strategy for Agricultural and Rural Development for 2014-2020, 2014.

The National Strategy for Public Health for 2014-2020, 2014.

The National Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change for 2015-2020, 2015.

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3. Incentives

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
3. Incentives
Relevant documents and information

NBSAP 2015-2020 Action 14. Promote fiscal stimuli and payments for biodiversity conservation. By present there is no any legal provisions and mechanism in place to rpomote fiscal stimuly for biodiversity conservation. The target have not been fulfilled due to the insufficient human and financial resources, reformation of the central environmental authority that imply a transitional period, poor awareness and undertanding of decision makers in the field of finance and national economy.

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4. Use of natural resources

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
4. Use of natural resources
Relevant documents and information

Sustainable use of natural resources is stipulated in a number of national   political documents. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for 2015-2020 include the following actions to be undertaken:

- developing and promoting the draft Law on Game Stock and Protecting Game through harmonization with Directive 2009/147/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on Conservation of Wild Birds and alignment to the requirements of international treaties;

- developing a project for local communities based on sustainable management of plant resources (energy, medicinal, feed, essential and oleaginous oils etc.);

- identifying ecosystems which provide significant services for increasing the welfare of the population and of the environment.

The National Strategy on Sustainable Development of Forestry Sector, approved by Government Resolution No350 of 12.07.2001, stipulates the following targets:        

Objective E. Forest sector and socio-economic issues. The existing eco-protective potential of forests will be strengthened  and the transition  of middle-aged trees to pre-exploitable and exploitable categories in the near future will contribute to a considerable increase of the volume  of exploitable wood. This will help achieve 130 thousand hectares of new wooded land, thus increasing the possibility to harvest the main products up to 400 thousand m3 per year, i.e. doubling it. An important source of income is to become the full woodworking and the rational use of non-timber products of the forest, provided that the respective units are equipped with modern high-tech equipment and technologies, which will make the forestry sector more efficient. Hunting households, hunting tourism, ecotourism, and profitable auxiliary activities will bring a substantial contribution.

Objective C. Forestry and energy. Under the current conditions, forests are one of the few energy resources available for Moldova. A particularly acute problem relates to ensuring the population with fire fuel, especially in rural areas, which caused massive illicit cutting, endangering the very existence of forests. The forestry sector, together with the relevant departments, will participate in the elaboration and implementation of energy programs in order to:

-           perform a correct assessment of the volume of wood supplied annually by the forestry sector as firewood at national and regional level;

-           improve the wood harvesting system for energy needs;

-           create a flexible offer of flexible firewood on the market. Advanced prospects (over a period of 20-30 years) will be geared towards capitalizing on new reserves from expanding the forest areas and planting higher growth forests.

Objective D. Forest, logging and wood industry. Existing forests, with an annual harvest of only 195 thousand cubic meters of main products, only partially meet the growing domestic demand of wood. The main problem is to capitalize this possibility (including valuable oak, walnut, lime, etc.) in very small volumes and in limited range, which cannot bring considerable profit to the branch or the state. It is necessary to elaborate special programs for efficient utilization of the existing wood mass resources through the complete woodworking, equipping the respective units with modern machinery and technologies.

Objective E. Forestry and recreational activities. The enormous cultural and recreational potential of forests provides the forest sector with the opportunity to include tourism and other recreational activities in its development programs. Recreational capacities of forests will be taken inventory of with the participation of interested state organizations, local public administration authorities, companies and associations, especially with regard to hunting, fishing and ecotourism, for the purpose of tracing routes and tourist itineraries, and creating the respective infrastructure. In addition to direct profit, the provision of appropriate services will also result in additional income sources for the rural population.

Objective F. Forestry and health care. The following is envisaged regarding the use of forestry potential for the purpose of insuring health protection:

-           creating a base of raw material for the pharmaceutical industry, the forestry sector ensuring the cultivation and collection of the necessary medicinal plants;

-           restoring sanatoriums and resort homes located in the forest area, especially those for the prevention and treatment of pathologies of the nervous and cardiovascular system.

The National Strategy for Agricultural and Rural Development for 2014-2020 stipulates the support for the implementation of environmentally-friendly production technologies, organic products, including biodiversity. Another way to ensure sustainable management of natural resources in agriculture is to provide environmentally friendly production technologies. Organic production should be supported in this respect, especially since the demand for such products is increasing on the international markets. The development of agricultural energy sources, including the production of energy crops, makes agricultural production sustainable and profitable, at the same time. Moreover, low or non-productive agricultural land should be afforested in order to increase biodiversity and reduce soil erosion, while contributing to the conservation of water resources.

The National Strategy for the Development of Tourism "Tourism 2020"and its Action Plan for 2014-2020 stipulates the objective of developing specific forms of tourism that need to be encouraged, such as cultural, gastronomic, social, sports, auto, weekend, urban, nostalgic, and ecological tourism.

The Association Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States and the Republic of Moldova in its chapter on Biological diversity implies cooperation at regional and global levels with the aim to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in natural or agricultural ecosystems, including endangered species, their habitat, specially protected natural areas and genetic diversity; the restoration of ecosystems, and the elimination or reduction of negative environmental impacts resulting from the use of living and non-living natural resources or of ecosystems.

The Environmental Strategy for 2014-2023 and the Action Plan for its implementation (Government Resolution No.301 of 24.04.2014) sets, under Specific objective No6, insuring rational use, protection, and conservation of natural resources, and specifically of biological resources, and how to manage them.


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5. Loss of habitats

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
Relevant documents and information

The issues of loss of habitats are included in the National Strategy on Biodiversity and its Action Plan for 2015-2020. Among others, it stipulates actions for developing a new national Action Plan for the implementation of the Strategy for the Sustainable Development of Forestry Sector of the Republic of Moldova; strengthening the management capacities of the National Park “Orhei”; establishing a wetland area of international importance (Ramsar) “Padurea Domneasca” in the Middle Prut area; establishing a three-partite Biosphere Reservation “Danube Delta – Prutul de Jos” (Romania-Republic of Moldova- Ukraine); establishing the “Nistru de Jos” National Park; creating the Emerald Network as a component part of the Pan-European Ecological Network; developing a Cadaster of State Protected Natural Areas; developing and promoting a program for extending the system of protected areas; developing management plans for protected areas; and restoring natural habitats of endangered species populations.

The National Strategy for Sustainable Development of Forest Sector 2014-2020     

involves issues of ensuring conservation of the biological diversity of forests. Preserving the biological diversity of forests is an essential operational element of sustainable forest management and an objective of forestry policy. The program for conservation of biological diversity of forests will include a number of activities of primary importance, including: stopping the fragmentation or degradation of forest habitats, which leads to reduction of the number of surviving individuals, causing negative consequences of inbreeding, genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity.

The Law No. 162 of 20.07.2017 on Amending and Completing Some Legislative Acts, Art. I. - Law No. 94/2007 on Ecological Network (Official Gazette of  the Republic of Moldova, 2007, No 90-93), was approved. This law partially transposes the provisions of Council Directive 92/43 / EEC of 21 May 1992 on Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora, and provides for the establishment of Emerald Network. The Emerald Network is made up of areas of special conservation interest.

The National Program for the Establishment of National Ecological Network   for 2011-2018, approved by Government Resolution No. 593 of 01.08.2011. The specific objectives of this Program are as follows: extending the state-protected natural areas by at least 1% of the country's territory, in compliance with international requirements and experience of the European states, for the efficient management and protection of protected natural areas; creating, by 2018, a system of inventory and monitoring of endangered species and valuable habitats within the national ecological network.

The Association Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, and the Republic of Moldova, of 2014, stipulates the obligation of harmonizing the national legislation with Directive No 92/43/EC on Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora, as amended by Directive No 97/62/EC, No 2006/105/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1882/2003, as well as establishing a system for monitoring the conservation status of habitats and species.


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6. Sustainable fisheries

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
6. Sustainable fisheries
Relevant documents and information

Insuring sustainable  fisheries is included in the following national policies: the NBSAP 2015-2020, specifically: establishing a wetland area of international importance (Ramsar) “Padurea Domneasca” in the Middle Prut area; establishing the three-partite Biosphere Reservation “Danube  Delta – Lower Prut” (Romania-Republic of Moldova-Ukraine); establishing the “Nistru de Jos” National Park; creating the “Emerald Network” as a component part of the Pan-European Ecological Network Action; developing river basin management plans for Nistru and Danube-Prut basins, and for the  Black Sea; identifying and marking water bodies; setting up borders and maps of fish areas and of wintering places in natural water bodies and preparing ecological passports for species; restoring riparian protection belts for rivers and water basins; developing a study on the anthropogenic impact on biodiversity caused by the change of hydrological regime of water courses of catchment areas; establishing and restoring centers for the artificial reproduction of valuable fish species in the vicinity of Criuleni town, in Proscureni village (Rascani district) and Cuconesti village (Edinet district); developing and implementing an Action Plan on invasive species in accordance with the requirements of Bern Convention.

Law No. 149 of 08.06.2006 on Fish Fund, Fishing and Fish Farming, and Law  No. 7 of 05.04.2018 on Amendments and Additions to  Law No. 149/2006 on Fish Fund, Fishing and Fish Farming stipulates restrictions on the fishing of   species  included  in  the  Red Book of the Republic of Moldova and fishing for breeders in the natural aquatic basins ". The Water Law, No. 272 of 23.12.2011, provides for monitoring  of water resources. The Water Cadaster contains data on hydrographic network, including the identification, delimitation, classification  and  status  of water bodies, hydro-technical constructions and installations, buffer areas and belts, protected areas located in the network, as well as data on sampling and regeneration of water; Protection zones of rivers  and water reservoirs shall be established by Government. Government Resolution No888 of 06.08.2007 on the Authorization of Fishing in Natural Fishery Water Bodies approved: the Regulation on Issuing Authorizations for Fishing in Natural Water Reservoirs for Fish has been approved by the GD.G.D. NO 347 of 18.04.2018. which approved the nominal membership of the Moldovan Party  of the Commission for sustainable use and protection of the Nistru river basin, under the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Moldova and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine regulating cooperation in the field of sustainable protection and development of the Nistru River Basin, signed in Rome on 29 November 2012.

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7. Areas under sustainable management

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
7. Areas under sustainable management
Relevant documents and information

The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2015-2020 involves the following actions in relation of achieving sustainable agriculture, aquaculture and forestry:  

Agriculture

Develop eco-soil indicators for marking land plots used for organic farming;   Adjust crop rotation, fertilization and anti-erosion protection systems to organic farming standards;    Restore shelterbelts of agricultural fields;   Promote organic farming elements and environment friendly practices (lynchets, wicker fences, anti-erosion embankments/belts etc.);  Develop efficient and harmless environment friendly/green technologies to produce and process agricultural raw materials;   Promote good agricultural practices in order to stop the degradation of steppe areas and grasslands when practicing intensive grazing and grass cutting;   Develop a program for the genetic improvement of honey-bees;  Develop guidelines for farmers on good practices of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. 

Aquaculture

Identify and demarcate water bodies;  Set the borders and map fish run areas and wintering places in natural water bodies and issue them passports;   Restore riparian protection belts for rivers and water basins;   Develop and promote the draft law on shelterbelts for agricultural lands;  

Forestry

Develop and approve new wording for the Forestry Code; Develop and promote the draft Law on Game Fund and Protecting Game through harmonization with the EU Directive 2009/147/CE, 2009 on Conservation of Wild Birds and alignment to the requirements of international treaties;    Improve and modify legislative acts (Law on Animal Kingdom no. 439-XIII of 27 April 1995, Law on Vegetal Kingdom no. 239-XVI of 8 November 2007, Law on the Ecological Network no. 94-XVI of 5 April 2007),  by adjusting them to the requirements of the EU (Directive 2009/147/EC , 2009 on Conservation of Wild Birds, the Directive 92/43/EEC , 1992 on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and Wild Fauna and Flora), and international treaties on biodiversity;   Develop a new National Action Plan for the implementation of the Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Forestry Sector of Republic of Moldova;  . Develop the Strategy on Adaptation of Forestry Fund to Climate Changes; Establish the National Advisory Office for Forestry;   Utilize domestic genotypes to improve forest ecosystems;   

The National Strategy for Sustainable Development of Forestry Sector, GD nr. 350 of 12.07.2001, stipulate needs to  increasing the ecoprotective and bioproductive potential of natural forests; Conservation of the biological diversity of forests; Extension of areas with forest vegetation;  Increasing the contribution of the forestry sector to solving socio-economic problems F. Conservation of the national rural landscape (forestry plots).

The National Strategy on Agricultural and Rural Development for the years 2014-2020, GD Nr. 409of 04.06.2014 stipulates the General objective  to ensure sustainable management of natural resources in agriculture;  Supporting farming and water management practices;   Supporting environment-friendly production technologies, organic products, including biodiversity;  Supporting the adaptation and mitigation of climate change impacts on agricultural production.

The Draft National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy involves  Improvement of management and dissemination of disaster and climate risk information in Moldova;   Build government capacities to manage and integrate climate change adaptation into policy and practice at both the local and national level.

The Association Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States,  and the Republic of Moldova is

(a) promoting trade in forest products derived from sustainably managed forests, harvested in accordance with the domestic legislation of the country of harvest. Actions, in this regard, may include the conclusion of a Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade Voluntary Partnership Agreement;

(b) exchanging information on measures to promote the consumption of timber and timber products from sustainably managed forests and, where relevant, cooperate to developing such measures.


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8. Pollution

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
8. Pollution
Relevant documents and information

The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2015-2020 stipulates actions to be undertaken to promote modern low pollutant emitting technologies (sulphates, nitrogen, heavy metals)  .Improve control over waste pollution in vulnerable natural ecosystems .

A Draft Management Plan for Prut River Basin (2016-2021) was developed according to the approaches and methodologies of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the national water legislation of both Ukraine and Moldova.

The Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy (2014-2028) (GD Nr. 199 of 20.03.2014) is aimed to improve water management system and reduce water pollution in the country.

The National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (GD nr. 1155 of 20 October 2004.4.10) focused to reduce impacts of POPs on Public Health and the Environment, improve POPs monitoring capacity of environmental and health authorities, remediate measures at the Cismichioi pesticide dump.

The National Agency for Food Safety has been established (GD No. 51 of 16.01.2013) to ensure state control and supervision, according to the Law no. 119-XV of 22 April 2004 on plant protection products and fertilizers, on: a) the application and observance of all legal provisions, technical norms, phytosanitary legislation by economic agents in the field; b) compliance with the rules by the landowners, regardless of their subordination and type of property, the rules of treatment against diseases, injuries and weeds; (c) the manufacture, labeling, import, storage, acquisition, transport and marketing of plant protection products and the uniform and balanced administration of natural and chemical fertilizers; d) the use of plant protection products and fertilizers.

According to the State Register of Phytosanitary Products and Fertilizers, the instructions,  methodological and technological guidelines and recommendations are approved (e) compliance with the general requirements on the storage, transport, recording and neutralization of unused and forbidden pesticides and fertilizers.

The Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova and the European Union and their Member States and the European Atomic Energy Community, 27. 06. 2014 stipulated needs to harmonize national legislation with the Directive 2010/75 / EU of 2010 on Industrial Emissions (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control). A Draft Government Decision on the Approval of the Strategy for the Protection of Air Atmosphere and its Action Plan  for the years 2018-2028 has a Specific objective to establishing the Integrated Air Quality Monitoring System by 2028, applying standards and transposing European legislation at national level, as well as to reduce air pollutant emissions by 50% by 2028.

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9. Invasive Alien Species

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
9. Invasive Alien Species
Relevant documents and information

NBSAP 2015-2020: Action 61.Develop and implement an Action Plan on invasive species in accordance with the requirements of Bern Convention Action 62. Conduct impact studies for exogenous invasive species Action 63. Develop an Action Plan for fighting against American maple (Acer negundo). Action 64. Develop guidelines on efficient practices to fight invasive species Action 65. Train (private, public) land owners on the impact of invasive species and how to fight them  (CBD_ MD List of Invasive species).  GD No. 51 of 16.01.2013 on the Organization and Functioning of the National Agency for Food Safety 20) organizing and monitoring emergency actions to promptly eradicate outbreaks/invasions of harmful organisms in exceptional cases; 26) control and surveillance of: (a) the implementation by farmers of measures for the detection, prevention or control of diseases, pests and weeds in accordance with the recommendations of the territorial subdivisions of the Agency, according specificity to each crop and geographical area concerned.

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10. Vulnerable ecosystems

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Relevant documents and information

The NBSAP for 2015-2020 is aimed to improve national capacities on adaptation to climate change. Among the actions to be undertaken it is considered necessary to develop the Strategy on Adaptation of Forestry Fund to Climate Changes; develop technologies ensuring the adaptability of forest ecosystems to climate change; develop a study on the relationship between ecosystems, biodiversity and climate change in Republic of Moldova.

The National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, approved by the government in 2016 is focused to    improve the management and dissemination of disaster and climate risk information in Moldova; build climate resilience through reducing risk and facilitating adaptation in priority sectors.

The Sustainable Development Strategy of the Forestry Sector in the Republic of Moldova, GD nr. 350 of 12.07.2001 has as a specific objective conservation of the biological diversity of forests.

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11. Protected areas

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
11. Protected areas
Relevant documents and information

The NBSAP for 2015-2020 imply national efforts to develop capacities of sustainable biodiversity through extension and improved management of protected areas. Among the stipulated actions there are: developing and promoting a new version of the Law on Natural Protected Areas Fund, adjusted to the provisions of international treaties; establishing administrative units for some categories of state protected natural areas; implementing the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Moldova and the Government of Romania on Cooperation for the Protection and Sustainable Use of the Prut and Danube Rivers; strengthening management capacities of the National Park “Orhei”; establishing a wetland area of international importance; establishing a three-partite Biosphere Reservation “Danube Delta –  Prutul de Jos” (Romania- Republic of Moldova-Ukraine); establishing the National Park “ Nistru de Jos”;  creating the “Emerald Network” as a component part of the Pan-European Ecological Network; developing a Cadaster of the State Natural Protected Areas; developing and promoting a program  for extending protected areas; developing management plans for protected areas.

The Strategy for Sustainable Development of Forestry Sector in the Republic of Moldova, (GD No. 350 of 12.07.2001).  Conservation of biological diversity of forests is an essential operational element of sustainable forest management.   

The Association Agreement between the European Union and their Member States and the European Atomic Energy Community, and the Republic of Moldova, in Article 368 refers to biological diversity as being of great importance, and ensuring conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity as a key element for the achievement of sustainable development.

The Environmental Strategy and its Action Plan for 2014-2023 provides the policy framework for extending the protected natural areas and ensuring their sustainable management. In order to increase the protected natural areas from 5,5% to 8%, a special status is to be given to valuable natural areas in terms of biological diversity in order to reduce human intervention in these areas. That is why it is proposed to create and develop two large protected natural areas such as the Nistru de Jos National Park and the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. The first national park in the Republic of Moldova - National Park "Orhei" was created in 2013.

 

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12. Preventing extinctions

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
12. Preventing extinctions
Relevant documents and information

The NBSAP for 2015-2020 stipulates a number of actions intended to preventing extinction. Among them development of draft Law on Habitats (by harmonizing it with Council Directive 92/43 / EEC of 1992 on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora); improve and modify legislative acts (Law on Animal Kingdom no. 439-XIII of 27 April 1995, Law on Vegetal Kingdom no. 239-XVI of 8 November 2007, Law on Ecological Eetwork, no. 94-XVI of 5 April 2007) by adjusting them to the requirements of the EU (Directive 2009/147 / EC of 2009 on Conservation of Wild Nature and the Directive 92/43 / EEC of 1992 on Conservation of Natural Habitats and Wild Fauna and Flora); strengthen management capacities of the National Park “Orhei”;  establish a wetland area of international importance (Ramsar) “Padurea Domneasca” in the Prut de Mijloc area;   establish the three-party Biosphere Reservation “Danube Delta – Prut de Jos” (Romania-Republic of Moldova-Ukraine); establish the National Park “Nistru de Jos”;  create the “Emerald Network ”as a component part of the Pan-European Ecological Network; develop and publish the third edition of the Red Book of Republic of Moldova; restore the collection of rare plants from the Botanical Garden (Institute), develop plans for conservation of certain species included in the Red Book of Republic of Moldova and international conventions;   GIS mapping of rare species and develop measures for restoring degraded species;    restore natural habitats of endangered species populations;  develop a socio-economic study on conserving rare species in the National Park “Orhei”.

The Environmental Strategy for the years 2014-2023 providing policy preconditions to ensuring protection and conservation of biological diversity. The third edition of the Red Book of the Republic of Moldova will be launched in order to ensure the scientific researches regarding the reproduction, propagation, cultivation/growth, acclimatization of endangered, threatened, rare and undetermined species of plants and animals in the Republic of Moldova, which will include an almost double number of endangered species, as well as the cadastre of  animal kingdom and vegetable kingdom. In order to prevent the loss of precious  spontaneous wildlife and wild animals, reduce fragmentation of natural ecosystems and create ecological connection corridors, it is necessary to develop the National Ecological Network and create the Emerald Ecological Network as part of the Pan-European Ecological Network.

The Association Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Republic of Moldova, 2014 implies transposition of the Directive No 92/43/EC on Conservation of Natural Habitats and Wild Fauna and Flora. Preparation of inventory of sites, designation of these sites and establish priorities for their management; cooperating at  regional and global levels with the aim of promoting conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in natural or agricultural ecosystems, including endangered species, their habitat, specially protected natural areas and genetic diversity; restoration of ecosystems, and elimination or reduction of negative environmental impacts resulting from the use of living and non-living natural resources or of ecosystems.

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13. Agricultural biodiversity

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
13. Agricultural biodiversity
Relevant documents and information

The NBSAP for 2015-2020:   is aimed to develop measures and capacities to integrate biodiversity conservation into sustainable agriculture; implement requirements of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture; encourage activities for maintenance of domestic genetic breeding stock;  promote valuable plant genotypes for the purpose of establishing industrial plantations; develop a project for local communities based on sustainable management of plant resources (energy, medicinal, feed, essential and oleaginous oils etc.).

The National Strategy on Agricultural and Rural Development for the years 2014-2020.  General objective is to ensure sustainable management of natural resources in agriculture. Therefore, a priority for its adaptation to climate change. Such approach should include the improving farmers' access to the new drought resistant varieties, non-destructive agricultural technologies, research and training in innovative water and soil management, access to climate information (especially for extreme events).

The Association Agreement between the European Union and its Member States,  the European Atomic Energy Community and the Republic of Moldova, 2014. Cooperating at the regional and global levels with the aim of promoting the conservation and the sustainable use of biological diversity in natural or agricultural ecosystems, including endangered species, their habitat, specially protected natural areas and genetic diversity; restoration of ecosystems, and elimination or reduction of negative environmental impacts resulting from the use of living and non-living natural resources or of ecosystems. Harmonization with the Council Directive No 2002/53/EC of 13 June 2002 on Common Catalogue of Varieties of Agricultural Plant Species and the Council Directive No 2002/55/EC of 13 June 2002 on Marketing of Vegetable Seed.

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14. Essential ecosystem services

Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
14. Essential ecosystem services
Relevant documents and information

The NBSAP for 2015-2020.    It is planned to create efficient financial tools and mechanisms for biological diversity and natural ecosystems’ conservation activities (ecosystem services); implement the provisions of the inter-governmental politico-scientific platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services; conduct forest development works on lands covered with forest vegetation with the purpose of preventing illegal tree cutting and enhancing benefits of forests; identify ecosystems which provide significant services for increasing the welfare of population and the environment; refine the methodology of assessing payments for ecosystem services provided to the national economy; develop and test national/local mechanism for payments for ecosystem services (PES) through pilot projects.

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15. Ecosystem resilience