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Sixth National Report

  published:28 Mar 2019

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Republic of Korea

1. Strengthening the foundation to execute biodiversity policies

Background

Target 1 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of ‘Mainstreaming Biodiversity'. It is based on the understanding that biodiversity is an overarching issue across multiple areas, including the environment, society and economy, and that it needs to be mainstreamed for the development and implementation of various policies and plans. In particular, the target is intended to assess to what extent biodiversity awareness is reflected in governmental policies, which is indicative of the level of biodiversity mainstreaming. The target applies not only to relevant government departments (the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Science and ICT, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism; the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs; the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy; the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport; the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, the Cultural Heritage Administration, the Korea Forest Service, the Rural Development Administration, etc.), but also to local governments.

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The target is closely linked to the Aichi Biodiversity Target A-2, which is committed to integrating biodiversity values into developmental strategies at the national and local levels. The target, being part of national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs), is also associated with the Aichi Biodiversity Target E-17.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

The development of a national plan to halt biodiversity loss and promote the sustainable use of ecosystems is related to the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 15.

National compliance system

  • Government departments that have contributed to achieving this target in the national biodiversity strategies are required to submit a report on progress made and action plans every year to the Ministry of Environment, in accordance with the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity.
  • When establishing targets, the legally mandated plans of responsible departments as well as planned revisions of relevant laws are reviewed to improve compliance for targets. For example, a master plan for agricultural bioresources is legally enforced under the Act on the Conservation, Management, and Use of Agricultural Bioresources, and should be updated at the interval specified in the act.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
2. Integration of biodiversity values
17. NBSAPs
Relevant documents and information

National strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity should be developed every five years (Article 7) and action plans every year (Article 8) in accordance with the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity. Said act provides that the adoption of national biodiversity targets requires the deliberation of a cabinet meeting. Targets are circulated for department feedback and subject to a public hearing before being finalized. In addition to the mandatory feedback collection process, plans are developed to encourage the involvement of various stakeholders. Stakeholders are mostly departments related to the environment, oceans, agriculture, forestry and biological resources. An advisory committee is formed with civilian experts in each field recommended by the departments. Draft strategies are periodically reviewed by a civilian advisory committee.

EN

2. Raising public awareness and participation

Background

Target 2 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of ‘Mainstreaming Biodiversity'. It involves consistent nationwide promotion and education efforts to build public consensus and raise awareness of the importance of biodiversity conservation and the wise use of biological resources. Excessive use of resources is a major threat to biodiversity conservation. Conserving biodiversity requires the participation of not only the government but also interested parties from various fields including individuals and corporations. Against this backdrop, it is crucial to promote the voluntary and active engagement of local governments, corporations, civic groups and other interested parties.

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Raising awareness of biodiversity corresponds to the Aichi Target A-1.This target is committed to building consensus and promoting awareness of the values of biodiversity and the importance of public efforts to achieve sustainable conservation and the wise use of biological resources. Though it encourages actions towards biodiversity conservation from the government, industry and interested parties pertaining to the Aichi Target A-4, it is not about developing specific strategies to attain sustainable consumption and production.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

This target is relevant to the implementation of the UN SDG 14 (Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources), the SDG 15 (Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems), the SDG 17 (Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership) and the SDG 12 (Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns). It is also related to wetland awareness promotion under the Ramsar Convention (i.e. the Ramsar Convention’s Programme on communication, capacity building, education, participation and awareness, CEPA).

National compliance system

  • Article 4 (Duty of State and Local Governments), Article 5 (Duty of People), Article 28 (Nurturing Professionals), Article 29 (Education and Public Relation) and other articles of the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity.​
  • According to Article 6 (Support for Movements to Protect Marine Ecosystems) of the Conservation and Management on Marine Ecosystems Act, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries supports the participation of local governments, civic groups and others in activities and campaigns to protect marine ecosystems, taking into account the ecological characteristics of each region.
  • Improvement of school education related to the concept of biodiversity and conservation measures through the application of the curriculum revised in 2015 and cross-curricular themes (e.g. education on environment and sustainable development).
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
 
4. Use of natural resources
Relevant documents and information

‘Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity (1-2-②),’ as laid out in the Third National Basic Plan for Sustainable Development (2016-2035), the Second National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (information related to the development of local and international implementation platforms for promotion and education concerning adaptation), Strategy 7 (Laying the foundation for policy for the realization of environment rights) as stipulated in the Fourth Comprehensive National Plan for Environment (2016-2035), ‘Promoting awareness, education and participation (5-3)’ and ‘Discovering and promoting cooperative projects among the central government, local governments and local people (6-1)’ as laid out in the Third Basic Plan for Conservation of Natural Environment 2016-2025, 'Education and promotion to raise awareness of the marine environment and ecosystem' as set forth in the Fourth Comprehensive Plan for Marine Environment 2011-2020, 'Action Plan 3: Raising awareness and sustainable use of marine ecosystem' as set out in the First Basic Plan for the Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystem (2009-2018), and ‘Nurturing human resources and strengthening promotion’ in Strategy 4 ‘Development of industrial ecosystem’ (4)-② of the Second Basic Plan for Agricultural Bioresources 2014-2018 are related to the National Target 2.

EN

3. Expanding the budget

Background

Target 3 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of 'Mainstreaming Biodiversity'. It is designed to promote the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity by driving actions beneficial to biodiversity and contributing to the mainstreaming of biodiversity across all socio-economic fields. Moreover, the importance of funding is being emphasized for the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. By assessing financing related to biodiversity and expanding beneficial subsidies, funding can be secured for the conservation of ecosystems while minimizing environmental damage.

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The provision of subsidies beneficial to biological diversity and the gradual expansion of levies charged for the development of biological resources are related to the Aichi Target A-3. The target concerns the Aichi Target E-20 since it seeks to substantially expand funding for the effective implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

It is relevant to the UN SDG 12 as it aims to maintain or expand sustainable funding related to biological diversity according to national policies and strategies.

National compliance system

  • Cooperation Charge (levy) for Ecosystem Conservation: According to Articles 46 and 48 of the Natural Environment Conservation Act, the Cooperation Charge for the Ecosystem Conservation is levied and collected from the operators of development projects that have a substantial impact on the natural environment or ecosystem, or that cause a decrease in biological diversity, to systematically conserve the natural environment and to manage and utilize natural resources. Article 49 of the aforementioned Act specifies that the collected Cooperation Charge for the Ecosystem Conservation is used to conserve and restore ecosystems and biological species, support ex situ conservation agencies, manage ecological and scenery conservation areas, restore the ecosystem of damaged forests and mountainous areas and serve other purposes for the protection, conservation and restoration of ecosystems.
  • Biodiversity management contract: Pursuant to Article 16 of the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity, the Minister of Environment may conclude contracts on change of owner, occupant or custodian and method for cultivation of land, reduction of the use of chemical materials, creation of wetlands or other method of land management, etc., or recommend the head of a relevant central administrative agency or head of local government to conclude a biodiversity management contract.
  • Marine ecosystem conservation levy: According to Articles 49 and 51 of the Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystems Act, the Minister of Oceans and Fisheries imposes and collects the marine ecosystem conservation levy from any person who conducts development projects that significantly affect marine ecosystems or reduce marine biological diversity. The marine ecosystem conservation levy is used to conserve and restore marine ecosystems and biological species, support ex situ conservation institutions, manage protected marine areas, establish and operate facilities to conserve and utilize marine ecosystems and serve other purposes for the conservation and management of marine ecosystems as set forth in said Act.   
  • Expenses incurred in creating forest replacement resources: In accordance with Article 19 of the Mountainous Districts Management Act, for the purpose of conservation of forest biodiversity, expenses incurred in creating forest replacement resources are levied on and collected from a person who is involved in forest development activities for conversion or temporary use of a mountainous district.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
3. Incentives
20. Resource mobilization
Relevant documents and information

According to Article 16 of the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity, the heads of local governments and local residents may conclude contracts for the conservation of areas with excellent ecosystems, and the heads of local governments provide incentives to persons for the fulfillment of obligations under the contract.

EN

4. Protection and management of wildlife

Background

Target 4 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of 'Strengthening Biodiversity Conservation'. Despite various wildlife protection measures and management projects across different sectors, there remain imbalances in ecosystems. In particular, roadkill caused by habitat fragmentation, poaching and trafficking continue to be a threat to wildlife. Continuous promotion of wildlife protection and management projects is required along with the development of new protective measures based on research on wildlife diseases and medical treatment.

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Wildlife protection is one of the main agendas of the Convention on Biological Diversity, but is not addressed as a separate Aichi target. Nevertheless, it contributes to the attainment of Aichi Targets C-11, C-12 and C-13. 

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

Under the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), endangered migratory species (mainly migratory birds) are strictly protected and efforts are being made to preserve or restore their habitats while removing obstacles to their migration and controlling other potential risk factors.

National compliance system

  • Pursuant to Section 5 (Control of Wild Animal Diseases) of the Wildlife Protection and Management Act, the Ministry of Environment lays the foundation for the formulation of the Master Plan for the Control of Wild Animal Diseases and other systems to prevent and systematically control wild animal diseases.
  • Article 34-4 Paragraph 1 of said Act stipulates the following: effective establishment and operation of facilities for the rescue and medical treatment of wild animals; establishment and operation of wild animal rescue and control centers for systematic rescue, research and treatment of distressed or injured wild animals.
  • According to Article 41 Paragraph 3 of the Fisheries Act, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries provides that fishery businesses with permits designating the types of marine animals they can catch and collect should not make incidental catches, and that incidental catches of marine animals should be minimized by prescribing by Presidential Decree the types of fishery businesses and fisheries for which incidental catches are permitted and the scope of incidental catches.
  • According to Article 38 of the Cultural Heritage Protection Act, the Cultural Heritage Administration specifies matters concerning the designation and operation of animal clinics for rescuing and caring for distressed animals designated as natural monuments and, to promote efficient preservation, matters concerning the payment of expenses incurred in providing medical treatment for, managing and utilizing animals designated as natural monuments.
  • Under Articles 18-2 and 18-3 of the Forest Protection Act, the Korea Forest Service designates forest resources in need of preferential protection as species subject to special forest conservation and it bans any mining, collecting or damaging of those protected species.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
 
11. Protected areas
12. Preventing extinctions
13. Agricultural biodiversity

5. Protecting species of major importance

Background

Target 5 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of 'Strengthening Biodiversity Conservation'. The increasing threats to endangered species in Korea posed by poaching, overfishing and habitat degradation require the establishment of scientific protection measures based on periodic surveys of endangered species, endemic species and species subject to special protection, along with efforts for in situ and ex situ conservation.

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets 

The Aichi Target C-12, which aims to improve or maintain the conservation status of endangered species, is largely similar to this national target, but this target covers a broader range as it considers protection of not only endangered species designated and managed by law but also endemic species and organisms in special habitats including islands.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

The target is relevant to the UN SDG 15 (Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems) since it aims to protect endangered species and prevent extinctions. Red List status assessments are continuously being registered with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Controls on the import and export of internationally endangered species are applied in accordance with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

National compliance system

  • According to Section 2 (Protection of Endangered Wildlife) of the Wildlife Protection and Management Act, the Ministry of Environment formulates and implements comprehensive measures for the conservation of endangered wildlife considering the current status of their habitats and in compliance with international conventions concerning the protection of internationally endangered species. In addition, it is prescribed as a responsibility of the state to cooperate with international organizations for the protection of wildlife and the conservation of their habitats.
  • According to Articles 18-2 and 20 of the Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystems Act, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries bans incidental catching, capturing or collecting of protected marine mammals and marine organisms and establishes conservation plans.
  • Article 2 of said Act defines the term ‘marine organisms under protection’ as marine species living uniquely in Korea; species the number of which is substantially decreasing; species of high academic or economic values; or species highly worthy internationally of protection.
  • Pursuant to Articles 25 and 27 of the Cultural Heritage Protection Act, the Cultural Heritage Administration designates natural monuments to protect species or habitats as protected facilities or protected zones.
  • Under Articles 18-2 and 18-3 of the Forest Protection Act, the Korea Forest Service designates forest resources requiring preferential protection as species subject to special forest conservation and bans any mining, collecting or damaging those protected species.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
12. Preventing extinctions
Relevant documents and information

The Comprehensive Plan for Reproduction and Restoration of Endangered Wildlife was established and revised in 2016. The establishment of the plan began in 2006, and the initial ten-year plan was changed into a five-year plan in 2011. The Comprehensive Plan for Conservation of Endangered Wildlife 2018-2027 was also established in 2018. The plan highlights the aspect of conservation, shifting the focus away from reproducing and restoring endangered species (information on conservation of population and habitats added). The Plan for Infrastructure Development 2010-2019 has been formulated to conserve and restore the rare and endemic plants designated and managed by the Korea Forest Service in 2010. Measures are in place for efficient in situ and ex situ conservation of rare and endemic plants.

EN

6. Expansion and efficient management of protected areas

Background

Target 6 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of 'Strengthening Biodiversity Conservation'. In order to protect excellent biological resources and promote systematic conservation and management, it is crucial to designate exceptional natural environment and ecosystems highly worthy of protection as protected areas subject to systematic management. In particular, efforts should be made towards achieving one of the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, which proposes designating at least 17 percent of terrestrial and inland water areas and 10 percent of coastal and marine areas as protected. In addition, the Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE), a globally recognized assessment tool for protected areas, should be conducted for the effective management and evaluation of protected areas.

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The achievement of the Aichi Target C-11 is set as a national target in order to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by designating and managing areas particularly important for biodiversity and ecosystem services as protected areas.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

This target pertains to the UN SDG 15, which is designed to protect all terrestrial ecosystems including forests, mountains and wetlands and to conserve biological diversity. It is also related to UNESCO’s Biosphere Reserve, World Natural Heritage under the World Heritage Convention, and the Ramsar Convention (Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat).

National compliance system

  • In order to fulfill the recommended criteria of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Plan for Expansion of National Protected Areas and Management Improvement (January 2016) has been set forth and accompanied by follow-up measures.
  • Government-wide cooperation on expanding national protected areas (as one of the national projects for the new government) is underway and the council of agencies concerning national protected areas was established in July 2017.
  • The formulation of a comprehensive plan presenting a long-term development direction for the conservation, use and management of natural parks by designating national parks, do (province) parks, gun (county) parks and geological parks according to the procedures stipulated by the Natural Parks Act. 
  • Ecological and scenery conservation areas are designated in accordance with Article 2 of the Natural Environment Conservation Act.
  • Wetland protection areas are designated in accordance with Article 8 of the Wetlands Conservation Act.
  • Special protection districts for wildlife are designated to protect the habitats of endangered wildlife (otters) under Article 27 Paragraph 1 of the Wildlife Protection and Management Act and wildlife protection districts are designated by a mayor, do governor or the head of a si (city)/gun/gu to protect endangered wildlife under Article 33 of said Act.
  • Specified islands are designated under Article 4 of the Special Act on the Preservation of the Ecosystems in Island Areas including Dokdo. 
  • Water-source protection areas are designated in accordance with Article 7 of the Water Supply and Waterworks Installation Act.
  • Riparian zones are designated under Article 4 of the Act on the Improvement of Water Quality and Support for Residents of the Han River Basin, Article 4 of the Act on Water Management and Resident Support in Geum River Basin, Article 4 of the Act on Water Management and Residents Support in Nakdong River Basin, and Article 4 of the Act on Water Management and Residents Support in the Yeongsan and Seomjin River Basins.
  • Protected marine areas (i.e. areas for protecting marine organisms, areas for protecting marine ecosystems, areas for protecting marine landscape) are designated under Article 25 of the Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystems Act, and fishery resources protection zones are designated under 46 of the Fishery Resources Management Act.
  • Sea areas for environmental management are designated in accordance with Article 15 of the Marine Environment Management Act.
  • Plans for the sustainable use, development and conservation of marine areas will be introduced and implemented after the enactment of a new law, the Act on Planning and Management of Marine Areas (scheduled to take effect in April 2019).  
  • Under Article 7 of the Forest Protection Act, forest conservation zones are designated and classified into conservation zones for the living environment, conservation zones for scenic views, conservation zones for the development of water resources, conservation zones for disaster prevention and zones for the protection of forest genetic resources.
  • The Baekdudaegan protection areas are designated under Article 6 of the Baekdudaegan Protection Act.
  • Scenic spots and natural monuments are designated under Article 25, and protection zones are designated under Article 27 of the Cultural Heritage Protection Act.
  • Urban natural park zones are designated under Article 38-2 of the National Land Planning and Utilization Act and Article 26 of the Act on Urban Parks, Green Areas, etc. 
  • Medium- and long-term plans for the expansion of forest protection zones are reflected in the Master Plan for Forest Biological Diversity 2018-2022, the Master Plan for the Management of Forest Genetic Resources Protection Zones 2018-2022 and the Basic Plan for Protection of Baekdudaegan 2016-2025.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
11. Protected areas
Relevant documents and information

Development and adoption procedures for the target of expanding protected areas: Setting national targets (Expansion of protected areas for terrestrial and marine areas by at least 17% and 10%, respectively) →  Establishment of a roadmap for the expansion of national protected areas and joint implementation plans by relevant agencies → Approval of a cabinet meeting.

The council of agencies concerning national protected areas is convened at least once a year, and progress on implementation by each agency is evaluated to manage and monitor the status of implementation. A basic plan on the conservation and management of marine ecosystems is formulated every ten years so as to conserve and manage marine ecosystems in a comprehensive manner under Article 9 of the Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystems Act and a basic management plan for protected marine areas is developed and implemented every five years pursuant to Article 28 of said Act.  A plan for integrated coastal management is established and implemented every ten years in order to preserve, use and develop coasts in a comprehensive manner in accordance with Article 6 of the Coast Management Act. A master plan for the management of fishery resources is laid out and implemented every five years under Article 7 of the Fishery Resources Management Act. Environmental preservation sea areas and specially-managed sea areas are designated in order to preserve and manage the marine environment according to Article 15 of the Marine Environment Management Act.

EN

7. Conservation of genetic diversity

Background

Target 7 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of ‘Strengthening Biodiversity Conservation’. Genetic diversity is an element that enables populations to adapt to environmental changes, affecting reproduction and survival capacity of species. Genetic diversity is now increasingly at risk due to the indiscriminate use of biological resources and the destruction of habitats, which means there is an urgent need for the conservation of genetic resources along with an understanding of the current status of genetic diversity. It is necessary to lay the foundation for the efficient use of genetic diversity through the collection, conservation and management of genetic resources from indigenous species (including pathogens) and through the establishment and operation of genetic resources banks in a systematic manner.    

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The Aichi Target C-13 aims to develop strategies with a view to maintaining and improving the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and their relatives and of socio-economically valuable species while minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity with a focus on in situ conservation. On the other hand, projects under this national target tend to be centered on ex situ conservation for sustainable use.  

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

This target is relevant to the UN SDG 2 in terms of efforts to maintain by 2020 the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated crops and farmed and domesticated animals and their wild relatives through plant and seed banks.  

National compliance system

  • Management of biological research resources under the Act on the Acquisition, Management, and Utilization of Biological Research Resources
  • Management of wildlife genetic resources under the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity
  • Management of biological genetic resources of oceans and fisheries under the Act on Securing, Mangement, Use, Etc. of Marine Bio-resources
  • Management of agricultural genetic resources under the Act on the Conservation, Management, and Use of Agricultural Bioresources
  • Surveying and conservation of and research on forest genetic resources under the Forest Protection Act
  • Management of pathogen resources under the Act on the Promotion of Collection, Management, and Utilization of Pathogen Resources
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
13. Agricultural biodiversity
Relevant documents and information

Provisions are specified in Article 3 (Responsibilities of State, etc.), Article 5 (Formulation, etc. of Master Plans) and Article 6 (Surveys, Recording, etc.) of the Act on the Conservation, Management, and Use of Agricultural Bioresources. Agricultural bioresources that obtain the approval of a deliberating council for the registration of agricultural bioresources for the improvement of genetic diversity are registered as national resources.

EN

8. Safeguard for IAS and LMOs

Background

Target 8 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of 'Reducing Threats to Biological Diversity'. With climate change and growing international exchange, alien species are increasingly brought into the country intentionally or unintentionally, causing serious environmental and economic damage. Appearances of living modified organisms (LMO) in the country are on the rise due to an increase in the development and distribution of LMOs, raising concerns about disturbance to ecosystems. 

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The Aichi Target B-9 presents goals regarding the management of invasive alien species, but this national target also concerns securing the biosafety of living modified organisms.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

The target is relevant to the fulfillment of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.

National compliance system

  • The legal basis for the management of alien species has been established and strengthened through the enforcement of the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity in February, 2013. Article 21 of said Act provides that a basic plan for management of alien species is established and submitted every five years along with detailed objectives and the direction in which such objectives will be pursued. Formulation of the Second Alien Species Management Plan is underway following the First Alien Species Management Plan (2014-2018). Under Articles 22, 23 and 24 of said Act, alien species likely to threaten or pose a great threat to the local ecosystem or are designated as potential risk species* or ecosystem-disturbing species** for separate management. 
      *Potential risk species: With regard to invasive species that have not been introduced to Korea, preemptive prevention of import or inbound transfer is required for species that may cause damage to the ecosystem (Approval is required for the import or inbound transfer of such species). 
     **Ecosystem-disturbing species: Alien species that cause serious damage to the local ecosystem are designated as ecosystem-disturbing species. The inbound transfer, breeding or release of such species into the wild are prohibited except for the purposes of research, display, etc.
  • In order to prevent potential harm caused by living modified organisms to public health, the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, the government should implement necessary measures under the Transboundary Movement, etc. of Living Modified Organisms Act. According to Article 7 (Establishment and Implementation of Plans for Safety Management of Living Modified Organisms) of the aforementioned Act, the Third Plan for Safety Management of Living Modified Organisms (2018-2022) and detailed action plans for each year have been developed, fulfilling national safety management functions concerning the development, production, import, export, sale, transfer, storage and use of living modified organisms.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
9. Invasive Alien Species
Relevant documents and information

9. Biodiversity conservation system in response to climate change

Background

Target 9 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of 'Reducing Threats to Biological Diversity'. Climate change results in a significant change in the overall biological diversity of the Korean Peninsula including changes in the vegetation distribution, decreases in biodiversity, increases in Southern alien species and Southern species moving northward, and changes in fishery resources. In order to grasp the biodiversity distribution and its adaptation, biodiversity conservation measures should be developed with long-term monitoring. 

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The target is similar to the Aichi Target B-10 as it monitors terrestrial and marine biodiversity, which have become more vulnerable due to climate change or ocean acidification; and it forecasts the impact on species sensitive to climate change. However, detailed tasks for achieving the national target differ from those of the Aichi Target in many regards.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

The target is closely linked to matters concerning adaptation to climate change among those agreed during the adoption of the Paris Agreement (December 2015) following the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2015.

National compliance system

  • The establishment and implementation of measures for adaptation to climate change at the central and local government levels are mandatory pursuant to Article 48 Paragraph 4 of the Framework Act on Low Carbon, Green Growth and Article 38 of the Enforcement Decree of said Act.​ The National Comprehensive Plan for Climate Change, known as the measures for adaption to climate change at the national level, was established in collaboration with related departments in December 2008. Detailed action plans were developed by the central government for the implementation of national adaption strategies. The National Climate Change Adaptation Measures were modified and supplemented in December 2012. Detailed action plans (2013-2015) were formulated and carried out, and the First National Climate Change Adaptation Measures 2011-2015 and the Second National Climate Change Adaptation Measures 2016-2020 were introduced, reflecting changes in conditions and the forecast of the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways).
  • Adaptation measures at the local government level: In accordance with Article 38 of the Enforcement Decree of the Framework Act on Low Carbon, Green Growth, local governments (metropolitan city/do or municipal si/gun/gu) establish and implement detailed action plans concerning measures for adaptation to climate change. Detailed action plans regarding measures for adaptation to climate change were developed and implemented by 226 municipal si/gun/gu. From 2014 to 2015, 193 municipalities established detailed action plans after successfully carrying out pilot projects in 33 municipalities between 2012 and 2013.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Relevant documents and information

According to Article 47-2 (Impact Assessment on and Vulnerability of Agriculture and Rural Communities to Climate Change) of the Framework Act on Agriculture, Rural Community and Food Industry; from May 2014, the government started surveying and assessing the impact of climate change on agriculture and the vulnerability of agriculture and rural communities to climate change every five years, announcing the results and using them as basic data for the development of national policies.

EN

10. Biodiversity evaluation and restoring efforts

Background

Target 10 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of ‘Reducing Threats to Biological Diversity’. Although various environmental conservation measures have been introduced including environmental assessments, observations continue of water quality improvement measures, the restoration of degraded ecosystems, the conflict between ecosystem conservation and development, an increase in the impact of pollutants on the ecosystem and various other environmental pollution issues. In order to conserve biodiversity and reduce the impact on habitats, it is necessary to strengthen policies and promote measures for the restoration of national ecosystems.

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

While the Aichi Target B-5 aims to halve and where feasible bring close to zero the rate of loss of all natural habitats, the national target pursues the establishment of systems related to supporting the utilization of values of biodiversity and restoring ecosystems by connecting the core ecological axes. This target is similar to the Aichi Target B-8, which seeks to reduce pollution to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and to promote biodiversity as a way to reduce the impact on habitats.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

The target is related to the Ramsar Convention (Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

National compliance system

  • Article 4 of the Natural Environment Conservation Act stipulates that the state, local governments and enterprises are responsible for preventing damage to natural environment caused by the development and use of national land, etc.; for formulating and implementing management measures including the Basic Plan for Conservation of Natural Environment, and for restoring degraded areas and ecosystems. 
  • According to Article 46 of the Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystems Act, it is the state’s responsibility to restore marine ecosystems.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
8. Pollution
15. Ecosystem resilience

11. Biodiversity for agriculture, fishery and forest

Background

Target 11 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of ‘Sustainable Use of Ecosystem Services’. Due to excessive collecting and capturing in the agricultural and fishery industries, which are heavily dependent on ecosystems, the decline in biodiversity is reaching a serious level. The excessive use of and dependence on certain species has caused the simplification of genetic diversity, increasing the vulnerability of such species to diseases and environmental changes. Along with the restoration of biodiversity, protective measures are needed to help biodiversity cope with environmental changes and to allow sustainable use.      

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The target is similar to the Aichi Target A-4, which seeks to implement plans for sustainable production and consumption to keep the impacts of the use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits. It is also close to the Aichi Target B-6, which aims to manage and harvest all fish, invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants sustainably and legally, applying ecosystem based approaches so that overfishing is avoided. Furthermore, it is related to the Aichi Target B-7, which intends to manage areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry sustainably, ensuring the conservation of biodiversity.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

Formulating science-based management plans for the sustainable production and maintenance of fishery resources is linked to the UN SDG 14, and promoting the sustainable management of forests and halting the loss of biodiversity pertain to the SDG 15.

National compliance system

  • According to the legal basis prescribed by the state, as in the Fishery Resources Management Act and the Action Plan for the Establishment and Management of the Allowable Catch, an annual catch limit is set for each vulnerable fish species to restrict the catch within the limit for the management of the fish resources.
  • The target is being implemented and managed under Article 7 (Environment-friendly Agriculture and Fisheries Promotion Plan) and Article 13 (Development and Dissemination of Technologies for Environment-friendly Agriculture and Fisheries) of the Act on the Promotion of Environment-friendly Agriculture and Fisheries and the Management of and Support for Organic Foods, etc.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
4. Use of natural resources
6. Sustainable fisheries
7. Areas under sustainable management
Relevant documents and information
  • The Third Stage of the Five-Year Forest Management Plan (2014-2018, Korea Forest Service)
  • Fishery Resources Restoration Plan, categorized by waters and fish species (Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries)
  • The Fourth Five-Year Promotion Plan for Environment-friendly Agriculture (2016-2020, Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries)
EN

12. Traditional knowledge on biological resources

Background 

Target 12 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of ‘Sustainable Use of Ecosystem Services’. As the Nagoya Protocol came into force, on-going exploration and development of traditional knowledge associated with biological resources became necessary to prepare for potential international disputes regarding the use of biological resources. It is urgently necessary to lay the foundation for the conservation and handing-down of traditional knowledge associated with biological resources. In addition, there should be support for the industrial utilization of biological resources that involve traditional knowledge. Traditional knowledge in rural areas is an important factor in maintaining the value and identity of agricultural biodiversity and rural areas while driving sustainable development. It should therefore be cultivated and conserved in a systematic manner. Along with the adoption of the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) and the Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage System, efforts should be made to preserve the authenticity and integrity of agricultural heritage and to develop new resources. The Korean Intellectual Property Office and other agencies have been carrying out traditional knowledge-related projects, but there is room for improvement in terms of systematic research and management of traditional knowledge to protect biodiversity.

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The target is closely related to the Aichi Target E-18 as it aims to respect the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs) relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity within the boundaries of national and international legislation. It also aims to fully integrate and reflect traditional knowledge in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of IPLCs.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

  • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): WIPO researches and establishes international standards with regard to current issues including disputes concerning domain names and trademarks; the protection of genetic resources, traditional knowledge and folklore and online copyright protection.
  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): The United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization have designated 17 SDGs for each of which all countries are obliged to report and evaluate their progress. Traditional forest knowledge concerns safe food (SDG 2), the sustainable management of water resources (SDG 6), the restoration and protection of terrestrial ecosystems and the biodiversity (SDG 15) of the United Nations.

National compliance system

  • Article 20 of the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity provides that the government pursues the following policies with a view to promoting the conservation and use of traditional knowledge.
    - Discovery, research and protection of traditional knowledge of individuals and local communities
    - Establishment of information gathering and management systems for traditional knowledge
    - Establishment of a foundation for using traditional knowledge
  • In accordance with Article 26 of the Act on the Acquisition, Management and Utilization of Marine Biological Resources, the government promotes measures for the conservation and systematic management of traditional knowledge pertaining to marine and fishery resources. 
  • The state law stipulates that government departments that have decided to take part in achieving this target under the respective national biodiversity strategy submit an action plan for related projects to the Ministry of Environment every year.
  • Furthermore, when developing targets, the primary consideration should be official plans prescribed by law or revisions of related legislation by responsible government departments to come up with powerful tools to drive the compliance of each government department involved.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
18. Traditional knowledge
Relevant documents and information

Pursuant to the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity, a strategy for the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of the components is established by the government every five years (Article 7) and an action plan is prepared by the head of the relevant central administrative agency every year (Article 8). ​Article 20 of the Act prescribes that the government pursues policies to facilitate the discovery, research and protection of the traditional knowledge of individuals and local communities; that it pursues the establishment of information gathering and a management system for traditional knowledge, and that it works towards the establishment of a foundation for using traditional knowledge.

The Rural Development Administration has continued its efforts since 2002 to develop projects for the purpose of finding traditional agricultural knowledge and promoting its value. Measures for conserving and utilizing traditional knowledge are suggested through the exploration and investigation of ancient agricultural literature and oral traditional agricultural knowledge and verification of their modern practicability before registering them with the Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal in partnership with the Korean Intellectual Property Office.

In order to highlight the importance of traditional forest knowledge, the Korea Forest Service seeks to explore and utilize traditional forest knowledge as a resource for food cures and FORESTory. The Third Master Plan for Forest Biological Diversity 2018-2022 was established in December 2017.

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13. Optimizing ecosystem services

Background

Target 13 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy ‘Sustainable Use of Ecosystem Services’. Available ecosystem services such as the provision of natural resources, environmental control functions and landscape values are on the decline, and such services are being used in an unsustainable manner. Ecosystem services centering on the provision of natural resources including fisheries, wildlife and medicinal plants are decreasing, and only narrow-scoped research is being conducted. Efforts should be directed at the systematic evaluation of the values of ecosystem services and the application of the results to policy decisions. It is necessary to promote policies for the nurturing of a systematic and comprehensive Korean-style green ecotourism to meet the increased demand for ecological resources with the popularization of tourism and to match the increased value of ecosystem services. An analysis of best practices involving the latest technology is needed to identify international research methodologies (scenarios and models) for evaluating and forecasting biological diversity and ecosystem services.

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The target is similar to the Aichi Target D-14 as it seeks to strengthen the benefits of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

The target pertains to the UN SDG 15 since it promotes the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems.

National compliance system

  • Six relevant government agencies including the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, the Korea Forest Service, and the Cultural Heritage Administration jointly formulated the National Strategy and Implementation Plan for Ecosystem Services in December 2017 and plan to revise the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity to formulate the legal basis for establishing national strategies.
  • At the central government level, green ecotourism policies are developed and supported for the utilization of excellent ecological resource services and their transformation into tourism resources. At the local government level, ecological resources are conserved by region. The value of their services is expanded, and the foundation for ecotourism infrastructure is broadened. At the community level, ecological resources are conserved by communities, and joint efforts are made to enhance the value of their services.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
14. Essential ecosystem services

14. Evaluating and monitoring biodiversity

Background

Target 14 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of ‘Research and Management Mechanism of Biodiversity’. Investigation, evaluation and monitoring of biodiversity are basic tasks for the management of biodiversity conservation. The results are used to develop various assessment measures including ecological zoning maps. Conservation policies should give an active role to conservation efforts such as updating ecological zoning maps by investigating and surveying the changes in the status of biodiversity across the nation on a regular basis. 

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

This target is relevant to the Aichi Target A-4 as it promotes public participation by all stakeholders in biodiversity surveys and pursues a range of biodiversity research. The process of investigating, evaluating and monitoring biological diversity, which is essential for the expansion of terrestrial and marine protected areas of the Aichi Target C-11, is almost identical to the process required for creating biodiversity information maps and ecological zoning maps, demonstrating a strong correlation between the two goals.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

This target is relevant to the UN SDG 15 in that it investigates, evaluates and monitors biodiversity to establish the foundation on which national biological resources are conserved and used in a sustainable manner.

National compliance system

  • In accordance with Articles 30 and 31 of the Natural Environment Conservation Act, the Ministry of Environment and relevant central administrative agencies carry out the National Natural Environment Survey every five years, and they may investigate every two years the natural environment of areas classified as first grade zones on ecological zoning maps and areas where changes in the natural surroundings are deemed to require special observation.​   
  •  Article 36 of the Natural Parks Act stipulates that a park management agency will investigate the natural resources of natural parks every five years and other matters deemed necessary for the conservation of natural parks such as the status of ecosystems including wildlife, landscapes, soil, topography and geological features. 
  • A comprehensive national survey into marine ecosystems required by law throughout the nation is conducted to assess the status of marine ecosystems in an all-inclusive manner and a marine ecology map is prepared and publicized under Article 10 (National Comprehensive Investigation into Marine Ecosystems, etc.) and Article 12 (Drafting Marine Ecology Map) of the Conservation and Management of Marine Ecosystems Act.
  • According to Article 12 of the Baekdudaegan Protection Act, a survey is conducted of the resources of the Baekdudaegan protection areas and mountain ranges.
  • In accordance with Article 32 of the Creation and Management of Forest Resources Act and Article 19 of the Forest Protection Act, relevant agencies are obliged to conduct the National Forest Inventory and an evaluation the levels of health and vitality of forests. The Minister of the Korea Forest Service investigates forest resources on a regular basis to assess the level of health and biodiversity of forest ecosystem and publishes the results. Such statistics are approved by the state under Article 18 of the Statistics Act (Approval No. 136014).
EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
 
4. Use of natural resources
11. Protected areas
Relevant documents and information

The Korea Forest Service has developed and implemented the Basic Plan for Protection of Baekdudaegan and its action plans.

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15. Capacity building in biodiversity management

Background

Target 15 is one of the national targets aimed at implementing the strategy of ‘Research and Management Mechanism of Biodiversity’. Scientific identification and analysis of factors threatening the biodiversity of the Korean peninsula are required along with prioritization of those factors for conservation and sustainable use. To this end, various projects such as monitoring of the biodiversity of the Korean peninsula, implementation of the Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI), nurturing professionals and establishment of the clearing house mechanism have been initiated and led by the National Institute of Biological Resources and the National Institute of Ecology. Knowledge and information accumulated from various research activities are shared with other nations through the CBD-CHM Korea website, contributing to the achievement of an effective integration of science and biodiversity conservation policies. Government departments are in the process of collecting and securing various biological resources for research and development of certain resources, but the development of an integrated system for basic research or effectiveness evaluation is yet to be accomplished.

Relevance of the national target to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

This target is relevant to the Aichi Target E-19 as it seeks to improve and widely share knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, as well as its values, functioning, status, trends and the consequences of its loss.

Relevance of the national target to other international/regional conventions

The target is relevant to the UN SDG 14 (Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources) and Goal 15 (Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems). It also pertains to the implementation of various conservation measures for the sustainable use of fishery resources adopted by the Committee on Fisheries (COFI) and the Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Moreover, it is related to active participation in the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) relating to biological diversity and Regional Seas Programme (RSP).

National compliance system

  • National compliance systems are addressed by Article 26 (Research and Support for Biodiversity, etc.), Article 27 (Technology Development), Article 28 (Nurturing Professionals) and Article 18 (Establishment, Operation, etc. of National Biodiversity Information Sharing System) of the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity. ​
  • National compliance systems are also dealt with by Article 20 (Increasing Diversity of Agricultural Bioresources, Facilitating Use thereof, etc.), Article 21 (Informatization and Nurturing of Human Resources, etc.) and Article 22 (Facilitation, etc. of Research and Exploitation of Overseas Agricultural Bioresources and International Cooperation) of the Act on the Conservation, Management and Use of Agricultural Bioresources.
EN
Level of application
National / Federal