PDF

Sixth National Report

  published: 25 Dec 2018

Section I. Information on the targets being pursued at the national level

Japan

The National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020/National Target A-1 / Have a diverse array of actors such as governments, local municipalities, businesses, private organizations and citizens recognize the importance of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and autonomously reflect this in their respective actions, thereby achieving the “mainstreaming of biodiversity across society” and reducing the fundamental causes of biodiversity loss through actions taken by diverse actors, by 2020 at the latest.

 Mainstreaming biodiversity among all actors has been set as a national target for Strategic Goal A “Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
1. Awareness of biodiversity values
People are aware of the values of biodiversity
People are aware of the steps they can take to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity
2. Integration of biodiversity values
Biodiversity values integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies
Biodiversity values integrated into national and local planning processes
Biodiversity values incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate
Biodiversity values incorporated into reporting systems
3. Incentives
Incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity, eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize of avoid negative impacts
Positive incentives for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity developed and applied
4. Use of natural resources
Have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits
Relevant documents and information

Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target B-1 / Significantly reduce the rate of loss of natural habitats, as well as their degradation and fragmentation, by 2020.

•    Significantly reducing the rate of loss of natural habitats, as well as their degradation and fragmentation has been set as a national target for Strategic Goal B “Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
5. Loss of habitats
The rate of loss of forests is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero
The loss of all habitats is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero
Degradation and fragmentation are significantly reduced
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target B-2 / Engage in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries that ensure the conservation of biodiversity in a sustainable manner by 2020.

•    Sustainable implementation of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries while ensuring biodiversity conservation has been set as a national target for Strategic Goal B “Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
6. Sustainable fisheries
All fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches
Recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species
Fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems
The impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits, i.e. overfishing avoided
7. Areas under sustainable management
Areas under agriculture are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity
Areas under aquaculture are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity
Areas under forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

The National biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target B-3 / Maintain the water quality and habitat environments desirable for the conservation of aquatic organisms, increasing biological productivity, and sustainable use while continuing to improve the state of contamination from nitrogen and phosphorous by 2020. When it comes to water areas with a highly closed off nature—such as lakes, and deeply indented bays—(hereinafter referred to as “closed water areas”) in particular, promote policies in mountainous areas, agricultural villages and the outskirts of urban areas, and urban areas that focus on the river basin in their entirety based upon the unique characteristics of each of these regions in a comprehensive and prioritized manner.

•    Maintenance of the water quality and habitat environments desirable for sustainable use has been set as a national target for Strategic Goal B “Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
8. Pollution
Pollutants (of all types) has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity
Pollution from excess nutrients has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

The National biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target B-4 / Identify invasive alien species and organize information pertaining to the routes by which they establish themselves based upon the results of examinations of the enforcement status for the Invasive Alien Species Act by 2020. In addition, lay out the order of priority for eradicating these invasive alien species, and on the basis of this apportion out appropriate roles to each of the major actors regarding their eradication and proceed with eradicating them in a systematic manner. Promote a restoration of the habitation status of rare species and restore ecosystems to their original state by controlling or exterminating high priority species through such efforts. What is more, call the attention of related actors to the management of the routes by which invasive alien species become established in order to prevent their introduction or establishment, and promote countermeasures by examining more effective border control measures.

  •    Controlling or eradicating highly prioritized alien species, along with examining more effective border control measures has been set as a national target for Strategic Goal B “Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote their sustainable use” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
9. Invasive Alien Species
Invasive alien species identified and prioritized
Pathways identified and prioritized
Priority species controlled or eradicated
Introduction and establishment of invasive alien species prevented
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target B-5 / Promote initiatives for minimizing human-induced pressures that cause ecosystems to deteriorate in order to maintain the soundness and functionality of ecosystems that are vulnerable to climate change, such as coral reefs, seagrass and seaweed beds, tidal flats, islands, alpine and subalpine areas by 2015.

•    Promoting measures to be taken to minimize human-induced pressures that deteriorate ecosystems, for the purpose of maintaining the soundness and functions of the ecosystem that are vulnerable to climate change, has been set as a national target for Strategic Goal B “Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote their sustainable use” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
10. Vulnerable ecosystems
Multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning
Multiple anthropogenic pressures on other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target C-1 / Appropriately conserve and manage at least 17% of inland areas and inland water areas, and at least 10% of coastal areas and ocean areas, by 2020.

•    Appropriately conserving and managing at least 17% of inland areas and inland water areas, and at least 10% of coastal areas and marine areas has been set as a national target for Strategic Goal C “Improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
11. Protected areas
At least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas are protected.
At least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas are protected
Areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services protected
Protected areas are ecologically representative
Protected areas are effectively and equitably managed
Protected areas are well connected and integrated into the wider landscape and seascape
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020 / National Target C-2 / Maintain a situation in the 2012 version of the Ministry of the Environment’s Red List in which no new extinct species (EX) appear (excluding species that are not found over an extended period of time for which a determination will be made over a span of 50 years or more) among the threatened species that are already known about, as well as preventing the population decrease for the known threatened species. For threatened IA species (CR) or threatened I species (CR/EN), which are the species in the greatest danger of going extinct, increase the number of species that will see their rank fall through a variety of initiatives compared to the Ministry of the Environment’s 2012 Red List by 2020. Such initiatives include setting in place habitat bases by means of promoting sustainable agriculture, forestry, and fisheries that take the proactive conservation of species and biodiversity into consideration. In addition, maintain the genetic diversity of crops, livestock animals, and wild species that are closely related to them, including those species that are valuable in a socioeconomic or cultural sense, by 2020.

•    Increasing the number of threatened species that are transferred to a category of lower threat in the Red List, as well as maintaining genetic diversity of crops and livestock animals has been set as a national target for Strategic Goal C “Improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
12. Preventing extinctions
Extinction of known threatened species has been prevented
The conservation status of those species most in decline has been improved and sustained
13. Agricultural biodiversity
The genetic diversity of cultivated plants is maintained
The genetic diversity of farmed and domesticated animals is maintained
The genetic diversity of wild relatives is maintained
The genetic diversity of socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species is maintained
Strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding genetic diversity
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP_10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target: D-1 / Strengthen the benefits received from biodiversity and ecosystem services in Japan and elsewhere by giving consideration to the needs of women and local communities through the conservation and restoration of ecosystems by 2020. Carry out initiatives for each species with an awareness of the importance of the sustainable use of natural resources found in Satochi-Satoyama (socio-ecological production landscapes) areas in particular.

•    The ecosystem conservation and restoration has been set as a national target for Strategic Goal D “Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
14. Essential ecosystem services
Ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded
Taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target D-2 / Strengthen the contributions of biodiversity to resilience of ecosystem and their storage of carbon dioxide by conserving and restoring ecosystems, including restoration of at least 15% or greater for degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation by 2020.

•    Contributions to the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change have been set as a national target for Strategic Goal D “Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
15. Ecosystem resilience
Ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks have been enhanced through conservation and restoration
At least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems are restored, contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation, and to combating desertification
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Targets D-3 / Aim to ratify the Nagoya Protocol on ABS as early as possible and implement the domestic measures for this Protocol by 2015 at the latest.

•    The ratification of the Nagoya Protocol and the implementation of domestic measures corresponding to the Nagoya Protocol have been set as a national target for Strategic Goal D “Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
16. Nagoya Protocol on ABS
The Nagoya Protocol is in force
The Nagoya Protocol is operational, consistent with national legislation
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target E-1 / Strive to promote policies related to the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use based on the National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Furthermore, provide support and cooperation to ensure that global initiatives geared towards achieving Target 17 are developed.

•    The promotion of policies, in a comprehensive and systematic manner, regarding the biodiversity conservation and sustainable use based on the National Biodiversity Strategy, as well as the advancement of support and cooperation for relevant global initiatives towards achieving Target 17 have been set as a national target for Strategic Goal E “Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management an capacity building” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
17. NBSAPs
Submission of NBSAPs to Secretariat by (end of) 2015
NBSAPs adopted as effective policy instrument
NBSAPs are being implemented
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target E-2 / Have respect for local communities’ traditional knowledge related to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity mainstreamed by 2020. Moreover, strengthen scientific grounds pertaining to biodiversity as well as the connections between science and policy. Effectively and efficiently mobilize the resources (funds, human resources, technologies, etc.) needed to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets by 2020 at the latest.

•    Mainstreaming the respect for traditional knowledge of local communities regarding the biodiversity conservation and sustainable use by 2020, strengthening scientific foundations on biodiversity as well as ties between science and policy, and effectively and efficiently mobilizing necessary resources (such as funds, human resources and technology) have been set as a national target for Strategic Goal E “Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management an capacity building” in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

EN
Level of application
National / Federal
Relevance of National Targets to Aichi Targets
18. Traditional knowledge
Traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities are respected
Traditional knowledge, innovations and practices are fully integrated and reflected in implementation of the Convention
With the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities
19. Biodiversity knowledge
Knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved
Biodiversity knowledge, the science base and technologies are widely shared and transferred and applied
20. Resource mobilization
Mobilization of financial resources implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity from all sources have increased substantially from 2010 levels
Relevant documents and information

•    Based on Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Article 11 of the Basic Act on Biodiversity, the National Biodiversity Strategy was published as a national basic plan on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Following the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that have been adopted in the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10) to the CBD in October 2010, national targets are set to achieve the targets and to be included in National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020. The Strategy was endorsed by the Cabinet as of January 27, 2012, after a series of due processes including hearings from various stakeholders such as academics and experts, NGOs working for conservation, dissemination and advocacy, local governments, and related governmental organizations, deliberations by the Central Environment Council, a council comprising external experts, and call for public comments.

EN

Section II. Implementation measures, their effectiveness, and associated obstacles and scientific and technical needs to achieve national targets

(Newly taken and consolidated measures are only reported here, while omitting other measures that have been continuously followed up since the Fifth National Report of Japan to the CBD and had already been reported in it.)

Key Action Goal A-1-1:
Flesh out and enhance publicity, education, and public awareness on biodiversity

•    In order to promote concrete actions through participation and collaboration of various sectors to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, the Japan Committee for the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity (UNDB-J) was established in September 2011 with a wide participation of diverse actors such as experts, business leaders, NPOs /NGOs, youth, local governments, governmental entities, and so on. Through UNDB-J, relevant activities have been developed and strengthened for dissemination and advocacy of biodiversity through partnerships among those stakeholders. Those activities include: holding nationwide meetings on biodiversity; organizing local forums for sharing local various activities and exchanging opinions; selection of recommended collaborative projects; selection of recommended books which contribute to promoting understanding of biodiversity, its dissemination and advocacy, and environmental education; and promoting implementation of the Declaration of My Actions (http://undb.jp/action/. Japanese text only) that invites individual commitment to select and declare on what to do for biodiversity (https://undb.jp/committee/team/cheering/. Japanese text only). In addition, a roadmap for UNDB-J and each partner organization was compiled in October 2016, articulating their goals and concrete commitments that need to be achieved before 2020. Their commitments are annually monitored and their activities for mainstreaming biodiversity have been accelerated. On the occasion of COP 12 and COP 13, UNDB-Day was organized in collaboration with the CBD Secretariat as a side event to share activity examples and relevant information through sessions.


•    As part of support in the field of biodiversity for the reconstruction following the Great East Japan Earthquake, the Keidanren Committee on Nature Conservation has conducted reforestation campaign for creating the Restored Forest for Interactions within Tsunami Memorial Park Nakanohama in May 2014. In addition, a series of opportunities for environmental education have been provided to local elementary children through utilizing the Restored Forest for Interactions. Furthermore, the Committee has continuously supported nature conservation projects inside and outside the country through the Keidanren Nature Conservation Fund since its establishment. In 2017 as a special project to commemorate the 25th anniversary of its establishment, it decided to provide grants, equivalent to 150 million yen in total, to 3 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that coordinated and collaborated in conducting projects for environmental education and human resources development in 6 countries and regions for 3 years. It has also actively committed to various efforts in dissemination, advocacy, education and human resources development for biodiversity, through dissemination activities for the Keidanren’s Declaration on Biodiversity, including conducting biodiversity questionnaires, organizing environmental study sessions for private corporations, and lectures, in addition to organizing meetings of members in Japan Business and Biodiversity Partnership.

•   The Biodiversity Working Group, established in May 2011 and collaboratively operated by the 4 Electrical and Electronic Associations, has undertaken various measures targeted on corporations to disseminate and advocate biodiversity conservation and to support corporations in promoting relevant activities. Those measures include the publication of “Let’s Study Biodiversity” in 2014 as a tool for education and advocacy, the formulation of Guidelines for Action by the Electrical and Electronic Industries concerning Biodiversity Conservation in 2015, the creation and opening of database on examples for biodiversity conservation activities in 2016, and the publication of guidelines focusing on simple and easy activities entitled “Let’s try Biodiversity -First steps for corporations to work on biodiversity” in 2018. In addition, seminars and study sessions have been organized. Activities by member corporations have been continuously monitored as well.

    
•    The Japan Business Initiative for Biodiversity (JBIB), established by Japanese corporations in April 2008, has promoted activities for mainstreaming biodiversity in business arenas, such as publishing the Guide for Promotion of Raw Material Procurement for Business in Consideration of Biodiversity in 2016, organizing JBIB Biodiversity Days, an event where participants physically experienced biodiversity through monitoring of living creatures at green spaces of each corporation, etc., and providing Green Building Certifications (expected to be over 100 sites by 2020) by the Association for Business Innovation in harmony with Nature and Community (ABINC) based on JBIB Guidelines.

•    The Ministry of the Environment of Japan (MOEJ) has been promoting the branding of National Parks to enable visitors to National Parks to understand the importance of conservation and utilization of Japan’s bountiful nature as well as to facilitate the vitalization of regional economies utilizing ecosystem services including traditional culture and cuisine developed through nature. In July 2016, MOEJ selected 8 parks out of 34 National Parks across the country to intensively implement the approaches for responding to inbound visitors as preceding examples. Since November 2017, relevant approaches to foreign visitors have gradually started in the other parks. (Project to Fully Enjoy National Parks: http://www.env.go.jp/en/nature/enjoy-project)

•    MOEJ has contributed to increase the number of people who visit Natural Parks and to regional activation through enhancing the attractiveness of Natural Parks by conducting nature interaction events in parks and by improving the skills of volunteer personnel who assist park managements.

•    In order to enhance awareness and knowledge of eco-tourism among citizens, MOEJ has disseminated relevant information through its website and participated in various exhibitions. In addition, awareness of biodiversity through agriculture, forestry, and fisheries related Declaration of My Actions have been promoted for mainstreaming biodiversity by UNDB-J. Furthermore, activities contributing to biodiversity conservation such as eco-tourism, forest volunteers such as forest management, and the restoration of seagrass and seaweed beds have spread among citizens.

•    In order to increase the opportunities for children to participate in nature experience activities and environmental education using rivers and to improve nature experience activities for children in local communities, the Children’s Waterfront Rediscovery Project has been promoted along with the training of instructors who can explain the natural environments of rivers as well as the dangers associated with rivers.

•    Nature interaction and environmental education programs targeting children and their parents have been held through collaboration with various organizations including local governments, educational institutions, and NPOs, for the purpose of expanding the opportunities for people to learn about the importance of the natural environment of ports and harbors, by using seaside natural environment.

•    Places and opportunities at urban parks, etc., have been provided for raising instructors and practitioners of environmental education and environmental learning in close collaboration with users, region, schools, etc. In addition, maintenance of urban parks, etc., for implementing such programs has been promoted.


•    Biodiversity conservation in the fields of agriculture, forestry and fisheries has been promoted through various activities involving wider stakeholders such as farmers, consumers and business sectors. Those activities were conducted through utilization of guidelines and leaflets, organization of symposiums to promote new collaboration between stakeholders, and organization of exhibitions and seminars for corporations on the themes of environmental policies and economic collaboration with private sectors.

•    Fisheries eco labels assure that the fishery products were caught by methods taking into account ecosystems and resource sustainability. Activities for raising awareness of such labels have been promoted through brochures for consumers, etc. (Fig. 12).

•    The National Federation of Fisheries Cooperative Associations has organized national gatherings for youth and women engaging in fishery, in order to promote reporting and sharing relevant information concerning studies of resources management as well as efforts in increasing resources and environmental conservation by youth and women engaging in fishery, and results of their practices. The Women’s Unit for Coordination Committee in the National Federation of Fisheries Cooperative Associations has promoted use of soaps made of natural materials that are sold as a brand product of the Women’s Unit, as part of coast environment conservation.

•    In addition to City Biodiversity Index (simplified version) that was developed for enabling local governments to easily comprehend and evaluate their status quos in terms of commitments to urban biodiversity in JFY2016, Guidelines for Formulating the Master Plan for Parks and Open Spaces Considering Biodiversity were published in JFY2018. Based on its dissemination, commitments to promote urban biodiversity conservation were further accelerated.

•    In order to promote access to genetic resources and sharing of benefit arising from their utilization, relevant information was provided through organizing explanatory sessions and consultation desks.

•    Various organizations have conducted leadership training programs in the field of environmental education.


Key Action Goal A-1-2:
Promote initiatives to visualize economic values of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

•    Efforts have been made to reform lifestyles and to restore a society where children play in nature by conducting awareness raising activities and creating educational materials in line with the perspective of each generation, including “safety and security”, “childrearing”, and “being stylish” towards establishing an economic society for maintaining and restoring forests, the countryside, rivers and the sea and utilizing their blessings (Regional Circular and Ecological Sphere) (The Project on “Connecting and Supporting Forests, the Countryside, Rivers and the Sea”).

•   Future predictions and economic valuations of biodiversity and ecosystem services have been conducted (Fig. 14). Also, support for academic research and trial of evaluation for specific cases were conducted for the purpose of considering measures that are effective in integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services into the decision making in socioeconomic activities.

•   A mechanism has been studied to promote assistance by business sectors to agricultural production and other activities by farmers that contribute to biodiversity conservation, by utilizing economic valuations of biodiversity.

•   Measures have been taken towards spreading of green leases, in collaboration with related government organizations to facilitate recognition and high valuation of sound and environment-conscious real estate properties developed in consideration of energy conservation, low-carbonization, biodiversity, etc., by various stakeholders including investors and to facilitate sustainable investments in the market.


Key Action Goal A-1-3:
Promote the formulation of effective Local Biodiversity Strategies and practical initiatives by local municipalities. In addition, revise guidelines on formulating Regional Biodiversity Strategies by 2013.

•   Effects of local biodiversity strategy formulation and review results of compiled good practices were shared on the websites, for the purpose of promoting the formulation of local biodiversity strategies and action plans (LBSAPs). In addition to this, local governments that have considered to formulate LBSAPs were supported to address their challenges. As of March 2017, 41 prefectures and 82 municipal governments have formulated their own LBSAPs (Fig. 15).

•   Meanwhile, a second revision was made to the Guidelines on Formulating Local Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans in March 2014.



Key Action Goal A-1-4:
Promote the formulation of strategies and plans by the national and local governments in consideration of biodiversity. In addition, give consideration to the effects on biodiversity from incentive measures and implement incentive measures that take biodiversity into consideration.

•   Supports have been provided to local governments and other entities for the formulation of statutory plans related to the conservation of biodiversity in local regions and the promotion of measures based on these plans. As of March 2015, 56 statutory plans (LBSAPs, implementation plans for controlling Specified Invasive Alien Species, etc.) had been formulated.

•   MOEJ has financially supported biodiversity conservation activities (by biodiversity conservation promotion project) to encourage such activities conducted in collaboration of various actors in local regions. As of JFY2016 support had been provided to the activities of 55 organizations. All of those organizations, to which support has concluded, are still continuing with or expanding upon their activities through a variety of different structures. 

•    Payment for activities to enhance multi-functionality, founded in JFY2014, provided support to cooperative activities in maintaining and improving multi-functions possessed by agriculture and rural areas, and encouraged the appropriate conservation and management of local resources. With regard to biodiversity, relevant activities were supported to conserve and restore ecosystems by taking advantage of roles of agricultural land and so on as environmental resources (Figs. 9 and 10).

•   The Technical Considerations for Securing Biodiversity under Master Plan for Parks and Open Spaces were formulated in October 2011 in the interest of supporting the formulation of Master Plan for Parks and Open Spaces by local governments, which gave forethought to securing urban biodiversity. In addition, local governments’ commitments have been promoted through formulating the City Biodiversity Index (draft) in May 2013, City Biodiversity Index (simplified version) in November 2016, and Guidelines for Formulating the Master Plan for Parks and Open Spaces Considering Biodiversity in May 2018.

•   Support has been provided for the formulation of plans by local governments targeting contributing to the reduction of CO2 and the conservation and restoration of forests, etc., by sustainably utilizing woody biomass that is locally available in woods, etc.



Key Action Goal A-1-5:
Establish and announce policies for biodiversity-conscious and sustainable business activities and encourage their implementation (the introduction of environmental management systems which give consideration to biodiversity, the procurement of raw materials which takes into consideration the supply chains, production activities, sale of goods and services, technological development, waste management, investment and financing activities, land use, employee education and information disclosure on these activities).

•   A revision was made to the Guidelines for Private Sector Engagement in Biodiversity that had compiled basic information and concepts regarding business activities and biodiversity for businesses so that it would be easier for them to utilize. With regard to business associations that are supposed to lead operators according to business types, the Guideline for Operators’ Associations in Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (draft) was prepared to assist and promote those associations’ activities regarding biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. In addition, coordination with the UNDB-J and Japan Business and Biodiversity Partnership has been further strengthened.

•   Regarding the natural capital, MOEJ organized the International Symposium on Natural Capital Management in 2014 and introduced relevant trends in Japan and abroad regarding natural capital management. Following this, NGOs and corporations have collaborated in publishing a Japanese translation of the Natural Capital Protocol, issued by the Natural Capital Coalition, as well as in assisting the introduction of natural capital management to corporations.

EN
The National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020/National Target A-1 / Have a diverse array of actors such as governments, local municipalities, businesses, private organizations and citizens recognize the importance of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and autonomously reflect this in their respective actions, thereby achieving the “mainstreaming of biodiversity across society” and reducing the fundamental causes of biodiversity loss through actions taken by diverse actors, by 2020 at the latest.
Measure taken has been partially effective

•    Most of the indicators regarding national target A-1, such as the number of participating local governments in the Local Government Network on Biodiversity, are trending toward increasing (refer to item 7 of Section III). Especially, as shown by the considerably increasing number of registrations in the Nijyu-maru Project (Double 20 Campaign) participated by civil organizations, business sectors, local governments and other organizations that have declared to commit and work on activities for biodiversity to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, a certain level of progress has been observed in mainstreaming biodiversity in society (refer to Fig. 6 in item 7 of Section III).

•    According to results of a questionnaire survey conducted by the Japan Business Federation, Keidanren Committee on Nature Conservation, and Japan Business and Biodiversity Partnership targeting corporations, about 80% of the corporations have shared relevant information regarding biodiversity through their environmental reports and websites. More than 80% of the member corporations know the relationships between their business activities and biodiversity. More than 60% of the corporations have set their goals in conducting activities regarding biodiversity. These examples show a certain progress in mainstreaming biodiversity among corporations (Results of a questionnaire survey regarding biodiversity, February 2018).

•    Meanwhile, according to a public opinion poll targeting individuals, conducted by the Cabinet Office, degree of recognition of the word “biodiversity” (refer to Fig. 1 in item 7 of Section III), that of the National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020 (refer to Fig. 2 in the same item) and other relevant indicators show a decreasing tendency (Results of Public Opinion Poll on Environmental Issues (2012, 2014)). Taking into account of that, it was evaluated that measures taken have been partially effective.


EN

 (Newly taken and consolidated measures are only reported here, while omitting other measures that have been continuously followed up since the Fifth National Report of Japan to the CBD and had already been reported in it.)

Key Action Goal B-1-1:
Establish methods and standard values to serve as baselines designed to determine the rate of loss of natural habitats and their state of degradation and fragmentation, as well as sorting out their current status, so that effective action can be launched by the mid-term review of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that is scheduled for 2014 or early in 2015.

•    As a method to comprehend the situations regarding the rate of loss of natural habitats and their degradation and fragmentation, it was decided to utilize relevant information such as areas of forests, lakes and marshes, reclamation areas of shallow seas, and extensions of natural coastlines, considering data continuity. As for forest areas, they remain steady without considerable fluctuations. There are no significant fluctuations for areas of lakes and marshes as well. Reclamation areas have shown a decreasing tendency since the peak in the 1970s, while the extensions of natural coastlines are currently estimated to be more than 18,000 km. This information was used for the mid-term review of Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

Key Action Goal B-1-2:
Reduce the rate of loss of natural habitats by at least half or bring this close to zero in cases where it is possible to do so by 2020. In addition, carry out the initiatives needed to noticeably reduce the degradation and fragmentation of natural habitats, such as the development of ecological networks and the restoration of wetlands and tidal flats.

•    Focusing on significant areas (Satochi-Satoyama, wetlands, and marine areas) that were selected in JFY2015 and 2016 as the core of ecological networks, conservation and restoration have been promoted by the participation of diverse actors (https://www.env.go.jp/nature/satoyama/jyuuyousatoyama.html. Japanese text only;
http://www.env.go.jp/nature/important_wetland/index.html. Japanese text only; and
http://www.env.go.jp/en/nature/biodic/kaiyo-hozen/kaiiki/index.html)

As of March 2017, commitments to nature restoration based on the Act on the Promotion of Nature Restoration have expanded to 25 sites, reaching at 480,000 ha. Relevant activities to restore various ecosystems including forests, wetlands, grasslands, and coral reefs across the country have been assisted.

•    While promoting conservation of wetlands, establishment and maintenance of their network, restoration of the natural environment by nature restoration projects, nature-oriented river works and so on, surveys and monitoring for understanding the natural environment have been implemented to promote effective measures.

•    Measures have been taken to promote the development of green spaces around ports and harbors where various species inhabit and local residents can enjoy nature. In addition, the creation of tidal flats, seagrass and seaweed beds, etc., as well as backfilling depressions were promoted by effectively utilizing the dredged materials generated through the development of ports and harbors, etc.

•    Networks of water and greenery have been formulated through conservation of green spaces and development of urban parks carried out by local government, etc., based on the Master Plan for Parks and Open Spaces, etc. (Fig. 24).

•    New designation and expansion of national parks and quasi-national parks, etc. have been promoted based on the results of the project to overhaul national and quasi-national parks.

•    Information collection has been conducted, in order to promote activities for nature restoration in light of disaster risk reduction and mitigation, building a sustainable society, and consolidating green infrastructure. In addition, activities for nature restoration were promoted to regain ecosystems and other natural environments that had been lost in the past, in collaboration with related organizations and entities, based on diverse actors’ collaboration, building sustainable local communities, and consolidating green infrastructure.

Key Action Goal B-1-3:
Enhance protection and management techniques and promote surveys related to status in order to soundly implement policies for the protection and management of wildlife, including population control for wildlife. In addition, overhaul the enforcement status of the Wildlife Protection and Hunting Management Law by 2015 and create arrangements for securing leaders to take charge of protection and management and begin utilizing these arrangements by 2020.


•    While damages on ecosystems, related industries such as agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, and living environments have been deteriorated by sika deer (Cervus nippon) and wild boar (Sus scrofa), hunters have been rapidly decreasing and aging. Towards realizing the goal of “reduce the number of sika deer and wild boar by half in 10 years” stipulated in the Drastic measures to strengthen capture of designated wildlife species for control, prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) and MOEJ in December 2013, part of the law regarding the Wildlife Protection and Hunting Management Act was revised and enforced in May 2015, for the purpose of promoting further wildlife capture and securing leaders engaging in capturing. In this revision, control of wildlife was positioned as an aim of the law. With regard to wildlife that the Minister of Environment stipulated as the ones to be intensively and widely controlled as a new measure, the Capture Program of Designated Wildlife Species for Control (https://www.env.go.jp/nature/choju/reinforce/index.html. Japanese text only) in which prefectures or the national government are responsible for capturing was formed.
As to capturing wildlife, the Certified Wildlife Capture Program Implementers System was established (https://www.env.go.jp/nature/choju/capture/capture5.html. Japanese text only), in which governors of prefectures certify implementing entities that are capable of capturing wildlife ensuring safety, appropriateness, and effectiveness. In order to promote the Capture Program of Designated Wildlife Species for Control across the country, new subsidies have been set to support capturing by each prefecture.

•    General conditions regarding the Capture Program of Designated Wildlife Species for Control (subsidies allocated to prefectures)
1.3 billion yen in JFY2014; 1.0 billion yen in JFY2015; 1.2 billion yen in JFY2016; 1.5 billion yen in JFY2017;
830 million yen in JFY2018

•    General conditions regarding the Capture Program of Designated Wildlife Species for Control according to prefectures
Number of program implementing prefectures in JFY2016: 37 prefectures
JFY2017: 38 prefectures
JFY2018: 40 prefectures 

•    Protection and control committee on specified wildlife species (Type 1 Specified Wildlife Protection Plan: plan to protect species of wildlife of which the populations are decreasing substantially or habitats are shrinking. Type 2 Specified Wildlife Control Plan: plan to protect species of wildlife of which the populations are increasing substantially or habitats are expanding) has regularly managed updated information regarding protection and control as Protection Control Reports. Thus far, 147 plans have been reported in 46 prefectures (Type 1: 8 plans, Type 2: 139 plans).

•    Following the decrease and aging of the hunter population, there has been a need to develop and ensure human resources as Certified Wildlife Capture Program Implementers. Study sessions for corporations and other organizations that intended to become certified implementers were organized across the country, resulting in the number of Certified Wildlife Capture Program Implementers to become 134 in 40 prefectures as of April 3, 2018.

•    In addition, in order to develop and ensure hunters that can contribute to wildlife control, the Hunting Forum (a forum to encourage participants to obtain hunting licenses, and so on) have been organized since JFY2012. As of April 2018, 8,500 participants attended in 33 venues in 30 prefectures across the country.

•    Measures have been taken to appropriately address issues of potential influence on wildlife, occurrence of accidents, etc., due to the use of lead bullet associated with enhanced wildlife control. The scientific and systematic protection and control of wildlife was promoted properly in line with population and habitat management and damage prevention.

Key Action Goal B-1-4:
Promote initiatives to prevent damage to agricultural crops by wildlife pursuant to the Special Measures Act on Countering Nuisance Wildlife in an integrated manner by aiming for coordination with policies for wildlife conservation and management, including population control. Promote measures to combat damage to forests caused by wildlife widely and effectively, while also moving ahead with countermeasures that take coexistence with wildlife into consideration—such as working to manage and conserve diverse forests—in order to ensure habitat environments for wildlife.


•    Through the Act on Special Measures for Prevention of Damage Related to Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Caused by Wildlife, comprehensive measures to prevent damage from wildlife have been carried out in a region-wide manner based upon the damage prevention plans created by municipalities. Support has also been provided to measures to control the population of wildlife through intensive capturing. Support has also been provided for the installation of barriers as well as capturing wildlife in an integrated way with forest maintenance. Comprehensive measures have been instituted for National Forests, such as population control, restoration measures for damaged areas, and the conservation of forests in collaboration with a diverse array of actors. As to increasing species of captured wildlife, their utilization has been promoted as edible meat (game). Through these efforts, necessary measures are to be taken to consider coexistence with wildlife in the coming period.

EN
National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 2012-2020 / National Target B-1 / Significantly reduce the rate of loss of natural habitats, as well as their degradation and fragmentation, by 2020.